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Full text of "Sussex archaeological collections relating to the history and antiquities of the county"

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I 



\ 



Sussex ^tcf)aealag;ical Society* 



SUSSEX 
^rcj^arologtral CoUrcttotts, 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OP THE COUNTY. 



Ct)f Susfici arcbaEologtcal Socitto. 



VOL. XXXII. 



aussBX= 
H. W. WOLFF, 

HIQH BTBEffT, LBVTES. 
■DCCCLXXZn. 




y^^33 _ 



CONTENTS. 



PAOX 

List op Officers ."^ ♦ ix 

BuLEs xi 

Report of the Committee for tub Year 1881 xiii 

Statement of Accounts xxii 

List of Members xxv 

Corresponding Societies xxxvi 

Thorney Island. By the Bev. Frederick H, Arnold, LL.B,,,. 1 

The Sussex Ironworks. By J, L, Parsons, Esq, ..' 19 

S. Nicholas' Church, Brighton. By Somers Clarke, Jun,, 

F,S.A 33 

Leaden Fonts in Sussex. By J, Lewis Andre, Esq 75 

Captain Nicholas Tettersell and the Escape of Charles 

the Second. By Frederick Ernest Sawyer, Esq., F,M,S.,,. 81 

IcKLESHAM Church, By Theodore T. Churton, Esq 105 

Early Wills at Lewes. By F, W. T, Attree, Lieut. R.E.... 123 
A Return of the Members of Parliament for the County 
AND Boroughs of Sussex. Continued from Vol. XXXI. 

By Alan H. Stenning, Esq 141 

On Excavations in the Camp, the 1'umulus, and Romano- 
British Cemetery, Seaford, Sussex. By John Edward 

Regent Sussex Bibliography (1864 to 1881). By Frederick 

Ernest Sawyer, Esq,, F,M,S 201 

Notes and Queries 213 



/ 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



Wbst Thorkby Church to face page 

Font in West Thornby Church ; 

Plans op S. Nicholas' Church, Brighton 

Font in 8. Nicholas' Church, Brighton 

Churchyard Cross, S. Nicholas' Church, Brighton 

Lbaden Font at Edburton 

Leaden Font at Parham 

Seaford Camp and Tumulus 

Urns and other Remains „ ,, 179 

Urns Discovered near Seaford on page 184 

Plan of Cuttings in Seaford Cemetery to face page 185 

Map with the Measurements of Ptolemy ,, ,, 215 



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JANUARY, 1882. 



S)UiS!e;ex ^tci)aeolo8ical ^octets* 



'x/K/x/K/v^^x /\^w \ / \^\#^r\/^F\/v/\/\^ 



;^ LIST OF OFFICERS, 

THE EARL OP CHICHESTER, LORD LIEUTENANT AND CUSTOS EOT. 

Vitt-^xmitnU. 

THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, K.G. 
THE DUKE OF NORFOLK, E.M. 
THE MARQUESS OF ABERGAVENNY. 
t THE EARL DE LA WARR. 

THE EARL OF EGMONT. 

THE EARL OF SHEFFIELD. 

LORD VISCOUNT GAGE. 

LORD COLCHESTER. 

THE LORD BISHOP OF CHICHESTER. 

LORD ZOUCHE. 

THE RIGHT HON. THE SPEAKER, M.P., G.C.B. 

THE RIGHT HON. JOHN GEORGE DODSON, M.P. 

THE HON. PERCY WYNDHAM, M.P. 

COL. SIR WALTER BARTTELOT BARTTELOT, BART., C.B., M.P. 

SIR WALTER WYNDHAM BURRELL, BART., M.P. 

SIR JAMES SIBBALD D. SCOTT, BART., F.S.A. 

THE REV. SIR GEORGE CROXTON SHIFFNER, BART., M.A. 

SIR THOMAS BRASSEY, G.C.B., M.P. 

W. L. CHRISTIE, ESQ., M.P. 

F. W. INDERWICK, ESQ., Q.C., M.P. 

W. GRANTHAM, ESQ., Q.C., M.P. 

G. B. GREGORY, ESQ., M.P. 

^ MONTAGUE D. SCOTT, ESQ., M.P. 

T. C. THOMPSON, ESQ., M.P. 

J. G. BLENCOWE, ESQ. 

REV. J. COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, LL.D., P.S.A. 

H. W. FREELAND, ESQ. 

REV. JOHN GORING, M.A. 

A. J. BERESFORD HOPE, ESQ., M.P., D.C.L., F.S.A. 

ROBERT HENRY HURS^, ESQ. 

EDWARD HUSSEY, ESQ. 

W. TOWNLEY MITFORD, ESQ. 

P. F. ROBERTSON, ESQ. 

i^onorars S>ttxttmt^. 

Francis Babchabd, Esq., Horsted JPiace, Uckfield, 
The Rev. William Powbll, M.A., Neioick, Lewes, 

Cteaisurer. 

Geo. Molinbux, Esq., Old Bank, Lewes, 

<i!^)(ttortaI (Sommtttee* 

Rev. W. Powell, M.A. 
John E. Pbice, Esq., P.S.A. 
Fbed. E. Sawyer, Esq., F.M.S. 



Fbangis Babchabd, Esq. 

Rev. Pbeb. C. Heathcote Campion. 

SoMEBS Clabke, Jun., Esq., F.S.A. 



Henby Gbiffith, Esq., F.S.A., Hon, See, 

It is requested that all Communications as to the Society's Publications may be 

addressed to the Hon. Sec, 47, Old Steyne, Bnghton, 

l^on. (Curator anti Uttirartait. 

RoBT. Cbosskey, Esq., Castleyate, Letoes, 



X LIST OF OFFIOBRS. 

i&UtUi fBLtmUxn of Otommttue* 

T. St. Legeb Blaauw, Esq. , i H. King, Esq. 
Bbv. Prbby. Gabey H. Bobbeb, M.A. 
J. G. Bbaden, Esq. 
Bev. Pbbby. C. Heathcote Campion, 
M.A. 

BOBEBT GbOSSKEY, EsQ. 

Bev. £. B. Ellman, M.A. 



John Clay Lucas, Esq., F.SA. 

A. Nesbitt, Esq., F.SA. 

J. L. Pabsons, Esq. 

G. Leeson Pbincb, Esq., F.B.A.S. 

Bbv. p. db Putbon, M.A. 

W. A. Bapbb, Esq. 



Mb. John Dudeney, Milton House, Lewes, 

JVho is authorised to receive Subscriptions^ and to whom aU communications 
respecting Unpaid Subscriptions and the delivery of Volumes should be address<Ml, 



LOCAL HON. SECRBTAEIBS. 



Bev. G. a. Clabkson, M.A Amberley, 

Geo. p. Holmes, Esq Worthing, 

Henby Gbippith, Esq., F.S.A 47, 0« Steyne, Brighton, 

Bev. F. H. Abnold, LL.B Em^suxnih, 

W. Bobbeb, Esq., M.A., F.L.S Coufold, 

Thomas S. Byass, Esq., M.D Cuckfield, 

Mb. H. M. Emaby Eastbourne. 

Geo. Fbbdebic Bubb, Esq Bastings, 

Thos. Honywood, Esq Horsham, 

Ionian, 

John E. Pbice, Esq., F.S.A (60, Albion Itoad, Stoke 

[ Nevnngton, 

Geobgb Sladb Butleb, Esq., F.S.A Rye, 

Bbv. T. Medland, MA Steyning, 

Mb. J. Phillipps Worthing, 



RULES. 



1. The Society shall be called the '' Sussex Archaeological Society/' 
and shall avoid all topics of religious or political controversy, and shall 
remain independent of, though willing to co-operate with, similar societies 
by friendly communication. 

2. Every candidate for admission shall be proposed by one Member, 
and seconded by another, and elected by the Committee by ballot at any 
of their meetings. One black ball in five to exclude. 

3. The Committee shall have power to elect as an Honorary Member 
any person (including foreigners) likely to promote the interests of the 
Society. Such Honorary Member shall not pay any entrance fee or sub- 
scription, shall not exercise the privilege of an ordinary Member as to 
voting at the meetings or the proposal of candidates, and shall be subject 
to re-election annually, 

4. The aniiual subscription shall be ten shillings payable on admis- 
sion, and afterwards on the 1st day of January in each year. Eight pounds 
may be paid in lieu of the annual subscription, as a composition for life. 

5. All Members shall on their election pay an entrance fee of ten 
shillings. 

6. Every new member shall have his election notified to him by the 
Clerk, and shall be required to remit the amount due from him to the 
Treasurer, George Molineux, Esq., Old Bank, Lewes, within one month 
of his election. 

7. No Member shall participate in any of the benefits of the Society 
until he shall have paid his subscription, and, if a new Member, his 
entrance fee. 

8. If the sum due from a new Annual Member under the preceding 
Eules be not paid within one month from the date of his admission, if he 
be in the United Kingdom-^-or if abroad, within two months — the Com- 
mittee shall have power to erase his name from the list of Members ; but 
they shall have power to reinstate him on his justifying the delay to their 
satisfaction. 

9. The name of every Member failing to pay his subscription due on 
the 1st January in each year shall be placed in the Barbican on the 1st 
March ; and if the subscription be not paid on or before the 1st August, 
if the defaulter shall be resident in Great Britain or Ireland, or within 
one month after his return, if he shall have been abroad, he shall cease to 
be a Member of the Society, and his name shall be erased from the books, 
unless he can justify the delay to the satisfaction of the Committee. 
Any Member intending to withdraw his name from the Society shall give 
notice in writing to the Clerk on or before the 1st January of his intention 
to do so, otherwise he shall be liable for the current year's subscription. 

10. As the payment of his subscription will entitle a Member to enjoy 
every benefit of the Society, so it will distinctly imply his submission to 
the Rules for the time being in force for the government of the Society, 



Xll BIJLES. 

11. Two General Meetings of the Society shall be held in each year. 
The first general meeting shall be held on the Thursday preceding Lady 
Day at the Barbican, Lewes Castle, at 12.30, when the Committee shall 
present their annual report and accounts for the past year, and not less than 
12 members shall be elected to act on the Committee for the succeeding 
year, any proposed alteration of the Rules shall be considered, and other 
business shall be transacted. The second general meeting shall be held 
on the second Thursday in August, at some place, rendered interesting 
by its antiquities or historical associations. 

12. A Special General Meeting may be summoned by the Honorary 
Secretaries at such place as the Committee may determine on the re- 
quisition in writing of Five Members, or of the President, or two Vice- 
Presidents specifying the subject to be brought forward for considera- 
tion at such meeting, and that subject only shall be then considered and 
resolutions passed thereon. 

13. At all Meetings of the Society or of the Committee the resolu- 
tions of the majority present and voting, shall be binding. 

14. No alteration shall be made in the Bules except at the General 
Meeting in March. No proposed alteration shall be considered unless 
four months' previous notice thereof in writing shall have been given to 
the Committee. No subject shall be discussed more than once in each 
year, except with consent of the Committee. 

15. Meetings for the purpose of reading papers and the exhibition of 
antiquities may be held at such times and places as the Committee may 
determine. 

16. All the affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Committee. 

a. The Committee shall consist t)f the President, Vice-Presidents, 
the Honorary Secretaries, the Treasurer, the Honorary Curator and 
Librarian, the Local Honorary Secretaries, and not less than 12 Members 
(who shall be elected at the General Meeting in March). 

b. The Committee shall meet at Lewes Castle on the Thursdays 
preceding the usnal Quarter Days, at 12 o'clock, and at such other times 
as the Hon. Secretaries may determine. Three Members of the Com- 
mittee shall form a quorum. 

c. The Committee shall at their first meeting after the Annual Meet- 
ing in March appoint a sub-committee to manage the financial depart- 
ment of the Society's affairs. Such sub-committee shall at each quarterly 
meeting of the General Committee submit a report of the liabilities of 
the Society, when cheques signed by three of the Members present shall 
be drawn on the Treasurer for the same. The accounts of the Society 
shall be submitted annually to the examination of two auditors who shall 
be elected by the Committee from the general body of the Members of 
the Society. 

d. The Committee shall at their first meeting after the Annual 
Meeting in March appoint a sub-committee to edit the Society's Volume, 

e. The Committee may appoint any Member Local Secretary for the 
town or district where he may reside, in order to facilitate the collection 
of accurate information as to objects of local interest ; such Local Secre* 
taries shall he ex- officio Members of the Committee. 



REPORT. 



The Committee are happy to present a favourable report of the affairs 
of the Society. The annual general meeting at Ashbumham was well 
attended ; the number of contributors to the periodical volume is increas- 
ing, and the statement of the accounts shows a favourable balance. 

The Earl of Ashburnham having in the kindest manner given permis- 
sion for the Society to visit Ashburnham Place, the general meeting for 
the year 1881 was held at Ashburnham, on 11th August, when the 
number of members and friends who were present showed how much his 
Lordship's kindness in placing his house at the disposal of the Society on 
that occasion was appreciated. 

Hardly any other place in the Home Counties has so many points of 
antiquarian or historical interest belonging to it ; the sylvan beauty of 
the country, the remote antiquity of the family of the owner, increase the 
interest attached to the mansion and the church. 

The earliest notice of the place is in Domesday book, which records — 

" In Folsalre Hund 
Kotbt de Cruel ten' Com' Essebome. Seuuard* 
tenuit de Rege E. 

In Folsalre Hundred, Robert de Cruel holds Essebome of the Count 
(of Eu). Seuuard held it of King Edward." The hundred at the pre- 
sent day is called Foxearle, and contains Herstmonceaux, Wartling, and 
Ashburnham parishes. Much speculation has arisen from the questions 
who Robert de Cruel may have been, and what relation he may have 
been to the Ashburnham family. The author of " The Norman People " 
has suggested that he was a direct ancestor of those early possessors 
who figm*e in the Buttle charters, and who, after a time, had taken their 
name from the place of their settlement. Another opinion had been that 
Robert de Cruel was an intruder, whose ownership was temporary, and 
that the Ashburnham family iti the course of time resumed a property 
which they had had before the Conquest. The name " de Cruel " need 
imply no more than that such an one came from, or had lived at Cruel ; 
what place is meant by Cruel, whether Creil or Creully, is uncertain. 
In the account of the portion of the rape of Hastings which belonged 
to the Count of Eu, an unusual number of undertenants are distin- 
guished by second names, which, in most instances, are the names of 
places ; besides Robert de Cruel, there are Geoffrey de Floe, Robert de 
Olecumbe, Robert de St. Leger, and William de Septmueles ; among the 
undertenants is also Abbatia de Ultresport. Olecumbe (Ulcomb), in 
Kent, the Count of Eu held of the Archbishop of Canterbury ; Flocques, 
St. Leger-aux-bois, Septmeules, and Treport, are in the neighbourhood of 
Eu, in Normandy, so that it seems probable Cruel should be taken for 



XIV EBPORT. 

Creil, also near Eu. Mr. Lower thought Robert de Cruel must hare 
been of the same family as the family of De Criol in Kent, but they 
derived their name from Creully, and were not heard of till a later date. 

Much curiosity is excited by the felham buckle on the church tower. 
It does not seem far-fetched to account for it being there from the 
Prior of Hastings being named in the Nonas returns as persona ecclesisB 
de Esshebumham, and Sir John Pelham, the son of the knight at 
Poitiers, was the second founder of Hastings Priory, and removed it to 
Warbleton, 

The thanks of the Society are due to the members of the Local 
Committee, Robert Hodgson, Esq., of Ashburnham ; Augustus W. 
Raper, Esq., of Battle ; and the Rev. Rose Fuller Whistler, Vicar of 
Ashburnham and Rector of Penherst, who spared no pains to make the 
meeting an agreeable one. 

An interesting feature in the day's proceedings was the reading of the 
subjoined paper by the Vicar of Ashburnham : — 

A Paper read at Ashburnham, on the 11th August, ISSl, by the 
Revd. Rose Fuller Whistler, M.A., Vicar. 

With the exception of the tower, the whole of the Parish Church of 
Ashburnham was rebuilt in 1663 by that well-known Cavalier, John Ash- 
burnham, the intimate friend and close adherent of the unfortunate 
Charles Stuart ; and perhaps history has rarely recorded a happier 
sequel to an eventful life than may be read in the case of this loyal 
soldier, whom we find devoting to the honour of his God no small portion 
of that recovered inheritance which he had not hesitated to risk in the 
service of his king. 

He came of a race which had been from time immemorial associated 
with the -parish, synonymous with itself, but whose earlier records must 
nevertheless be sought rather in public than in local memorials. And of 
all the Ashlmrnhams this faithful follower of a falling monarch was the 
most munificent benefactor to the place of his birth. Upon his master's 
death he appears to have returned to his home in this most lovely spot 
in one of England's fairest counties. Here he passed his declining days ; 
here he worshipped, surrounded by his family and dependants, in the 
sacred building he had provided ; and here his remains rest beneath the 
chapel which he had himself prepared. 

The church consists of tower, nave, and chancel, with two side chapels 
to its north and south. The nave is entered from the tower by seven 
steps, and from it there is a similar approach to the chancel. The 
effect of this arrangement is extremely striking, the sacrarium standing 
out in grand relief as it is approached from the west end of the building. 
A somewhat steep fall in the ground from east to west has thus been 
happily utilised, and if the construction is not unique, it has at least 
given an unusual character of grace and boldness, with an effect of light 
and shade not often to be found where aisles are wanting. 

This effect, however, is generally missed, as the entrance is usually 
made by the porch on the north side of the church, the south side being 
enclosed by the walls and railings of the pleasure grounds of Ashburn- 



BEPOBT. XV 

bain Place, and thus shut off from access in the ordinary direction. 
Unfortunately this entry gives an impression of commonplace to a build- 
ing which has its better features, and the first feeling of the beholder is 
one of disappointment. 

The tower, not unlike that of Battle church, is built of local grey sand- 
stone, and with its embattled turrets and ample buttresses, and 
approached as it is by a steep incline, is sufficiently imposing. A large 
and well- designed oak door, now showing symptoms of rapid decay, is 
surmounted by a Tudor arch, the hood-mouldings of which display the 
familiar Pelham buckle. A large belfry window, lately *' restored," mars 
the harmony of this portion of the building by the incongruity of its 
design and colour. 

There are four bells, bearing the following inscriptions : — 

1621 T G 

lOHN Wijnar made me 1687 S. B. C. W. 

1690 Bryan 4- Eldridge 4- made me 

1714. + : lohn Waylett made me. 

There is also a gallery, the approach to which is from the tower by 
two flights of wide oaken steps, probably erected somewhat after the re- 
building of the church, as the string course of the first flight partly covers 
the following inscription : — 

(If) a bell you overthroe 
' "^ (Say) a grace before you goe G. R. 

The porch, the design of which is somewhat similar to that of Court 
Lodge, the ancient residence of the Relfe family, has the following 
quaint rhymes on the wall to the right of the entrance arch :— 

John Ridgway now plots 
You may plainly see 
But few plot how 
Honest to bee 
(illegible) 

the key to which may, it has been suggested, be found in the meaning 
of the word "plot," to "plan," not unaptly applied to himself by this 
Eidgway, who appears to have been the land measurer of the district. 

Few persons will enter the nave of Ashburnham church without a 
first impression that here, if anywhere, the "restorer " might be admitted 
with advantage ; the inconvenient and uncomfortable high pews, the 
obtrusive gallery, the high, unsightly pulpit, above all the protruding 
compartment reserved for the household of Ashburnham Place, at once 
suggest the idea that an arrangement more ecclesiastical in character 
might certainly be welcomed. I venture to think, nevertheless, that 
there are many considerations to be first weighed by the person who would 
take upon himself the responsibility of such sweeping alterations. It is 
true the proportions of the church would stand out in full and better 



XVI EBPOET. 

relief, and that the accommodation would be greater and more convenient ; 
but, on the other hand, we should lose the original character of one of 
the few churches rebuilt and arranged in the reign of Charles II., and it 
might be difficult to find another specimen so unique of a church remain- 
ing fitted up exactly as it was immediately after the Eestoration ; 
moreover, it is doubtful whether the circumstances of the parish would 
ever necessitate the provision of more, even should the parishioners desire 
more complete accommodation. It has been suggested to the present 
vicar that at least the mullions, which in all the windows but two are of 
oak, should be replaced by stone, as more suitable and durable ; a full 
consideration of this point, however, does but lead to the conclusion that 
here we have a feature remarkable, if not unique, in this building, there 
being evidence that this oak, thus introduced instead of stone, is a part 
of the original design, not unreasonably adopted in the architecture of a 
district where excellent oak abounds, and would be at the command of 
the generous builder. With special reference to this, a diligent search 
has been made in the parish records, and as these contain many notices 
of church expenses and repairs, but no mention of any considerable 
charge such as the substitution of wood for stone by way of repair would 
imply, it seems fair to conclude that no alteration of the kind was ever 
made, and that these oaken mullions are therefore notable parts of the 
original building. 

The gallery possesses a history, and has certain indications about it 
which may lead to the conclusion that it was first erected in the older 
church, very shortly before its removal, and afterwards adapted to the 
new building. In the oldest register, on the fly-leaf, there has been 
preserved a remarkable entry, which, as it bears incfirectly upon this par- 
ticular, is here given in extenso : — 

" A true copie of the memorable Deed of Charitie of Dame Eliza- 
beth Kichardson, Baroness of Cramond, wherein she hath given 
foure pounds per an. for 15 years to be payd quarterly to five 
poore people of the Parish of Ashbumham. 
I Dame Elizabeth Richardson Widow Baroness of Cramond who 
was formerly Wife to S^ John Ashburnham Knight deceased do give 
this writing unto the Minister and Churchwardens of the Parish of 
Ashbumham in the County of Sussex. 

I did live formerly in my youth at Ashbumham where I had many 
children borne, and I doe still bear a love unto that place. Now, it 
is well known that the Manor of Ashburnham did continue a long 
time belonging to the Name of Ashburnham, and howsoever in my 
husband's time it was cast for a time upon strangers, yet by God His 
mercie and gracious Providence it is now brought backe again in my 
lifetime into the hands and possession of mine owne son John 
Ashbumham Esq. which I pray God to continue with His blessing 
unto him and his to his good pleasure. 

And as I have left some remembrance of me in the Church at Ash- 
burnham at my last being there, So now in humble thankfulnesse to 
God for His mercies, I am desirous to leave some Eeliefe to the poore 
of that Parish. To whome I give and bequeath Foure pounds a yeare 



EEPOET. XVU 

for the space of fifteen yeares from the date of these presents to be 
given whether I live or die, and distributed quarterly, Twenty shillings 
to five poore people of that Parish, that is four shillings to every one 
of them : the said five poore people to be nominated & chosen by 
my said son John Ashbumham & the minister of the said Parish for 
the time being : And that the said poore people be such as have lived 
very honestly and be very poore. Of which number I desire Tom 
Beenie may be one, if he be yet living. And as I doe it in most 
humble thankfulnesse to God, so I desire their prayers for me whilst I 
live. The which payment shall be now payd and begin on S. Thomas's 
day next, at the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin, at Midsummer 
& Michaelmas day next ensuing, and so to continue for the said terme 
of fifteen yeares. And for the performance herein I have taken order 
& so disposed that my said son John Ashbumham after my decease 
pay the said foure pounds yearly for the remainder of the said fifteen 
yeares unto the Ministers & Churchwardens of Ashbumham aforesaid 
for the time being, the said four pounds to be then given & distributed 
to the said five poore people of the parish as I have formerly appointed 

Given under my hand on S. Andrew's Day in the Yeare of our Lord 
1649 

Eliza : Bichardson 

This is a true copie & in witnesse thereof I who transcribed 
this present have hereunder this 26th day of March 1650 
subscribed my Name 

John Benbriogb 

Vic : db Ashburnham. 

The remembrances in the Church of Ashbumham the said Rt. Hon. 
Pious and Charitable Dame mentioned in her Deed is manifold. As, 

1. The Gallerie 

2. The Carpet for the Communion Table 

3. The Pulpit cushion 

4. The Two Pulpit clothes 

They that honor Me I will honor saith y« Lord. 1 Sam. xii, 30. 
He that hath pity upon the poore lendeth unto the Lord, and that which 
he hath given will he pay him again. Prov. xix. 17." 

Now, it is not only unlikely that a recent gift thus chronicled should be, 
in the short space of fourteen years, set aside, but there is also internal 
evidence that the present gallery is that of which mention is here so 
particularly made; for instance, the mouldings upon it are unlike any 
other in the church, and one of the columns has been cut to fit the new 
structure. Moreover, the front extends beyond the splay of the window 
to the window itself on either side, and the book-shelf is continued to the 
wall, when it would be useless for its original purpose. We may pro- 
bably, therefore, conclude that the present gallery formed part of the gift 
of Dame Bichardson, and that it was first fixed in the older and wider 
building. 

The font, an ample marble bason, is fixed upon a sandstone base, which 
may have supported one more ancient. It is badly placed in a large pew 
on the south side of the aisle, under the gallery. 



XVlll BEPOBT. 

The chancel, separated by wrought-iron railings and gate from the 
nave, and also from its two side chapels, is entered by a bold flight of 
seven steps. It has a good perpendicular window of large size ; the roof 
is surrounded by iron stanchions for the support of pennons upon which 
the founder may have expected the insignia of succeeding generations of 
his family to be arranged, although the changing fashion of the times 
has caused them to be left unused. The altar table, a substitute for an 
older one now standing in the south chapel, is covered with a crimson 
satin cloth, the gift, in all likelihood, of the Baroness Cramond, and 
surmounted by a pictured reredos, whereop are painted Moses and Aaron 
and the Ten Commandments, taken (which is somewhat remarkable) not 
from the authorised version of 1611, but from an earlier translation. 
The holy name of the Most High is given in four languages, Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, and English ; and beneath the two tables is written, " The 
Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." 
This subscription follows : — 

" Haec Moysis Tabula erecta fuit A^- 1676." 

It may be interesting to speculate whether a lingering recollection of 
pre-reformation days may not have led the painter to picture hinges 
between the two tables, which are thus connected, as suggestive of an 
opening of an unclosed space, the receptacle for the reserved elements or 
other sanctified memorials. 

The north chapel, where the relics of the Royal Martyr were formerly 
preserved and exhibited, is shut oflF from the chancel by a high wrought- 
iron railing, the door of which is strongly secured. It covers part of the 
Ashburnham vault, and contains sumptuous tombs to two of the most 
memorable of its members, its builder, John Ashburnham, and his brother 
William. AiTanged upon the walls are arms and trophies, coronets, 
helmets, gauntlets, and knightly spurs, those proud memorials of exalted 
position which had been borne, we may suppose, at their funerals upon the 
coffins of the deceased. 

The subjoined inscriptions, taken from the two monuments, relate to a 
crisis in the annals of this ancient family, and are therefore here given in 
full. The former is inscribed upon the tomb of the Cavalier, the latter 
upon that of his brother : — 

" Here lyes in the Vault beneath John Ashburnham Esq of this 
place sonn to the unfortunate person 8^ John Ashburnham whose good 
nature and frank disposition towards two friends in being deeply engaged 
for them necessitated him to sell this place (in the family long before the 
Conquest) and all the estate he had elsewhere, not leaving to his wife 
and six children the least subsistence which is not inserted to the least 
disadvantage to his memory (God forbid it should be understood to be 
a charge of disrespect upon him) but to give God the prayse, who soe 
suddenly provided both for his wife and children as that within less 
than two years after the death of the said S^ John, there was not any 
of them but was in a condition rather to be helpful to others than 
to want supporte themselves. May God be pleased to add this 



BEPOBT. XIX 

blessing to his posterity that they may never be unmindful of the great 
things He hath done for them. The wife of the said S^' John Ash- 
burnham was daughter of Sir Thomas Beaumont of Stoughton in the 
County of Leicester. She was rery eminent for her great temper and 
prudence ; She dyed the seventy fifth year of her age and both the said 
S^- John and his wife lye buried in the Church of St. Andrews in 
Holbume London. The said Mr. John Ashburnham married the 
daughter and heire of William Holland of Westburton in this County 
Esqre: who lyes also here interred, and by whom he had these eight 
children. She made the first stepp towards the recovery of some part 
of the inheritance wasted by the said Sir John, for she sould her whole 
estate to lay out the money in this place. She lived in great reputa- 
tion for pyety and discretion and died in the seven and thirtieth yeare 
of her age. The second wife to the said Mr. John Ashburnham who 
lyes also here interred was the widow of Lord Pourlett of Honiton St. 
George in the county of Summersett. She was daughter and heire to 
Christopher of Kenn in Kenn in that County Esq who 

left her a greate estate in lands now in the possession of Lord Poulett. 
She was worthy imitation by all her sex for her honourable and religious 
conversation. She brought great advantages to the Family of this 
place, and dyed at the age of seventy yeares and four months. And 
her memory is precious to all considering persons that her. 

This Mr. John Ashburnham was of the Bedchamber to theire ma*y» 
Charles the first and Charles the Second who when he had performed 
the Service to God in building this Church at his own charge dyed in 
the sixty eight yeare of his age on the fifteenth day of June in the 
Yeare of our Lord 1671." 

Above this inscription are full-length sculptured figures in marble of 
John Ashburnham in armour and of his two wives. The whole is sur- 
mounted by a canopy emblazoned with the family arms in that goodly 
fashion which was even then becoming gradually more and more rare. 

The monument to William Ashburnham is erected against the wall 
facing the east window of the chapel, and is of imposing elevation. It 
represents the Countess of Marlborough in falling position, her husband 
standing over her with outstretched arms. The memorial is without date. 
They, however, whom it commemorates were buried respectively in 1672 
and 1679. 

The following is its record : — 

*' Under this Toombe (viat in the Vault for this Family) lie the 
bodies of Jane Countesse of Marlborough & William Ashburnham her 
husband, second sonne of S'* John Ashbumhnm. She was daughter 
to John Lord Butler of Hartfordshire. She was married first to James 
Earle of Marlborough Lord High Treasurer of England & who after 
seaven years died & left her a young, beautiful, and rich widow. When 
this William coming from beyond sea, where he was bred a souldier, 
married her, & after lieved almost five and forty years most happily 
with her. She was a very good lover, & (through God*s mercy) a 
great blessing to this family^ which is hoped will ever remember it with 



} 



XX REPORT. 

hononring her memory. TLis William Ashbamham her husband lieved 
after her to a great age, and gloried in nothing in this world But this 
his wife & the almost unparalleled love & intire friendship that for 
about fifty yeares was betweene his deare elder brother John Ash- 
burnham and himselfe. He was Cofferer to King Charles the 1 st & 
King Charles the second, he died without issue and by God's blessing 
was a happy Preserver of his Brothers Posterity. The praise and glory 
of it be to God alone." 

The chapel to the south of the chancel, also separated from it by 
massive wrought-iron railings (worked, no doubt, in the neighbouring 
furnaces), is now used as a vestry, and from it steps ascend to a small 
gallery, forming the pew which accommodates the Ashburnham family. 
Here stands the old oak altar table used by former generations of wor- 
shippers in the original church ; here also is a large oaken chest, with its 
three locks, wherein have been well preserved the books containing the 
parochial accounts of the last two centuries. A private door connects 
this chapel with the gardens of Ashburnham Place, the approach to which 
is railed off on either side, and thus forming a private approach through 
the churchyard from the Place to the chancel. The church plate was 
formerly kept in one of the chapels, until an attempt to steal it led to its 
more secure custody in the strong room of the Hall ; and indeed it is 
worthy of extreme care. It formed part of John Ashburnham's generous 
benefaction, and appears to have been given by him at two different 
times. A comparatively small chalice and paten, bearing respectively 
the inscriptions " This Challis belongs to y® Church of Ashburnham, 
1668," " This plate belongs to y® Church of Ashburnham, 1688," have 
a different Hall mark to the larger and more elaborate vessels. These 
latter are of beautiful design, and consist of a large alms dish, 18 inches 
in diameter, inscribed, **This Bason belongs to y® Parish Church of 
Ashburnham ; " two noble flagons, each 15 inches in height, inscribed, 
" This is one of y® flagons belonging to y® Parish Church of Ashburnham,' 
and surmounted by a ball and cross similar on a small scale to that borne' 
before Charles II. at his coronation ; a strikingly elegant chalice, 18 
inches high ; and two patens, each bearing the legend " This is one of y« 
Plates belonging to y® Parish Church of Ashburnham." These sacred 
vessels, which are all of solid silver richly gilt, form a service which 
would be remarkable anywhere, and rarely to be found in a country church 
of this comparatively simple character. Truly the pious old Cavalier who 
made this provision for the celebration of the highest act of Christian 
worship was no niggard in his thank-offerings, " neither did he offer to 
the Lord his God of that which did cost him nothing." 

It only remains to add that there are some two or three inscribed 
paving stones in the nave, and that among the tombstones in the church- 
yard are those of no less than six former incumbents in an unbroken 
series from 1704. 

The inscriptions within the church are : — 

". Eebecca eldest daughter of Anthony Nethercott clerk and Eliza- 
beth his wife aged 5 years was buried the 5th day of April, 1682." 



^ 



BBPORT. XXI 

Here lyeth the body of Mrs. Frances Coster mother of the Rerd 
Arthur Coster Vicar of this place who died at Battle July the 17th 



t 1726. Aged 73 years." 

" John son of Mr. Thomas Ashburnham died 1676." 



The walled churchyard seems to forbid rather than invite frequenters. 
It is well nigh filled with the remains of departed parishioners, and the 
time cannot be far distant when another resting-place must be provided 
for many of the present generation of villagers. 

Our brief description may close with a notice of the simple records of 
the six vicars whose bodies await the Resurrection near the scenes of their 
early ministry. One is to be found in a retired corner on the north, 
adjoining the church wall ; four are to be read above graves lying side 
by side under the shade of the one solitary tree, a yew, which grows a few 
paces beyond the chancel ; the last attracts our notice as we approach 
-the porch, and tells us the birth and death days of the last incumbent, 
who, after 38 years* service in the parish, was gathered to his fathers less 
than three years ago : — 

" Here lyeth interred the body of the Revd. Arthur Coster A.M. 
Vicar of this Parish 46 years and Chaplain to the Rt. Honble. the 
Earl of Ashburnham, and also Rector of Catsfield. He departed this 
life April the 26th, 1750, aged 73 years." 

" Sacred to the memory of the Revd. Charles Coldcall near 43 years 
Vicar of this Parish. He died October 2nd, 1793, aged 70 years." 

" Sacred to the memory of the Revd. William Delves A.M. late 
Vicar of this Parish and Rector of Catsfield in this County who died 
Nov 2. 1809 aged 51." 

** Sacred to the memory of the Rev William Trivett A.M. 20 years 
Vicar of this Parish and Rector of Penshurst died March 30th buried 
April 10th 1830." 

** In memory of the Revd. Edwd: Wameford Vicar of this Parish 
and Rector of Penshurst, eldest son of the Revd. Edward Wameford 
Rector of Winterboume in Gloucestershire. He departed this life on 
the 15th of Jany. 1840 in the 63rd Year of his age." 



'* Looking for that blessed hope and the glorious appearing of the 
great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Rosalia Mukn 
John Read Munn 
R. M. Bom April 29. 1809 died Jany. 12. 1876 
J. R. M. Bora Jany 26. 1806 died December 9th 1878 

for 38 years Vicar of Ashburnham and Rector of Penshurst." 



ACCOUNT OP RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS 

FOR 1881. 



BEOEIFTS. 

£ 8. d. 
BalaDoe at Treasurer's, Jan. 

1,1881 166 15 6 

Annnal Snbscriptions 217 

Ditto, Arrears 90 

Ditto, paid in Adyanoe 4 

Oyerpayments 17 

Six Life Compositions 80 

Garden Bents 8 

Dividend on Consols 12 8 7 

Sale of Books 4 8 7 

Visitors to Castle 94 19 9 



£563 4 4 



PAYMENTS. 

Printing Vol. XXXI 121 12 1 

Index, ditto : 4 4 

Clerk's Salary 20 

Ditto Expenses and Stamps 7 19 10 
Expenses of Annnal Meeting 10 6 

Books for Library 11 18 

Binding 8 13 6 

Printing, Stationery, &o. ... 16 11 4 

Investment in Consols 100 

Castle Aoconnt — 

Bent 81 5 4 

Ditto Gate, 
way (4 years) 4 

Coals 4 8 6 

Bepairs, &o... 6 1 11 
Taxes & Son- 
dries 14 4 8 

Warder 26 

Ditto, Com- 
mission, 1880 4 18 8 

86 17 8 

Balance at Treasurer's, 
Dec.31,1881 180 12 6 

£568 4 4 



ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, JAN. 1, 1882. 



ASSETS. 

£ B. d. 

Balance at Treasurer's 180 12 6 

Invested in Consols 474 13 8 

Arrears of Subscriptions — 

estimated to produce 25 

Surplus Stock of Books 60 

Due on Illustrations Vol. 

XXIX 5 



£785 6 8 



LLA.BILITIES. 

£ s. d. 

Subscriptions paid in advance 4 

Morg^, Commission, 1881... 4 15 

Sundry Bills 10 

One Quarter's Bent 8 

26 15 

Balance of assets 708 10 8 



£735 5 8 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Arnold, Rev. F. H., ll.b., Emsworth. 

Bruce, Rev. J. Collingwood, ll.d., f.s.a., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Campkin, H., Esq., r.s.A., 112, Torriano Avenue, Kentish Town, London. 

Corde, M. TAbbe de, Bures, Neufchatel. 

Diamond, Hugh Welch, m.d., f.s.a., Hon. Photographer, Twickenham House, 

Twickenham, Middlesex. 
Dudeney, Mr. John, Milton House, Lewes. 
Hewett, Rev. J. W., 1, Bridge Road, Haverstock Hill, London. 
Smith, Chas. Roach, Esq., f.s.a.. Temple Place, Strood by Rochester. 
Spurrell, Rev. F., M.A., Faulkboum Rectory, Witham, Essex. 
Trollope, The Right Rev. Edward, The Bishop Suffragan of Nottingham, D.D., 

F.S.A., Leasingham Rectory, Sleaford, Lincolnshire. 
Semichon, Mons. Ernest, Avocat. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



THE * DBNOTES LIFB COMPOUNDEKS. 



Abergavenny, The Marquess of, Bridge Castle, Tunbridge Wells. 

Adamson, E., Esq., m.d.. Rye. 

Ade, Mr. J. S., Milton Court, Arlington. 

AUchin, John, Esq., Broadwater Cottage, Tunbridge Wells. 

*Alexander, W. C, Esq., Aubrey House, Camden Hill. 

Anderson, Irvine Kempt, Esq., Battle. 

*Andr6, J. L., Esq., Hurst Road, Horsham. 

♦Arbuthnot, W. R., Esq., Flaw Hatch, West Hoathly. 

ArkcoU, Thos., Esq., Lime Park, Hurstmonceux. 

Arnold, E., Esq., White House, Chichester. 

Ashbumer, H. J., Esq., Horsham. 

Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, London, s.w. 

Attenborough, Rev. W. F., Fletching Vicarage, Uckfield. 

*Attree, F. W. J., Lieut., r.e., Springfield House, Worthing. 

Auckland, Mrs., School Hill, Lewes. 

*Bacon, Rev. Thos., Rectory, Wiggonholt, Pulborough. 

Bailey, Rev. Henry, d.d.. Rectory, West Tarring. 

Baker, J. B., Esq., Buxted. 

♦Banks, Rev. G. W., Rectory, Wortli. 

Barber, Mr. W., Willingdon. 

Barchard, Elphinstone, Esq., m.a., Duddleswell, Uckfield. 

Barchard, Francis, Esq., Horsted Place, Uckfield. 

Barclay, Donald, Esq., Mayfield. 

Bardsley, J. Argent, Esq., Wynand House, Hastings. 

*Barron, E. J., Esq., f.s.a., Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 

Bartlett, Rev. W., Vicarage, Wisborough Green, Billinghurst. 

Barttelot, Colonel Sir W. Barttelot, Bart., C.B., M.P., Stopham, Petworth. 

*Barttelot, Brian B., Esq., Stopham. 

Barwell, Rev. A. H. S., Clapham Rectory, Wortliing. 

♦Bathurst, Hy., Es^., Northcotts, Teignmouth. 

Battye, Rev. W. Wiiberforce, Hever, Edenbridge, Kent. 

♦Baxter, Wynne E., Esq., F.a.s., f.b.g.s., Lewes. 

Bayley, Miss, Wilmington Lodge, Hurstpierpoint. 

Beard, S., Esq., Rottingdean. 

Beard, Miss Matilda, Rottingdean. 

Bellingham, C, Esq., 12, New Steine, Brighton. 

Bellingham, Miss S., West Street, Rye. 

Bennett, Rev. Prebendary, Chichester. 

Bigg, E. F., Esq., Slaugham, Horsham. 

Bill, Mrs. H., Tudor House, Burgess Hill. 

Blaauw, T. St. Leger, Esq., Beechlands, Kewick. 

Blaber, C. O., Esq., 64, Shij) St., Brighton. 

Blaker, Edgar S., Esq., Springfield Lodge, Worthing, 

Blaker, Rev. Cecil Renshaw, M.A., Lewes. 

Blaker, Arthur Becket, Esq., Beechwood. 



XXYl SUSSEX ABOHAEOLOQIGAL SOOIETT. 

* 

Blaker, Evelyn Borrer, Esq., Westmorland House, Uckfleld. 

Blakiston, Biev. Balph Milburn, Ashton Lodge, Tavistock Boad, Croydon. 

Blencowe, J. G., Esq., Bineham, Chailey. 

Blew, Bev. W. J., ii.A., 16, Warwick St., Pall Mall, London. 

Blight, Bev. B., St. Ann's, Lewes. 

Bloxam, Bev. J. Bouse, d.d.. Seeding Priory, Hurstpierpoint. 

Blunt, W. S., Esq., Crabbet, Three Bridges, Worth. 

Bonnick, H., Esq., Lewes. 

Borrer, Bev. Prebendary Carey H., Hurstpierpoint. 

*Borrer, Capt. Clifford, Clayton Wickham, Bturstpierpoint. 

Borrer, W., Esq., ii.A., F.L.S., Cowfold, Horsham. 

*Borrer, Lindfleld, Esq., Henfield. 

Bowles, Bev. F. A., M.A., Singleton, Chichester. 

♦Boxall, W. P., Esq., Belle Vue Hall, Brighton. 

Boys, Jacob, Esq., 69, Grand Parade, Brighton. 

Brabrook, E. W., F.S.A., Lewisham. 

Braden, J. G., Esq., Lewes. 

Brassey, Sir T., m.p., Normanhurst, Battle. 

*Braithwaite, Capt. Joseph, 63, Brunswick Place, Brighton. 

*Bridger, E. E., Esq., Berkeley House, Hampton, Middlesex. 

Bridges, Bev. A. H., Beddington House, Croydon. 

Broadwood, Miss Bertha, Lyne, Busper, Horsham. 

Brockman, Mrs., Gore Court, Maidstone. 

Brooke, P. C, Esq., Ufford, Woodbridge, Suffolk. 

Brown, J. Elhnan, Esq., Buckingham Lodge, Shoreham. 

Browne, H. Doughty, Esq., West Lodge, Avenue Boad, Begent's Park, London. 

Browell, Bev. J., Cowfold Vicarage, Horsham. 

Buck, Bev. W. H. M., Seaford. 

Buckell, Leonard, Esq., m.d., Chichester. 

Burder, Mrs. Ellen, Park Dale, Battle. 

Burnett, Bev. Prebendary W., m.a., Boxgrove, Chichester. 

Burr, G. F., Esq., Merivale, St. Helen's Crescent, Hastings. 

*Burrell, Sir Walter W., Bart, m.p.. West Grinstead. 

Burt, James, Esq., Montague St., Worthing. 

Burton, Alfred, Esq., St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Butler, G. Slade, Esq., f.s.a., Rye. 

Butler, Bev. J. B. M., Maresfleld Bectory. 

Byass, Thos. S., Esq., m.d., Marshalls, Cuckfield. 

Calvert, Bev. T., 92, Lansdown Place, Brighton. 

Calvert, Bev. C. P., Lewes. 

Campion, Bev. Prebendary C. Heathcote, Bectory, Westmeston, Hurstpierpoint, 

Campion, W. H., Esq., Danny Park, Hurstpierpoint. 

Card, Mr. H., Lewes. 

Cardale, Bev. E. T., Uckfield. 

Carter, Bonham W., Esq., Little Green, Gosport. 

Cass, Bev. C. W., Telham Lawn, Battle. 

Catt, C. W., Esq., 7, Cambridge Boad, Brighton. 

Challen, Mr. T., Storrington. 

Chambers, G. F., Esq., North Field Grange, Eastbourne. 

Chatfield, E., Esq., Lewes. 

♦Chetwynd, Hon. Mrs. Charles, Gothic Lodge, Worthing. 

Chichester, The Earl of, Stanmer Park, Stanmer. 

Chichester, the Lord Bishop of, Chichester. 

Chichester Library Society, Chichester. 

Chichester Literary Society and Mechanics' Institute, Chichesteri 

Christie, W. L., Esq., m.p., Glyndeboume. 

Churton, Theodore J. Esq., West Hill, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Clark, J. C, Esq., Middle Street, Brighton. 

*Clarke, Somers, Jun., Esq., F.S.A., 6, Delahay Street, London, SiWi 

Clarkson, Bev. G. A., m.a., Amberley* 



LIST OF MEMBBBS. XXVll 

Clayton, Chas, E., Esq., 47, Shaftesbury Boad, Brighton. 

Glutton, Henry, Esq., Hartswood, Beigate. 

Cockayne, G. E., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., College of Arms, London. 

Colchester, Lord!, Forest Bow. 

^Coleman, Carlos, Esq., Brede. 

^Coleman, Horace, Esq., Brede. 

Cole, Bey. T. H., m.a., Lewes. 

*Coles, J. H. C, Esq., Eastbourne. 

Coles, T. Horsman, Esq., St. Helen's, Ore, Hastings. 

Combe, Boyce Harvev, Esq., F.S.A., Oaklands, Battle. 

Cooper, Mrs. W. H., 44, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

Cooper, Mrs. J., Lewes. 

*Cosens, F. W.,Esq., F.8.A.,The Shelleys, Lewes, and 27, Queen's Gate, Kensington. 

Couling, H., Esq., 23, Sudeley Street, Brighton. 

Courthope, G. C, Esq., Whiligh, Hawkhurst. 

Cowan, T. W., Esq., P.8.A., Compton's Lea, Horsham. 

Crake, Rev. E., Clifton 'House, Eastbourne. 

Crake, Vandeleur B., Esq., Highlands, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Cripps, B. M. Esq., Novington. 

Cripps, Mr. B., Washington, Pulborough. 

Cripps, Mr. E., Steyning. 

Crofts, Bey. J. D. M., M.A., Vicarage, Mountfield. 

Cross, Bey. E. H., Lewes. 

Crosskey, Bobt., Esq., Castle Ga.te, Lewes. 

♦Curling, Geo., Esq., Croydon. 



Cmrey, E. C, Esq., Mailing Deanery, Lewes. 
Curt/eis, H. Mascall, Esq., Windmill Hill Place, 



Hailsham. 



Daintry, A., Esq., Petworth. 

Dalbiac, H. E. A., Esq., Durrington, near Worthing. 

Daniel, Bey. J. C, Lewes. 

Daniel-Tyssen, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., 9, Lower Bock Gardens, Brighton. 

♦Daniel-Tyssen, A., Esq., M.A., 40, Chancery Lane, London. 

Davey, Bey. H. M., m:.a., f.g.s., Oving Vicarage, Chichester. 

Dayey, H., Esq., 82, Grand Parade, Brighton. 

♦Dayies, Miss, 2, South Eaton Place, London, s.w. 

Dayis, H. C, Esq., 39, St. James' St., Brighton. 

Dayison, Bashell, Esq., Battle. 

Day, Mrs., Uckfield House, Uckfield. 

*Day, W. A., Esq., 18, New Bridge St., Blackfriars, London. 

Dearsley, Bey. St. John, Wilmington. 

Debary, Bey. T., Athenaeum Club and 6, Old Cayendish St., London. 

De la Warr, The Earl of, Withyham. 

Delyes, W., Esq., Hargate Locfce, Tunbridge Wells. 

Delyes, Mr. W. Henry, Tunbridge Wells. 

Denman, Hon. Bichard, Westergate, Chichester. 

Dennet, Chas. F., Esq., 1, St. Gorge's Place, Brighton. 

De Putron, Bey. Pierre, M.A., Bodmell. 

Deyonshire, The Duke of, k.g., Eastbourne. 

Dickinson, Mrs., Norton House, Hurstpierpoint. 

Dilke, W., Esq., Chichester. 

Dixon, Henry, Esq., Frankham, Tunbridge Wells. 

Dixon, Miss, Colwell, Haywards Heath. 

Dodson, the Bight Honbfe. J. G., m.p., Coneyborough, Lewes. 

Drakeford, Bey. D. J., Elm Groye, Lower Sydenham. 

Drewitt, Bobt. Dawtiy, Esq., Peppering, Burpham, Arundel. 

Duckett, Sir Geo. F., JBart., F.8.A (Newmgton House, Wallingford), Oxford and 

Cambridge Club, London. 
Duke, Frederick, Esq., 7, Cambridge Terrace, Hastings. 
Dunkin, E. H. W., Esq., 14, Kidbrook Park Boad, Blackheath. 



XXVlll SUSSEX AECHAEOLOQIOAL SOCIETY. 

Earp, Fredk., Esq., 59, Effxnont Place, Bxighton. 

*Ea8ton, E., Esq., 7, Delwiajr St., Westminster, s.w. 

*Eden, Eev. Arthur, m.a., Vicarage, Ticehurst. 

Edmunds, Richard, Es^., Worthing. 

Edwards, S., Esq., 4, Chnt Park, I^wisham. 

Edwards, G., Esq., Hartfield. 

Edwardes, T. Dyer, Esq., 5, Hyde Park Gate, Kensington, London. 

Eggar, T. Esq., 33, Brunswick Road, Hove, Brighton. 

Egmont, The Earl of, Cowdray Park, Midhurst. 

Elliott, Robt., Esq., The Cedars, Ashford. 

Ellis, W. Smith, Esq., Hyde Croft, Crawley. 

Ellman, Rev. E. B., M.A., The Rectory, Berwick. 

Elphinstone, Howard W., Esq., The Grange, Augusta Road, Park, Wimbledon. 

♦Elwes, D. G. C, Esq., P.S.A., 6, The Crescent, Bedford. 

Elwes, H. T., Esq., Fir Bank, West Hoathly. 

Emary, Mr. H. M., Pevensey Road, Eastbourne. 

Esdaile, J. K., Esq., East Grinstead. 

*Evans, J., Esq., f.b.8., f.s.a., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 

*Evans, Thos., Esq., Ljrminster, Arundel. 

^Evershed, S., Esq., Clerk's Land, Billingshurst. 

Fairies, Rev. Septimus, b.a., Lurgashall, Petworth. 

Famcombe, Mr. Joseph, Grange Road, Lewes. 

Famcombe, Richard, Esq., 40, Belgrave Street, Balsall Heath, Birmingham. 

Farr, Arthur Richard, Esq., 35, Buckingham Road, Brighton. 

Fayle, Joshua, Esq., 18, Eaton Place, Brighton. 

Fielder, Geo., Esq., West Horsley Place, Leatherhead. 

Fisher, Richard, F.S.A., 91, Great Russell St., Bedford Square, London, w.c. 

*Fisher, Samuel Timbrell, Esq., The Grove, Streatham. 

Fitz-Hugh, A. J., Esq., 3, Pavilion Parade, Brighton. 

Fletcher, Rev. J., Eastbourne. . 

Foley, Rev. E. W., The Rectory, Jevington. 

*Foljambe, Cecil G. S., Esq., m.p., p.s.a., Cockglode OUerton, Newark, Notts. 

Foster, Rev. Prebendary H., m.a., Selsey Rectory, Chichester. 

Foster, Rev. Robt., m.a., Burpham, Arundel. 

Foster, Rev. J. S., m.a., Wivelsfield Vicarage, Burgess Hill. 

*Foyster, Rev. H. B., m.a., St. Clement's Rectory, Hastings. 

♦Foyster, Rev. G. A., m.a., All Saints, Hastings. 

♦Franks, A. W., Esq., p.b.8., v.p.8.a., 103, Victoria St., Westminster, and British 

Museum. 
*Freeland, Humphrey W., Esq., m.a., Chichester. 
♦Freshfleld, Edwin, Esq., v.p.s.a., 5, Bank Buildings, London. 
Freshfield, H., Esq., Kidbrooke Park, Forest Row. 
Friend, Mr. D. B., 77, Western Road, Brighton. 
Fruton, Alex. J., Esq., 41, Wenham Road, Worthing. 
Fuller, Rev. A., m.a.. The Pallant, Chichester. 
Fuller, Thos., Esq., M.D., Shoreham. 
Furley, R., Esq., F.S.A., Ashford. 

Gage, Lord Viscount, Firle Park. 

Gallard, G., Esq., 3, Ventnor Villas, Cliftonville. 

Garbett, Rev. Canon, Barcombe. 

Gamham, Colonel, Densworth House, Chichester. 

Gell, Inigo, Esq., Lewes. 

Godlee, Burwood, Esq., Lewes. 

♦Godman, P. S., Esq., Muntham, Horsham. 

Gordon, Rev. A., Newtimber, Hurstpierpoint. 

Goring, Rev. John m.a., Wiston Park, Hiurstpierpoint. 

Gorringe, Hugh, Esq., Kingstdn-on-Sea. 

Gorring, Mrs. H. B., Seaford. 

Goschen, Rt. Honble. G. J., m.p., 61, Portland Place, London, w. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXIX 

Goulbum, The Very Rev. E. M., d.d., P.8.A., Dean of Norwich, Norwich* 

*Gower, G. W. G. Leveson, Esq., F.S.A., Titsey Place, limpsfield. 

^Grantham, W., Esq., Q.c, m.p., fiarcombe Place. 

Graham, R. J., Esq., Eastbourne. 

Gravely, Richard, Esq., Newick. 

Gravely, Thos., Esq., Cowfold. 

Greaves, W., Esq., 3, South Square, Gray's Inn, London, w.c. 

Greaves, C. S., Esq., q.c., 11, Blandford Square, London, n.w. 

Gregory, G. B., Esq., m.p., Boarz<*^l, Hurstgreen, Hawkhurst. 

Grey, F., Esq., Pippingford, Uckheld. 

Griffith, Henry, Esq., F.S.A., Montpellier Lodge, Brighton. 

Grover, J. P., Esq., Lewes. 

Gruggen, F. W., Esq., Chichester. 

*Gwynne, J. E. A., Esq., F.S.A., Folkington Manor, Polegate. 

• 

Haines, W., Esq., West Ashling, Chichester. 

Haines, Mr. John, 46, Preston Street, Brighton. 

♦Hales, Rev. Richard Cox, Woodmancote, Hurstpierpoint, 

*Hall, J. E. Eardley, Esq., Barrow Hill, Henfleld. 

Hall, Mr. Charles, Mngston, Lewes. 

Halsted, C. T., Esq., Chichester. 

♦Hannah, Ven. Archdeacon, d.c.l.. The Vicarage, Brighton. 

♦Hannah, Rev. John Julius, m.a., The Vicarage, Brighton. 

Hannen, The Right Honble. Sir J as.. Off ham House, Lewes. 

Harland, H., Esq., m.d., Wadhurst. 

Harris, W. J., Esq., 13, Marine Parade, Worthing. 

Harris, H. E., Esq., 17, Cannon Place, Brighton. 

♦Harting, J. Vincent, Esq., 24, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 

Haselwood, J. E., Esq., 3, Lennox Place, Brighton. 

Hastie, H., Esq., Placeland, Eastgnnstead. 

Haviland, Rev. G. E., m.a., Warbleton Rectory, Hawkhurst. 

Haweis, Rev. W. H., m.a., Slaugham. 

♦Hawkins, Rev. R., m.a., Lamberhurst. 

Hawkins, Rev. H. S., Bayton Rectory, Bury St. Edmimds. 

♦Hawkshaw, Sir John, 33, Great George St., London, s.w. 

♦Hawkshaw, H. P., Esq., p.s.a., 33, Great George's Street, Westminster, London, 

s.w. 
Haydon, Rev. W., Bapchild Vicarage, Sittingboume. 
Hazlitt, W., Esq., p.s.a.. Bankruptcy Court, London. 
Head, Mr. J., Lewes. 

Henty, C. Percival, Esq., Northlands, Chichester. 
Hepburn, Rev. Prebendary F. R., m.a., Chailey. 
♦Hesketh, Robt., Esq., 7, Royal Exchange, London. 
Heslop, Walter, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
♦Hill, Charles, Esq., P.8.A., Rockhurst, Westhoathly. 
Hill, Mr. John, Maresfield. 

Hill, Miss A., Asby Lodge, Carlton Road, Putney Hill, London, s.w. 
Hill, W. Neave, Esq., Albert Road, Gloucester Gate, Regent's Park, London. 
Hillman, A., Esq., Iford. 
Hillman, Edward, Esq., Lewes. 

Hills, Gordon M., Esq., 12, St. John's St., Adelphi, London. 
Hills, Rev. W. J., Vernon Terrace, Brighton. 
Hine, H. G., Esq., 130, Haverstock Hm, London. 

Hoare, Rev. H. R., m.a., 19, Eastbourne Terrace, Hyde Park, London, w. 
Hoare, Rev. W. H., Oakfleld, Crawley. 

Hogg, Robt., Esq., ll.d., 99, St. George's Square, Pimlico, London. 
Hollamby, Mr. H., Tunbridge Wells. 
HoUamby, Mr. Edwin, Groombridge. 
Holland, Rev. T. A., m.a., Poynings. 
Holland, Rev. Chas., Petworth Rectory. 
Holman, Henry, Esq., East Hoathly. 



XXZ SUSSEX ABCHAEO LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

^Holmes, E. C, Esq., Brookfield, Arundel. 

Holmes, G. P., Esq., Worthing. 

Honywood, Thos., Esq., Horsham. 

*Hope, A. J. Bereaford, Esq., d.cl., f.s.a., ic.p., Bedgbury Park, Cranbrook. 

Hoper, W., Esq., St. Elizabeth Road, Worthing. 

Hoper, Mrs. H., 85, Linden Gardens, London, w. 

Hoper, Richard, Esq., Hill Farm, Cowfold. 

Hornby, Sir E., Fir Grove, East Hoathly. 

Horsey, Thos., Esq., EiDgmer. 

Horton, G., Esq., 23, Oxford Terrace, Hyde Park, London. 

*Hovenden, R., Esq., Heath Cote, Park Hill, Croydon. 

Howlett, J. W., Esq., 8, Ship Street, Brighton. 

Hubbard, W. E., Esq., Leonardslee, Horsham. 

Hunt, Bernard Husey, Esq., Lewes and Brighton. 

Hurst, Robert Henry, Esq., The Park, Horsham. 

Hussey, Edward, Esq., Scotney Castle, Lamberhurst; 

*Hussey, E. L., Esq., St. Aldate's, Oxford. 

Hutchinson, Rev. lAios., m.a., Ditchling. 

Inderwick, F. W., Esq., Q.C., m.p., Winchelsea. 

Infield, Mr. H. J., 10, Wellington Road, Brighton. 

Ingram, Jas., Esq., Chailey. 

Ingram, Rev. H. M., Southover, Lewes. 

Ingram, W. H., Esq., New Grove, Petworth. 

Ingram, Miss, Hickwells, Chailey. 

Ireland, Mr. S. Sheppard, 198, Western Road, Brighton. 

Ireland, Arthur, Esq., Cliftonville, Brighton. 

Jackson, Miss K., 11, Pavilion Parade, Brighton. 

Jackson, Rev. G., Yapton, Arundel. 

James, Francis, Esq., 109, Cromwell Road, London, and Edgeworth Manor, 

Cfrencester. 
Jenner, Miss, Haddo Villa, Blackheath. 
Jennings, Louis J., Esq., Kingston, Lewes. 
Johnson, Mrs. Luttman, 17, Sussex Square, Brighton. 
^Johnson, J. A. Luttman, Esq., 50, Coleshill St., London, s.w. 
Jones, H., Esq., High St., Lewes. 
Jones, John, Esq., The Crescent, Southover, Lewes. 

Kemp, C. R., Esq., Lewes. 

Kempe, C. E., Esq., 47, Beaumont Street, London, w. 

*King, H., Esq., Isfield Place, Uckfleld. 

King, Mrs. Joseph, 16, North Buildings, Finsbury Circus, London. 

Kingsley, Mrs. Henry Kingsley, Laurel Bank, Hulbrow, Lisa, Hants. 

Kirby, Rev. H. T. M., M.A., Mayfleld. 

Kirby, Mrs., West Hoathly. 

Kirkland, Capt. Walter, f.b.g.s., Eastbourne. 

*Kirwan, J. S., Esq., Reform Club, London. 

Klincksieck, C. E., Esq., 11, Rue de Lille, Paris. 

Knowles, Rev. John, F.S.A., F.a.s., ph.D., M.A., Dudley Road, Tunbridge Wella 

Lambe, Richard, Esq., School Hill, Lewes. 

^Lampson, Sir C. M., Bart., Rowfant, and 80, Eaton Square, London. 

Lane, Henry C, Esq., Middleton, Hurstpierpoint. 

Lanchester, Henry J., Esq., 8, Abchurch Yard, Cannon St., London, and 1, St. 

John's Terrace, Brighton. 
Langham, J. G., Esq., Uckfield. 
Langham, Fredc. A., Esq., Hillside, Ore, Hastings. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXI 

Lamach, Donald, Esq., Brambletye, Eastgrinfitead. 

Latrobe, Miss. 

*Leach, Miss, Xinff's Road, Clapham Park, Surrey. 

Lear, Mrs. M., Maltravers House, Littlehampton. 

Leathley, D. W. fieresford, Esq., Sand Rock, Midhurst, and 44, Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, w.c. 
Lee, John Swainson, Esq., Cannon Hill, South Gate, London. 
Lennard, Rev. John Barrett, Crawley Rectory. 
Legge* C. E., Esq., Lavant, Chichester. 
^Leslie, C. S., Esq., Slindon House, Arundel. 
Lewes Library Society, Lewes. 
Ley, Rev. Jolm, m.a. 
Library Congress, Washington, U.S., care of E. G. Allen, American Agency, 12, 

Tavistodc Row, Covent Garden, w.c. 
^Linington, G. E., Esq., Plashet, East Ham, Essex. 
Lister, John, Esq., Waminglid Grange, Haywards Heath. 
Liverpool Free Public Library, William Brown St. (care of Peter Corvell, 

Librarian), Liverpool. 
Lomax, Benj., Esq., 10, Chatham Place, Brighton. 
London Corporation Library Committee, Gmld Hall, London. 
Lower, W. de Warenne, 9, ^^Ling William Street, London. 
Lucas, John Clay, Esq., F.S.A., Lewes. 
*Luck, F. G., Esq., The Olives, Wadhurst. 

Luxford, J. S. O. Robertson, Esq., High Ham House, Hawkhurst, Hurstgreen. 
Luxf ord. Rev. G. C, m.a.. High Ham, Hawkhurst. 
Lyall, G., Esq. (48, Eaton Square, London), Hedley, Epsom. 
Lyons, Lord, British Embassy, Paris. 



^Mackinlay, D., Esq., 9, Western Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

Maclean, Rev. G. G., Vicarage, Nutley, Ucklield. 

McQueen, General, Lintock House, Canterbury. 

Manby, Lieut.-Col., p.b.8.. The Greys, Eastbourne. 

Margesson, Lieut.-Col., Findon Place, Worthing. 

Margesson, Miss, Bolney Lodge, Haywards Heath. 

Margjesson, Miss H. A., Bolney Lodge, Haywards Heath. 

Martin, Chas., Esq., Battle. 

Martineau, E. H., Esq., 30, Weymouth St., Portland Place, London, w. 

Masters, Rev. James Hoare, Lower Beeding Vicarage, Horsham. 

Meadows, Geo., Esq., Havelock road, Hastmgs. 

Medland, Rev. T., m.a.. The Vicarage, Steyning. 

Melville, Miss, Lodge, Henfield. 

Melville, Robt., Esq., Hartfield Grove, Hartfield. 

Merrifleld, F., Esq., 24, Vernon Place, Brighton. 

Merry, Miss Jane S., Sussex Square, Brighton. 

Michell, H., Esq., Worthing Road, Horsham. 

Mills, Mr. A., 20, St. James St., Brighton. 

*Milner, Rev. J., 43, Brunswick Square, Brighton. 

Mitchell, Rev. H., m.a., f.s.a., Bosham, Chichester. 

Mitford, W. T., Esq., Pitts Hill, Petworth. 

♦Mivart, St. Gteorge, Esq. f.r.8., Wilmshurst, Nutley, Uckfleld. 

Molineux, George, Esq., Old Bank, Lewes. 

Molyneux, Honble. F. G., Tunbridge Wells. 

Monk, E., Esq., St. Ann's, Lewes. 

Monk, T. J., Esq., Lewes. 

Moore, Resta W., Esq., Worthing. 

Moren, G., Esq. Richmond Villa, Tunbridge Wells. 

Morgan, W., Esq., Uckfleld. 

Mount, Rev. Prebendary F. J., ii.A., Vicarage, Cuckfleld. 

Murchison, Kenneth R., Esq., Brokehurst, Eastgrinstead. 

Napier, Rev. C. W. A., m.a.. Rectory, Wiston. 



ZXXll SUSSEX ABOHAEOLOOIOAL SOCIETT. 

Napi)er, H. F., Esq., Laker's Lodffe, Loxwood, Billingshurst. 

Kesbitt, A., Esq., F.8.A., Old Lands, Maresfield, Uckfield. 

Kevill, h&dy Dorothy, Stillyands, Horeham Boad. 

*Nicholls, Kev. H., m.a., Burdocks, Petworth. 

^Nichols, Robert Craddock, Esq., f.s.a.. Lodge Lands, Balcombe. 

Noakes, Mr. J., Chiddingly. 

*Noake8, Mr. Fredc, Battle. 

Noble, Captain, f.b.a.8., f.b.m.s.. Forest Lodge, Maresfield, Uckfield. 

NoUoth, Rev. C. F., The Wallands, Lewes. 

Norfolk, the Duke of, Arundel Castle, Arundel. 

Norman, Mr. S., St. John's Common, Hurstpierpoint. 

Norman, Mr. Geo., Cooksbridge. 

Norton, G., Esq., Stone Place, Ardingly. 

O'Flahertie, Rev. T. R., M.A., The Vicara^, Capel, Surrey, 

Olding, W., Esq., 3, Brunswick Road, Brighton. 

Olive, Geo., Esq., 10, River St., Devons Road, Bromley-le-Bow, London, b. 

Orme, Rev. J. B., m.a.. Rectory, Angmering. 

Paine, Cornelius, Esq., 9, Lewes Crescent, Brighton. 

♦Paine, W. D., Esq., Cockshott Hill, Reicate. 

Pakenham, The Honble. Admiral, Franklyns, Haywards Heath. 

Papillon, T., Esq., Crowhurst Park, Battle. ^ 

Paris, G. de, Esq., 13^ Denmark Terrace, Montpellier Road, Brighton, 

Parish, Rev. Chancellor W. D., Selmeston. 

Parkins, Thos. Esq., M.A., F.B.a.8., Halton, Hastings. 

Parrington, Rev. Canon, m.a., Chichester. 

Parsons, J. L., Esq., Wallands, Lewes. 

Parsons, John, Esq., Priory Crescent, Lewes. 

Parsons, Thos., Esq., Lewes. 

Patching, Mr. E. C., Worthing. 

Pattison, H. J., Esq., Avenue Elmers, Surbiton, London. 

Peachey, W., Esq., Ebemoe, Petworth. 

Pearoe, Charles, Esq., Lindfield Place, Lindfield. 

Pearless, J. R., Esq., Northleigh, East Grinstead. 

*Penfold, Hugh, Esq., Rustington, Worthing. 

♦Peckham, Rev. Harry J., Biddenden, Staplehurst. 

Perry, Robt. H., Esq., 39, Regency Square, Brighton. 

Philpot, Rev. W. B., South Bersted Vicarage, Bognor. 

Phillipps, Mr. John, Worthing. 

♦Pitman, Rev. Prebendary T., m:.a., Eastbourne. 

♦Plowes, John Henry, Esq., 39, York Terrace, Regent's Park, London, n.w. 

Pocock, Crawford J., Esq., 24, Cannon Place, Brighton. 

Polhill, R. C, Esq., 1, Grange Villa, Furnace Road, Eastbourne. 

Powell, Rev W., M.A., Newick. 

Powell, James D., Esq., High Hurst, Newick. 

Powell, Chas., Esq., Speldhurst, Tunbridge Wells. 

Powell, Rev. Richmond, M.A., South Stoke Rectory, Arundel. 

Powell, J. C, Esq., Selsfield, East Grinstead. 

Price, John E., Esq., F.8.A., 60, Albion Road, Stoke Newington, London. 

Prince, C. L., Esq., f.r.a.8., Crowborough Beacon, Tunbridge Wells. 

Pratt, J. C, Esq., Highfield, Seddlescombe. 

Pullinger, Mr. E., Lewes. 

Qnaritch, Mr. Bernard, 15, Piccadilly, London. 

Ramsbotham, James, Esq., Warren, Crowborough, Tunbridge Wells. 
Raper, R. G., Esq., Chichester. 



LIST OF MEMBEBS. ZXXIU 

Baper, W. A., Esq., Battle. 

Bead, Bev. T. F. B., Bectory, Withyham. 

Beeve, J. J., Esq., Newhaven. 

Benshaw, T. C, Esq., Sandrocks, Haywards Heath. 

Bice, Mr. B. Garraway, Acar Lodge, Bramley Hill, Croydon. 

Bichardson, Bev. W. E., Bectory, Southover. 

Bidffe, L. W., Esq., 7, Upper Woburn Place, London, w.c. 

*Bobert8on, Bev. Divie, m.a.. Vicarage, Henfield. 

Bobertflon, Dr. Lockhart, Hanover Square, London. 

Bobertson, Patrick F., Esq., Halton House, Hastings. 

Bobinson, A., Esq., West Lavant House, Chichester. 

Bock, James, Esq., Clare House, T unbridle, Kent. 

Boots, G., Esq., F.S.A., 2, Ashley Place, Pimlico. 

♦Boper, P. C. S., Esq., P.L.S., f.g.s., Belgrave House, Eastbourne. 

Bose, Colonel Holden, The Ferns, Wivelsfleld. 

Boss, Henry, Esq., P.8.A., Chestham Park, Henfield. 

Bosseter, Mrs., Iiord Manor. 

Boswell, Mr. Edward Henry Webb, Lewes. 

Bound, J., Esq., 15^ Brunswick Terrace, Brighton. 

Boyston, Bev. Peter, m.a., Coates Bectory, Whittlesea, Peterborough. 

Bush, Bev. Henry John, m.a.. Haute Terre, Haywards Heath. 

Bussell, Mr. Albion, Lewes. 

Butter, Josh., Esq., m.d., Codrington House, Western Boad, Brighton. 

Bussell, Bev. J. C, m.a. 

Saint, Bev, J. J., m.a., Groombridge. 

Sandham, Bev. J. M., m.a. Coldwaltham, Pulborough. 

♦Sawyer, Fred. E., Esq., F.M.8., 66, Buckingham Place, Brighton. 

Sawyer G. D., Esq., p.b.m.s., 66, Buckingham Place, Brighton. 

♦Sawyer, Mr. John, 29, St. George's Boad, Brighton. 

Sawyer, Mr..W. Clarkson, Springfield, Preston, Brighton. 

Saxby, Mr. H., Lewes. 

Sclater, James H., Esq., Newick. 

Scott, M. D., Esq., m.p., 19, Lansdowne Place, Hove, Brighton. 

Scott, Sir James Sibbald David, Bart., f.s.a., Cornwall Gardens, Queen's Gate, 

London, s.w. 
Scott, Bev. Samuel Gilbert, St. Saviour's Vicarage, Battersea Park, London, s.w. 
Scrivens, G., Esq., 9, Pelham Place, Hastings. 
Selmes, James, Esq., Lossenham, Ashford. 
Sergison, Warden, Esq., The Park, Cuckfield. 
Sharp, M. B., Esq., 3, North Grove, Highgate, N. 
Sharp, Miss Lavinia, The Firs, Kingston-on-Thames. 
Sheffield, The Earl of, Sheffield Place, Fletching. 
Shenstone, F. S., Esq., Sutton Hall, Barcombe. 
Shepperd, Bev. H., 9, First Avenue, Brighton, West. 
Shiffner, Bev. Sir G. Croxton, Bart., m.a., Coombe Place, Lewes. 
Shoppee, C. J., Esq., 61, Doughty St., Mecklenburgh Square, London. 
Simmons, Mr. T., Lewes. 
Simmons, H., Esq., Seaford. 
Slack, H. J., Esq., Ashdown Cottage, Forest Bow. 
Smith, A. W., Esq., Kent House, Bye. 
Smith, Mrs. Francis, Salt Hill, Chichester. 
Smith, Mrs. Henry, St. John's House, Chichester. 
Smith, Mr J. Bussell, 36, Soho Square, London. 
Smith, Mr. W. J., North Street, Brighton. 
Smith, Mrs. Catsfield Place, Battle. 
Smith, Edward, Esq., Battle. 

Smith, O. A., Esq., Hammerwood Lodge, East Grinstead. 
Smith, J. Maxfield, Esq., Hill House, Lewes. 
Smith, J. P. M., Esq., 118, Western Bead, Brighton. 
Smythe, Lewis, Esq., m.d., Lewes. 



XXXIY SUSSEX ABOHAEOLOGIOAL SOOIETY. 

^Snaith, Miss Elizabeth, 41, Cambridge Road, Brighton. 

Snewin, Mr. H. E., Park Road, Worthing. 

Soames, A. W., Esq., 3, The Mount, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Speaker, Right Hon. The,, k.c.b., m.f., Glynde. 

♦Sperling, Rev. J. H., m.a., Cranhill, Bath. 

Spratley, J. S., Esq., 153, Campbell Road, Bow, London. 

Springate, A., Esq., Ashfield Lodge, Hawkhurst. 

Spnrrell, H., Esq., 22, Lusbington Road, Eastbourne. 

Staveley, W. G., Esq., Woldhurst, Crawley. 

Stead, Rev. A., m.a., Ovingdean Rectory, Brighton. 

Stenning, J. C, Esq., HaMord, East Grinstead. 

*Stenning, A. H., Esq., Halsford, East Grinstead. 

Stone, F. W., Esq., Charlton Lodge, Tunbridge Wella. 

Stone, Mrs., The Rectory, Brightung. 

Streatfeild, R. J., Esq., The Rocks, Uckfleld. 

Strickland, Mr. Geo., Hailsham. 

Strickland, Mr. W., Hailsham. 

Summers, Rev. Walter, Danehill Rectory, Uckfleld. 

Sutton, Rev. Prebendary R. S., m.a., Rype Rectory, Hawkhurst. 

Sutton, Rev. Prebendary R., M.A., Pevensey. 

Swainson, Rev. Canon, d.d., Chichester. 

*Swift, John Esq., Southflelds, Eastbourne. 

i 

Tabor, Rev. R. S., m.a., Hawkwell Place, Pembury. 

.Tatham, Etev. R. R., b.d., Vicarage, Dallington. 

Taylor, W., Esq., Glenleigh, Westham, Eastbourne. 

Terry, Mrs. Hannah, 66, Burgate St., Canterbury. 

Thomas, W. Brodrick, Esq., 62, Wimpole St., London. 

Thomas, Mr. David, 63, King's Road, Brighton. 

Thomas, Rev. S. Webb, M.A., Southease. 

♦Thompson, T. C, Esq., M.P., Ashdown Park, Forest Row, East Grinstead. 

Thorpe, G. Archibald, Esq., High Croft, Hastings. 

Tillstone, Mr. F. J., Tarra Villa, Preston, Brighton. 

Tillstone, Mr. Harry, Tarra Villa, Preston, Brighton. 

Tindall, W. H., Esq., Tunbridge Wells. 

Tomkins, Rev. R. F., Tortington. 

Tooke, Mrs. Cheval, Hurston Clays, East Grinstead. 

*Tourle, J. J., Esq., 13, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London. 

Trew, Mrs., Steyning. 

Tribe, W. Foard, Esq., The Manor House, Broadwater, Worthing. 

Trower, C. P., Esq., 7, Kensington Gate, London. 

Tudor, Rev. Owen L., 11, Cambridge Terrace, Eastbourne. 

Turing, Sir Robt., Chilgrove, Chichester. 

Turing, Lady, Chilgrove. 

Turner, W. W., Esq., Seaford. 

Turner, Thos., Esq., Hilliers, Petworth. 

Turner, Rev. Thos. R., m.a., Lingfleld Road, Wimbledon. 

Turner, Richard, Esq., Lewes. 

Twycross, George F., Esq., Jun., Dry Hill Park, Tunbridge, Kent. 

Tyacke, Nicholas, Esq., m.d., Chichester. 

Tyler, W. H., Esq., 14, Leinster Terrace, Hyde Park, London. 

*Wagner, H., Esq., P.8.A., 13, Half-Moon St., Rccadilly, London, W. 

Walker, Rev. G. A., M.A., Chidham, Emsworth. 

*Walker, Ven. Archdeacon, Chichester. 

*Wallis, G. A., Esq., 14, Seaside Road, Eastbourne. 

Warde, Rev. A. W., Little Horsted. 

Warden, H., Esq., Oakfield Court, Grove Hill Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

Warner, Rev. J., M.A., Rectory, Seddlescombe. 

Warren, J., Esq., ll.b., b.a., Handcross Park, Crawley. 



UST OF MEMBERS. XXXY 

Warren, E., Esq., Manor House, Streatham. 

Warren, Eeginald A., Esq., Preston Place, near Worthing. 

Waterlow, A. J., Esq., Great Doods, Reigate. 

Watson, Col. W. H., Capron House, Midhurst. 

Wauffh, Edward, Esq., Cucklield. 

Wedd, G., Esq., Charmandean, Worthing, and 51, Queen's Gardens, London, w. 

Weekes, Geo., Esq.,' Carey Hall, Hurstpierpoint. 

Weir, Harrison, Esq., Weirleigh, Brenchley. 

Weir, J. Jenner, Esq., f.l.8., S, Haddo Villas, Blackbeath. 

Welfare, Mrs., Bottingdean. 

Weller, T. E., Esq., Langport Villa, Spring Grove, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Wellesley, Lady Victoria Long, West Stoke House, Chichester. 

Wells, Arthur, Esq., St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Wetherell, N., Esq., Pashley, Hawkhurst. 

Wetherell, Major Eichard, 12, Lansdown Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

Wheatley, G. W., Esq., Charlwood House, Charl^ood, Surrey. 

Whistler, Eev. R. F., M.A., The Vicarage, Ashbumham. 

Whitehead, T. M., Esq., 8, Duke St., St. James', London, w. 

Whitelock, Rev. Benjamin, m.a., Groombridge. 

Whitfeld, Geo., Esq., Lewes. 

Wilkinson, P. Richard, Esq., 7, Marlborough Place, Brighton. 

Willett, Henry, Esq., p.g.s., Arnold House, Brighton. 

Willett, Rev. F., Bedales Hill, Lindfleld. 

Williams, W. J., Esq., 17, Middle Street, Brighton. 

Willcock, J. H., Esq., 1, Denmark Terrace, Brighton. 

Winham, Rev. D., m.a.. Western House, Brighton. 

*Wisden, Lieut.-Col., The Warren, Broadwater, Worthing. 

Wolff, Henry William, Esq., High St., Lewes. 

Wood^ A., Esq., The Laurels, Horsham. 

Wood, H. T., Esq., Fittleworth, Little Bognor, Pulborough. 

Woodman, Thos. C, Esq., 83, Montpellier Road, Brighton. 

Woods, A. W., Esq., 18, Denmark Terrace, Brighton. 

Woods, J. W., Esq., Chilgrove, Chichester. 

Woolner, Thos., Esq., b.a., 29, Welbeck St., Cavendish Square, London, v. 

Wright, R., Esq., A.L.S., Herstmonceux. 

Wright, Alexander J., Esq., Hi^hcroft, Arundel Road, Eastbourne. 

*Wyatt, Hugh Penfold, Esq., Cissbury, Worthing. 

Wyatt, Rev. J. I. Penfold, m.a., j.p., Hawley Parsonage, Famborough. 

Wyndham, Hon. Percy, m.p., Petworth. 

Toung, Edmund, Esq., Steyning. 

Toung, William Blackman, Esq., Grove, St. Leonardj»-on-Sea. 

Toung, Herbert, Esq., Bank Buildings, Hastings. 

*Zouche, Lord Parham, Pulborough. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, &o. 



The Society of Antiquaries of London. 

The Royal and Archaeological Association of Ireland. 

The British Archaeological Association. 

The Cambrian Archaeological Association. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

La Soci^td des Antiquaires de Normandie. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society. 

The Essex Archaeological Society. 

The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 

The Somersetshire Archaeological Society. 

The Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

The United Architectural Societies of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Northampton, 

Bedfordshire, Worcestershire, and Leicestershire. 
The Kent Archaeological Society. 
The Surrey Archaeological Society. 
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Society. 
The Powys-land Club. 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
The Berkshire Archaeological Society. 
The Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 



The State Paper Office. 
The College of Arms. 



Stti3i3ex ^tcJaeoloQical Societg. 



THORNEY ISLAND. 



By the Rev. FREDERICK H. ARNOLD, LL,B. 



The Isle of Thorney, or, as it is usually denominated, 
West Thorney, is situated near the western limit of Sussex. 
As seen from the mainland at Prinsted Point, it may be 
described as lying in the estuary called Chichester Har- 
bour, with the islet of Pilsey to the south, being separated 
from Hayling Island by Emsworth Channel on the west, 
and by Thorney Channel on the east from Chidham, The 
surface is flat, and presents no remarkable features, but 
the prospects towards the north are very extensive and 
beautiful. The heights of Portsdown terminate the view 
in one direction, and in the other appear Bosham Church, 
the spire of Chichester Cathedral and Roche's Hill in the 
distance. 

The Island is now about eight miles in circumference. 
The acreage at the present time of Thorney proper is 
1,008 ; but 178 acres of enclosed land have been recently 
added to the parish,^ making it 1,186. These 178 acres 
are all on the Thorney side of the " Great Deep," which 
forms the parish boundary.^ 

The islet of Pilsey, which lies to the south of Thorney, 
was described in the last century as distant from it about 
a furlong, and when included, under an Act of Parlia- 

1 The Wiclfor embankment was commenced in 1868, and the tide shnt ont on the 
6th Sept., 1870. 

> In 1801 the population was 71. In 1881, 129. 

XXXII. B 



2 THORNEY ISLAND. 

xnent in 1811, as containing 18 acres of land. From the 
inroads of the sea its present area is only between two 
and three acres. 

It has been usually conjectured that Thorney was once 
rather a peninsula than an island,' and doubtless it was 
formerly of much larger dimensions. . Dallaway observes 
that it has considerably diminished, " as is evident from 
the beach and sands at low water on the south-western 
shore," and mentions that " it is probable that a rivulet 
called * Hole-rise,' which had its source in it, with the 
beach as well as Pilsey island, have been disjoined from 
it." In the reign of Edward the Third, it is spoken of 
as having suffered greatly from inroads of the sea, 
and such encroachments have continued to the present 
time. A century ago, where there is now from fourteen 
to sixteen feet of water between Thorney and Chidham, 
a man on horseback could ride across.* The approach to 
it from Emsworth was then by a causeway passable at 
low water for horses and carriages. " At spring tides 
only, the water ran out entirely ; at other times, at two 
places called the * Great and Little Deeps,' the water 
was nearly half-leg deep at low water, which the inhabi- 
tants were obliged to ford."* 

Derivation. In Domesday the place-name is written 
" Tomei," and it subsequently occurs as Thomeia, 
Thomei, Thome, and Dorney. It doubtless signifies the 
Island of Thorns — from thorn, the hawthorn, and ey an 
island. This etymon also appears evident, from com- 
paring with it other Thorney Islands of great historical 
interest. The Monastery of Thorney or Westminster, 

> The attachmenfc of Thorney to the coast in ancient times is matter for geolo^ 
gical investigation. Diodoms Sicnlns records of ''the islands lying between 
Europe and Britain that at high tides the intervening passage being flooded they 
seem islands ; but at the low tides the sea returning, and leaving the intervening 
space dry, they appear peninsulas." He also mentions that, in his days, this was 
the case even with the Isle of Wight, *' Between Ictis and the mainland at low 
tides, the intervening space being laid dry — ^qva^tip*vfopivov rod lura^if rdnov — 
they carry thither in waggons the tin, in great abundance. 

* Longcroft. Hundred of Bosmere, p. 804. 

» " Gentleman's Magazine," 1797, Vol. LXVI, p. 722. There was then no ferry 
boat or public house in the island. Traditions on this point are preserved. An 
old inhabitant stated that " He had heard people say there used to be hard solid 
ground between Thorney and Hayling before the ocean broke through. When that 
was he supposed the books would tell us ! " 



THORN ET ISLAND. 3 

was built on an " Island of the Thames at a little dis- 
tance from the Western gate of London, which from the 
dense bushes and thickets with which it was covered, 
received the name of Thorney,"* and to another Thorney 
Island in the fens of Cambridgeshire, as is well known, 
Hereward retreated when the Saxons made their last 
stand against the Conqueror, in the Camp of Refuge. 
Leland, in a passing visit to Hampshire, observes — " I 
saw Warblington and opposite to it the two islands, the 
larger called Haling,^ the lesser Thornej from the thorns 
growing on it."® 

In the " Chronicle of Bnglande, Scotlande & Irelande 
1577," Raphael Holinshed has a quaint notice of the 
Western extremity of Sussex, in which Thorney is also 
mentioned. " Taking my journey toward the Wight I 
must needs passe by Selsey, which sometime as it should 
seeme hath been a noble yland but now a Bytad or Penin- 
sula, wherein the chiefe Sie of the Byshop of Chichester 
was holden by the space of 329 yeres, & under 20 
Byshops. Next unto this we come unto those that lye 
betweene the Wight & the mayne land, of which the 
most easterly is called Thome & to say truth y® very 
least of al that are to be founde in that knotte, being 
past the Thome we touched upon the Haling, which is 
bigger than the Thorne." 

Manorial History. Of Thorney in Saxon times no 
notice appears in any of the Charters extant. In Domes- 
day there is only a brief and indistinct record. Tomei 
is described as in the hundred of Berie, and in the eccle- 
siastical part of Bosham, held formerly of Edward the 
Confessor, by Osberne Bishop of Exeter, who then held 
it of the Conqueror. Of this Malger held twelve hides 
in Thorney, and a priest is specially mentioned."® 

' Waoe, the Norman poet, seems to have been mach puzzled as to how to pro- 
nounce the word. With him Thorney i» Zonee. 

'* Zonee oo' est en engliez 
Isle 'd' espine en franoeiz." 

' It may be noted that Hayling, the sister island, so to speak, had originally a 
similar ending — Halingei, Helinghei, Helingey. 

' Near ** Marker," in the western part of the island, the hawthorns, whioh grew 
there in abundance, hare been but recently cut down. 

' " Osbem eps ten. de rege eoclesiam de Boseham — Malger ten. de terra hujus 
eoolesias iii. hid. Ibi habet xxxu vill. cum riii, car." 



4 THORNEY ISLAND. 

As a sub-infeudation of the manor of Bosham,^^ it will 
be pertinent to our subject only to consider such particu- 
lars as relate mainly to the island, of these we glean 
some interesting facts from Inquisitions, Rolls, and the 
Poll Tax of 1677. 

After the death of Eoger Bygod, Earl of Norfolk and 
Earl Marshal of England, an inquisition was taken at 
Funtington, on the 25th day of December, 35 Edward 
I., before John de Rotham and others, and they said upon 
their oaths, that Roger le Bygod, held on the day of his 
death, the manor of Stoke, in the County of Sussex, of 
the Bishop of Exeter by the service of one knight's fee ; 
and also the manor of Thorney, by the service of the 
third part of a knight's fee, detailing the particulars of 
the land and value in Thorney. 

To the Lord of Bosham " the tenants then rendered 
23 hens at the Nativity of the Lord, & 7 hens at Easter, 
which were worth 2s. 6d., the price of a hen being one 
penny. They also rendered at Easter 35 eggs, worth one 
penny ; & at the feast of mid-lent, 700 oysters, worth 
per annum 3^d ; the price of a hundred being one half- 
penny."^^ 

From the NonsB Roll, so often quoted in parochial 
histories, we get a good account of the condition of 
Thorney in 1 341 . The receiver of this subsidy appointed 
for Sussex was Henry Gerland Dean of Chichester, who 
subsequently had the Dean of Battle appointed in his 
place, and on the 14th of March the commissioners 
attended at Chichester to receive the returns for the dis- 
trict. In the previous year Parliament had granted to 
King Edward III. the ninth lamb, the ninth fleece, the 
ninth sheep, and the fifteenth of the goods and chattels 
of merchants not Hving in cities or boroughs. 

^® The paramount manor included anciently the mesne manors of Chidham, 
Thorney, Fnnting^n, West Stoke, a part of Appledram, and a hide at Ichenor. 
Its descent has been detailed by Longcrof t, *' Bosham/' — Havant Press, 1867. 

11 In the 18th year of Edward I. the Bishop of Chichester had free warren in the 
Island. 



THOBNBY ISLAND. O 

INQUISITIONES NONARUM. Com. Sussex 
« THORNEYE." XV. Ed. III. 

This Indenture witnesseth that an Inquisition was taken at Chichester 
on the Wednesday after the festival of S. Gregory in the 15^ year of 
the reign of Edward, the Third after the Conquest of England, before 
Uenry Husee, and his fellow collectors & assessors, of the ninths of 
sheaves, fleeces, & lambs, & the fifteenths in the County of Sussex, 
granted to our Lord the King according to a commission directed to the 
said Henry & his fellows, upon the oath of Clement le Lord, John 
Wylekyn, John le Borgeys, & Clement Hardyng, parishioners of Thomey 
— who say that the ninth part of sheaves of the same parish is worth 
this year xiiij marks iij? iiij? the ninth part of fleeces vj? viij? , the ninth 
part of lambs xl^ And thus the sum total of the ninths of sheaves, 
fleeces & lambs is xv marks. They also say that the aforesaid ninths 
cannot answer to or reach the taxation aforesaid, because the rector of 
the Church there has one messuage with a garden w^ is worth twenty 
shillings a year. He hath also Lxiiij acres of plough land worth £8. 0. 
per annum whence the aforesaid Church is endowed. He hath also 
pasture for sheep, and other animals of his, worth vi* viij^ per annum. 
He hath also free rents worth xx" per annum. He hath also the small 
tithes, viz, on geese, including pigs, calves, chicken, sheep, hemp, flax, 
pigeons, milk, also the tithes of a mill, the oblations for the dead, the 
ofierings for the purification of women, & the tithes of eggs, cheese, & 
fish taken in small boats, w^ together are worth per annum XLij? They 
also state that there were in the same parish xx acres of arable land, & 
20 acres of pasture formerly worth Liij? iiij? but now of no account 
owing to the flowing & devastation of the sea. They also say that the 
value of the aforesaid ninths, for the causes enumerated, & owing to the 
taxation of the said Church cannot in any way be reached. They also 
state that there are no Cardinal benefices nor other religious endow- 
ments, nor any others whatever, nor are there any merchants, but those 
only hold the land who live upon their own land & by their own hard 
labour. 

In witness whereof <&c. 

The Commissioners appointed for Sussex were 

Henry Husee 
Andrew de Medsted 
John de Covert 
John de Mitford S. 

William de Seffyngham after June viii. in place of John de 
Covert 

On Nov. 3, 1411, a subsidy was granted by **his poor 
Commons " to King Henry IV., and in this Koll tfohn 
Felham is mentioned as ^^ having manors, lands, &c., 
which were lately the Earl Marshall's & now in his 
custody by virtue of a grant of our Lord the King 



6 THOBNEY ISLAND. 

worth yearly beyond reprises £138| these included the 
manor of Thorney, worth £6.'*^* 

In a Parliamentary survey, " Perfitted the 26*** of 
November 1651," Thorney is described as a liberty within 
the Hundred of Bosham and as paying a Common fine 
of VsJ» 

Of the names and rating of the inhabitants of West 
Thorney in the reign of Charles II. we have a full account 
in a Poll Tax of the time subscribed as— 

*< A trae Coppie of the List or Schedule of such Bamms of money as 
were rated, assessed & collected within the Rape of Chichester, in the 
County of Sussex (yizt) ffrom the Cittie of Chichester. Bnrrough of 
Middhnrst, Towne of Westhome. And allsoe uppon every Tything 
and Libtie in every Hundred within the said Rape, By Yertue of a late 
Act of Parliam^*, Intituled, An Act for raiseing monyes by a Pole & 
otherwise towarde the Mayntenance of the present Warr. 

The eygth day of Aprill 1667. And certefyed into his Maye's 
Receipt of Exchequer under the Hande & Scales of the Com'* Mencone 
in & by the aforesaid Act of Parliam** whose names were thereunto 
Subscribed. 

The Twentieth Day of Aprill in the Nineteenth yeare of the Raigne 
of our Souvraigne Lord Kinge Charles the Second. Ye Annoq. Dm 
1667. 

John Cooke, gent, ye pol 

Andrew Hargood do. 

Jane Hargood do. 

Jane Rumney do. 

Theophilns Cooke do. ... 

Tho*- Roman & Mary his wife ye pol 

Tho» Pitt do. 

Anne Higgins do. 

John Lange & Anne his wife do. 

Elizabeth Lange do. 

Elizabeth Bnrrise do. 

Theodore Styler do. 

Rich^* Bolton & Raltliffe his wife do. 

Elizabeth Gray do. 

Tho'* Roman & Anne his wife do. 

Tho>- Trott & Ellinore his wife do. 

Frances Goldringe ye pol 

Stephen Goldringe & Elizabeth his wife ... 

Robert Whicher do. 

W^* Gillbert & Anne his wife do. 

John Apsley & Joane his wife ... 

» S. A. C, X, 133. 1* S. A. C.y XXIII, 225. 



•*• 



£ 


8. 


d. 


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02 


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06 


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03 


00 


00 


03 


00 



THOBNEY ISLAND. 



John Hargood & Elizabeth his wife 

Anne Browne ye pol... 

Thomas Higgins* do. 

James Higgins do. 

Joane Hewes do. 

Clement Trott do. 

John Gompton & Barbara his wife 

Tho>- Bhepheard & Ellinore his wife 

Bich^* Meathew & Alice his wife 

Tho»- Cox. Serv** 6* Wages yanno. do. ... 

John Warren Serv*- 5* Wages do. do. ... 

John Gray Serv** 1* Wages ye anno do. ... 

Elizabeth Mariner Servt. 1* Wages do. do. 

Elizabeth Lee Serv*. 1* Wages D®- Do- ... 

Anne Burt Serv*- 2^ Wages do. do. 

Tho»' Foster Serv*- 5* Wages ye anno ye pol 

Mathew Tiipper D®- 2* Wages do. do. ... 

Clement Styler D®* 2* Wages do. do. 

£ 
George Gray Do- 2 do. do. do. 00 08 00 

Tho»- Sefton 4 Wages Do. Do. 00 05 00 

£ 
John Trott Do. 3 Wages do. do. 00 04 00 

£ 
Rich^- Lange serv*- 2 Wages do. 
Joseph Shepheard serv*- 2 Wages do. 
John Styler serv*- £3 Wages do. 
Anne Appsley serv*- ye pol 
Will"*- Wilkenson Do. £2 Wages do. 

£ 
John Constant Serv^ 5 wages do. do. 00 06 00 

£ 
John Taylor Do- 1 wages do. do. 00 02 00 

£ 
W™- Ray Do. 4 wages do. do. 00 05 00 

£ 
Edward Meale Do. 3 wages do. do. 00 04 00 

£ 
Sarah Darman Ser?^ 2 wages do. do. 

Tho"- Cook ye pol ... ... .... 

Children under 16 years of age. 
John Gray ye pol 
John Rithe do. ... ... 

Mary Wheeler ye pol... 
W™- Gilbert do. ... 

Jane Gilbert do. ... 

John Lange do. 

Rebecca Higgins do. 



do. 


00 


03 


00 


do. 


00 


03 


00 


do. 


00 


04 


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... 


00 


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.•• ••• 



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8 



• 


THORN BY ISLAND. 












£ 


s. 


d. 


John Trott 


po 1... ••«. ••• 


00 


01 


00 


Elizabeth Lange do. ... 


00 


01 


00 


Sara Osborne 


do. ... ... ••• 


00 


01 


00 


Anne Apsley 


do. ... •.. 


00 


01 


00 


Tho»- Graye 


do. ... ... ... 


00 


01 


00 


Eobert Graye 


do. ••• ... ••• 


00 


01 


00 


Bich<L Bolton 


do. ... 


00 


01 


00 


Elizabeth Whicherdo. 


00 


01 


00 


John Taylor" 


uo. ... .•• ... 


00 


01 


00 




ANDREW HARGOODl . 
TH08- HIGGIN f assessors 





TH08- ROMAN JUN»- ) r. n * 
TjjQB. PITT 1 ^^"®^'^" 



In MSS. Smythe preserved in Berkeley Oastle, co. 
Gloucester, dated a.d» 1637, we have an exact account 
of this part of the manor of Bosham considered sepa-* 
rately. 

** Thomey is commonly reputed a manor of Bosham, 
yet it is a little manor of itself consisting of 83 acres of 
copyhold land there, beside the farm of Thorneye and 
seven messuages, which upon death or surrender pay 
their best goods for an heriot, whose fines are arbitrable 
at the will of the lord, which difFereth from all the rest 
of the manor ; but now three manors by coparceners, 
whereby the rectory of Thorneye still remaineth as a 
badge, whereto Lord Berkeley presented every third 
turn. The inhabitants here are within the law day or 
leet of Bosham, and on their copies are these words — 
* ad voluntatem Domini^* w*^^ Bosham and Buckf old admit 
not." 

The other manors are Thomey Aglands and Thorney 
Bickley subdivisions, as originally one manor only is 
noticed in Domesday. Thomey Aglands belonged to the 
College of Bosham, or to the Bishop of Exeter, as Dean 
and at the suppression was seized by the Crown. This 
manor with a third turn of the Advowson was sold by 

1* The names which most frequently occur in the earliest Thomey Register and 
continue for nearly two hundred years are Hargood, Pitt, Trott, Styler, Lange, 
Bolton, Hunt, Qray, Ac, and with one or two exceptions every name mentioned in 
this Poll Tax is to be found in the Register. 



THOBNEY ISLAND. 



9 



Eichard Fishere to Sir Gregory Norton in 1633, and 
again in 1652 by Sir Henry Norton to William Baldwyn, 
gent. In 1666 Thomas Bickley, Bsq./^ of Chidham, pur- 
chased it of the last mentioned, whose heir, Brune 
Bickley, M.D., of New College, Oxford, transferred his 
whole property in 1720, and by mesne assignments it was 
held by George Parker Farhill, Clerk in 1769. Ifc thence 
passed to Robert Harfield, gent, and from him, by pur- 
chase, to the present proprietor, P. Padwick, Esq. 

Thorney Bickley belonged to Thomas Bickley in 1594, 
36 Eliz., from which circumstance it acquired that name, 
and as connected with the estate of Chidham, held by 
that family, was purchased by Richard Barwell, Esq., of 
Stansted.^* 

The Advowson. Of this the earlier history is somewhat 

" In answer to tho memorable " Test" questions of James II., he replied " That 
provided the Church of England be secured in all her legall rights and possessions, 
he shall be for abrogating the penal laws and Tests against Becnsants/' — S. A. 0. 
XXXI, 6 ; vide Macaulay ii, 329. 

1* In his Worthies of Sussex^ Lower, speaking of Thomas Bickley, Bishop of 
Chichester, who died unmarried at Aldingbourne, April 30, 1596, has made a 
strange mistake. ** Unmarried bishops used to take care of brothers and 
nephews,'' he sajs, and then continues — '* I think Henry Bickley, of Chidham (ob. 
1570), and Thomas Bickley, of Thorney (whose son, Thomas, held a lease of the 
episcopal manor of Aldingbourne in 1660) " — half a century later — " were 
brothers of our prelate." If so we have the singular circumstance that the Bishop 
had a brother whose Christian name was the same as his own. Henry Bickley, 
too, had been dead nearly fifteen years before the accession of Bishop Bickley to 
the see, which did not take place until 1585. According to the subjoined pedigree 
the family appears to have been connected with Sussex for some time pre- 
viously : — 

BiCKLET. 



Henry Bickley^ 
of Chidham, 
ob. 1570, 80t.67. 



Thomas Bickley= 

1594, 

of Thorney. 



Anthony Bickley=f= 



r 



I 

Thomas Bickley^p 

lessee of Ald- 
ingbourne, 
1660. 



Brune Bickley, M.D.^=Cicely dr. of 

Devenish 
Byman, of 
Apuldram. 



Fellow of New 
Coll. Oxon. 



I 

William Bickley, 

1670. 



I ■ 1 

Henry Bickley = Margaret dr. of . . . 1 . Thomas. 

of Chidham, ob. 1700. 2. Anne. 

ob. 1707. 



XXXIf. 







10 THOBNEY ISLAND. 

complicated. It is a rectory within the deanery of 
Boxgrove, originally well endowed with glebe amounting 
to 64 acres of arable, pasture for sheep on the common, 
and certain copyhold rents, particularized in the Nonae 
Roll. In the Lib. Reg. it is valued at £10 8s. 4d.^'^ One 
third turn in the advowson from the earliest time was 
annexed to the lordship of Bosham, and the other two 
were presented by the Bishop of Exeter,^ as dean of 
that College. Of the two turns, since they were sold by 
the Bickleys in 1720, the proprietorship passed through 
several conveyances and settlements to John Willis, 
Clerk in 1783, by whom they were sold to Eichard 
Barwell, Esq., of whose trustees they were purchased by 
James Piggott, Esq. The advowson subsequently be- 
longed to the relatives of the Bev. C. P. Lyne, by whom 
it was sold to F. Padwick, Esq. 

By an Act of Parliament in 1811^ for the enclosure of 
the open and common fields of the parish, one fifth of 
the arable land and one eighth of meadow and pasture 
were allotted to the rector in lieu of all tithes, beside the 
glebe which amounts to 48 statute acres. 

The Church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, the patron 

17 Some agreements with the Bishop of Exeter are on record, 1271. " Adam de 
Chathal cum Ep'o Ezon' de conventione Thorneye molend' et ecclie adroc. 

Edw. II. *' Bog* atte Water pro Epo* Ezon' Thomey juzta Chndhamme et Ifeld 
de messnag* et terr' ibm. 

" W. Epns Ezon' finem fecit cnm B. "^ dimid' mr* p licenc' recip' de Rogo Atte 
Watere et Cecilia nzre ejus qnasdam tras et qaesdam ten* cnm ptin in Thorneye 
jnzta Chndham in com' Snssez q' de ipso e po tenent. Bo. 16. 

Valor Eccles. Westhomey. Hen. yjll. 

Willmns Shote rector ibm et valet ^ 
clare per annii cnm omibns proficius 
nltra zviij** solnt* ejo Cicestren' pro 
sinod' anni iij* iiij^ solnt' dicto e^o pro 
procuracone annua, et vij* solnt' archi. 
diacono Cicestren' annnatim pro pro- 
curacone , 

£ s. d. 
Inde xma zx z. 

IS In 2 Edw. YI. Thomas Hawkins, gentleman purchased of the Bishop of Ezeter 
the manor with the advowson. — Burretl M8S. 

1' Before this Act the land was parcelled out into a great number of small hold, 
ing^. Half an acre, &o., a ** stitch of land/' and a " hilf of land " are terms re- 
peatedly mentioned in old deeds. The principal fields are still nearly all called by 
the names given to them two or three hundred years ago, and most of these are 
mentioned in the parish registers. 



£ 8. d. 

z. vij. ij. 




i 



Font of West Thurnev CHnRcH. 



THOJBNEY ISLAND. 11 

saint of mariners.^ ^ It was probably built in the time of 
Warlewaste, Bishop of Exeter, upon his establishment of 
the College of Bosham, in the reign of Henry I., and 
additions have been made at later periods. As compared 
with other churches in the neighbourhood, it is of un- 
usual length, being 120 feet by 20 feet in breadth. In 
the North Wall are some Early English arches, which 
shew the existence at one time of an aisle or chantry 
chapel. Several of these have been recently re-opened 
by P. H. Padwick, Esq., and are worthy of especial 
notice. A doorway in this wall is surmounted by 
beautiful dog-tooth ornamentation. There is a massive 
tower at the west end.^^ 

The interior has an elegantly carved screen, separating 
the nave from the chancel. On the lower part of this, 
on the left, is a linen roll with two small shields ; but no 
arms, or anything to denote who placed them there. 
The chief object of interest in the Church is the font, of 
which, from a western view, an engraving is given. 
It is raised on two rude layers of stone, and is of cylin- 
drical form, encompassed by thirteen compartments. 
Twelve of these are conjectured to have reference to the 
Apostles. The largest has a chevron or zigzag orna- 
ment. It belongs evidently to the Norman period. 

At present there is only one bell, without an inscrip- 
tion ; formerly there was one inscribed -f IHESUS.^^ 

That the Church, which is now so close to the shore, 
was originally much farther from it scarcely admits of 
doubt. Within the memory of an old inhabitant there 
was a broad road outside the churchyard^ railings on 
the east, on ground as high as that now left, forming 

*• John Croft of 6th March, 1543 — "my body, Ao., in the churchyard of 

St, Nicholas of Thomey.'* William Bonnye, " of the parish of St. Nicholas in the 
IsU of Thomey, husbandman, 26th Feb., 1558."— S. A. C. XII, 79. 

'1 From the large size of the Church, with respect to the population and the great 
length of the chancel, it has been supposed that there was once a priory or other 
religions house on the island. There is, however, no documentary evidence of 
this. Yet large .stones have been met with near the site of the present Rectory, 
which may have belonged to such a structure. A very probable conjecture has 
been formed that a commencement was ma,de ; but from divers reasons — ^possibly 
the want of water — the building was not proceeded with. 

*» S. A. C. XVI, 226. 

^ In the churchyard on the N.E. side some very large skeletons were exhumed, 
in considerable number, perhaps thotie of Danish invaders slain in combat. 



12 THOBNBT ISLAND. 

part of a field called " the eleven acre piece." Funerals 
always formerly went by this road, and came into the 
churchyard through a little gate on the east side.^ 
Even since 1845 the sea has encroached very much 
along the shore on the south and east. 

The following is a list of the Incumbents : — 





THORNEY. 




DATE OP 


m 




ADMISSION. 


INOUMBBNTS. HOW VACANT. 


PATRONS. 


1308. 


1 

Stephen de Molendinis^ 


The Crown. 


1376. 


Johannes Persona de 
Thorney 


Bishop of Exeter. 


1408. 


Stephen Anstevall 




1409. 


Eobert Daprechecourt^* 


The Crown. 


1415. 


John Kysseton 




1484. 


Philip Smyth 




1496. 


John Cloos 




1549. 


William Mills 


Bishop of Exeter, 
with the consent of 
theDean and Chap, 
ter of Chichester. 


1571. Apl. 12 Henry Blaxton27 


The Crown. 


1591. 


John Scull 




16. . 


John Cookers 




16.. 


George Goater^^ 




1681. 


William Rawlins , 


Charles Berkeley, 
Esq. 


1684. Dec. 7 Nicholas HickesS® 


Thomas Bickley, Esq. 



** Right of way was once claimed over a certain occupation road in Chidham, 
because bodies had been brought from Thorney to be buried in Chidham ; but 
whether they were carried over a ford or in a boat is not now known. 

2* In a list of Sussex Crown Presentations, under Thorney 2 Edw. II., 1308, 
appears the name of Stephen de Molendinis. — S. A. C. XXI, 68. 

2« S. A. C. XXI, 68. 

27 S. A. G. XII, 259. 

** John Cooke, Eector, was buried the Sexto viginti die November in quinto 
viginti yeare of our Souvren Lord Carole Secundo and in the year of our Lord 
Christe millesimo sexcentis septuaginta tertio.*' — Par, Reg, His name heads the 
list of the Poll Tax of 1667. 

*' There is no mention whatever of the name of Goater in the Parish Hegister. 

*® Thomas Bickley, on the death of Kawlins, presented Nicholas Hickes to the 
living in 1684, but this was contested on the ground that it was out of Mr. 
Bickley's turn. An appeal was therefore made to the Crown, and James the 
Second appointed Thomas Hart in 1687, Nicholas Hickes being thus ousted, as 
appears from the Advowson. The times were indeed critical in the year preceding 
the Revolution. We have no means of knowing the political opinions of this in- 
cumbent, but the following Memoranda in the Register relating to his induction 
and reading in are of interest. Mem, that on Ffriday the twelfth day of August 
1 687 and in the third yeare of his Ma"«* reigne Thomas Hart Clerke was inducted 
into the Church of West Thorney in the County cf Sussex by James Stokes Vicar 



THORNET ISLAND. 13 

DATE OF 
ADMISSION. INGUHBENTS. HOW YAGANT. PATRONS. 

1 687. Aug.l2 Thomas Hart The Crown. 

1730.Aug.l7 Francis Bishop, LL.B. death Thomas Frances Richardson. 

Hart 
1760. June 10 Richard Willis, M.A.^i death Francis John Hawkins. 

Bishop 
1785. Jan. 8 James Cooper, B. A. death Richard Frederick Angnstus 

Willis Earl of Berkeley. 

1833.Apl. 12 Charles Philip Lyne, death James Rev. Cornelius 

M.A. Cooper Greene. 

1869. Oct. Francis William death C. P. Frederick Padwick, 

Taylor Lyne Esq. 

The Register begins in 1571. Among the more in- 
teresting entries are these : Baptisms ^ 1608 Anne Lange, 
the daughter of Geo. Lange, was baptised the nine and 
twentieth day of March, being Easter Tuesday that yeare. 

1621. Rebekah Blaxton, daughter of Benjamin 
Blaxton, sonne of Godfrey, was baptised Aprill the 
eighth. The blessed Trinity blesse her. Amen. 

1639. Elizabetha filia Johannis Cooke Rectoris de 
Thorney, baptizata f uit 20 die mensis January. 

1735. Mary Batts, of y® parish of West Thorney, 
baptiz"^ by perswasion, was baptiz"^ Feb. y® 15th. 

1770. Baptized April 15th Richard, son of Richard 
and Anne Haselor. 

Marriages 1572. John Carnby married Margery e Hall. 

1589. Robert Greene was married to Catherine 
Roman, the daughter of Thomas Roman y® 8th of 
January. Juxta computacione EoclesisB Anglicanae. 

of Chidham in the County aforesaid. In witness whereof &C,'' Mem. that upon 
Sunday Che 14* day of August 1687 Annoye. 3. R. Jacobi Scdi. Thomas Hart Rector 
of West Thorney in the County of Sussex read the £pp of the Diocese Certificate 
together with the 39 Articles of the Church of England during Divine Service 
publickly and solemnely giving his assent and consent to the same according to the 
Act of Uniformity and renouncing the solemne league and Covenante according to 
the forme and manner in that Act conteyned, reading the whole service appointed 
in the Church of England both morning and evening the same day giveing his 
assent and consent to all things conteyned in the booke of Comen prayer which 
was done in y« hearing the day and yeare abovesaid 

James Stokes Yicar of Chidham 
Witnesse o^^ hands . . 

Ralph ~® Hunt Churchw. 

m^k Henry StradUng 

'I Dallaway states that Augustus Hupsmann was Rector in 1783 ; but this is 
incorrect, as according to Mr. Fadwick's deeds, James Cooper succeeded him. 



1-t THOENEY ISLAND. 

1591. Jolm Hargood mar. Tomasen Binsted. 

1628. John Higgen, of Blend worth, took to be his 
wife, Rebeccha Higgen, noe hyndred of this p'ish, the 
13th day of October. 

Burials. 1679 was buried Jane, married wiffe to John 
Morrye. 

1620. James Higgens was buried vir probus et 
honestus. 

1624. Ffrancis Roman, the onely childe of Thomas 
Roman, was buried the seven and twentieth day of 
February. Vix quisque male moritur qui bene vixit. 

1639. Robertus, filius Johannis Cooke, reotoris 
sepultus fuit, vicesimo quinto die Novembris. 

1678. For Solenitals for Burials in WoUen, November 
tlie 6th, Thomas Bickley, Esq., one of the King's 
Maiestie's Joustices of the peace for the s^ county of 
Sussex, doe hereby certifie that the day and yeare above 
said — Thomas Trimblett and Ann Surkett came before 
me and mead affidavit as is specified according to a late 
Act of Parliment, intituled an act for Burying in WoUen, 
that Rich^* Surkett was buried in Wollen. 

1743. March 30, Buried Hannah Fuller, accidentally 
drown'd in the wade-way. 

1752. Dec''- 25th, Buried Richard Smith. Drowned in 
the wade-way. 

*1796. John Harfield buried Nov'* 12th. Drowned in 
the wade-way. 

In 1608 it is stated that, " This yeare was the Church 
and Chancell modifyed and beautifyed," and that in 1785 
John Boulton gave £20 to be distributed to the poor of 
the parish. 

♦The monumental stones in the church are to the families 
of Fosbrook, Lyiie and Harfield, and amongst others are 
the following inscriptions : — 

Sacred 

To the memory of 

Mr. John Harfield, 

Who was unfortunately drowned, 

Oct. 29, 1796, 

Aged 42 years. 



THORNEY ISLAND. 15 

Time swept by his fast-flowing tiile 

My faith full partner from my side, 

And you of yours deprived may be, 

As unexpectedly as me. 

Also Sarah, wife of the above 

Mr. John Harfield, 

Who died the 10th of February, 1826, 

Aged 73 years. 

Near the S. door 
Beneath, this stone 
" is buried the body 

Of John Leonard Arthur Lyne, 

The beloved son 

Of Charles Philip Lyne, 

Late of Queen's College, Oxford, 

Rector of this parish : 36 years. 

He departed this life 

January 3"^, a.d., 1843, 

Aged 5 years and 6 months. 

Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven, Matt. 19, c. 14v. 

When the Arcbangel's trump shall blow, 

And souls to bodies join, 

Thousands will wish their lives below 

Had been as short as thine. 

The prebend of Thomey. In 1419, 6. Henry V, William 
Kynewolnersh was presented to the prebend of T homey, 
in Chichester Cathedral. Its value is thus stated : 



Prebend' de Thomey 
Thomas Adished cticus prebend 
arius ibni valet clare per annum 
cum omibus p ficuis et comsditat, 
et dimittitur Thome Yonge per 
indenturam p teriom annor. reddend ^ 



£f. 8. d. 



£f. s. d. 
Inde x™a- — xxiiij — Valor Eccles. 

At that time, in Dean Fleshmonger's Certificate, the 
stall is mentioned as the tenth on the Cantoris side. On 
the misericord is the figure of a hairy tailless beast. 

Until three or four years ago the island was exempt 
from serving on juries, and from paying toll-gates, and 
market tolls in consequence of services rendered by the 
inhabitants to the City of Chichester during the Great 



16 THOKNET ISLAND. 

Plague in 1665. The condition of Chichester whilst this 
terrible visitation raged there has been graphically de- 
scribed by the late Mr. Longoroft, who thus concludes 
his account of it : " The memory of the plague still lives 
in the houses of Bosham, of Ichenor, and of Thorney ; 
and the fisherman as he drifts down the harbour to his 
nightly toil looks back upon the spire of the grand old 
Cathedral, standing out against the Eastern horizon, and 
he tells to his listening boys how the men of Bosham gave 
help and succour, to their brethren of Chichester in the 
hour of their trial and distress."^ 

From its isolated position Thorney was formerly a 
favourite resort of smugglers, who there awaited the re- 
turn of vessels from the other side of the Channel. 
Stories are still told of the church tower having been 
made the receptacle of contraband goods, which were also 
frequently deposited in a building adjacent. Straw ricks 
cut asunder also afforded good hiding places for kegs and 
packages of tea. Within the last sixty years the prac- 
tice has been known to have continued. 

Of Thorney, at the end of the last century,^ a visitor 
thusrecords his experiences. " The houses are in the whole 
about 10, and at a moderate calculation the number of 
inhabitants about 60. The chief production in this island 
is wheat ; of this necessary article great quantities are 
annually sown; with respect to barley, oats, rye, and 
pulse, so much as is requisite for domestic purposes. By 
a particular survey of every part of the island I could 
scarcely discern an oak tree ;'^ elm is the prevailing 
article, which is here produQed in abundance. However, 
hazel which in other places is extremely common, is not 
to be met with. Botanists, too, may receive much grati- 
fication by exploring the plants which are in great 

*2 Longcroft's " Bosham," p. 41. 

" ** Gentleman's Mag.'', Sept. 1796. 

^* The oaks had been felled a few years before. An aged informant states 
that, when he was a boy, Thorney was full of trees. • There were many large elms 
all oyer the island, and an oak-wood with good sized trees on the south. These 
were out down for timber by the different owners. The brown tailed moth, P, 
chrysorrhea, very destructive to trees and shrubs, is on this part of the coast almost 
peculiar to Thorney. In some seasons it commits great ravages ; but fortunately 
does not touch the cereals. 



THORN BY ISLAND. 17 

abundance.^ As to its game I could learn that part- 
ridges and hares are very plenty. On the other hand as 
there are but few covers a pheasant is very rarely seen. 
I was informed by a very intelUgent observer of nature 
who has resided here upwards of 30 years that moles 
never frequented the place."^ 

The island has long been known as a favourite resort 
for migratory birds in spring and autumn, and when in 
severe winters almost hyperborean storms visit this part 
of the south coast, as in Jan. 1881, the heavy boom of 
the wild fowler's gun is still heard around Thorney and 
Pilsey, the hooper or wild swan, the brent goose, and 
many of the smaller anatidcBj seeking shelter from the 
gales, then appear in flocks. These, however, are now 
less numerous than formerly since the reclamation of the 
mudlands. One informant states that the rising wild 
geese seemed to sometimes darken the sky, and another 
relates the circumstance of 103 geese having been once 
killed off Thorney at a single shot.^ In 1799, a writer, 
in the style of Gilbert White, records that " a fowler came 
from Dover and resided with his wife and family in a 
sloop anchored off Pilsea Island, he ventured out with 
his little boat and explored the various fowls that fre- 
quented the coast, his boat being just sufficient to con- 
tain him at full length, and in this posture he moved 
himself along in every direction, his instrument of de- 
struction was nine feet in length, it rested upon the stern 
of the boat, carrying a pound of shot 150 yards with cer- 

'* The Homed Poppy Olaucium luteum and the Sea H0II7 Eryngium maritimutth 
occur. In and about the churchyard abounds the Wild English Clary Salvia verbenaca 
and the Subterranean Trefoil in great luxuriance. Among the littoral gramineas 
are to be found the rare Nit Grass Qastrid/ium Undigenmh, the Sea Barley Hordeum 
mariUmv/mt and the Sea Hard Grass Lepturus Jiliformis, 

^ At present there are no foxes, hedgehogs, moles, snakes, toads, or frogs in 
Thorney, although slow worms are occasionally seen. Of St. Patrick a legend says 
that— 

** He drove the frogs into the bogs 
And bothered the snakes completely " 
Did he ever visit Thorney ? 

'^ Shakespeare seems to have witnessed this pursuit, or to have engaged in it. 

" As wild geese that the creeping fowler eye, 
Or russet pated choughs, many a sort 
Bising and cawing at the gun*s report, 
Sever themselves and madly sweep the sky." 

XXXII. D 



18 THOBNBT ISLAND. 

tainty. In one winter he earned £100. The fishermen 
unable to excel him, called him the Gunner."^ 

In conclusion I gladly take the opportunity of thank- 
ing F. H. Pad wick, Esq., of Thorney, for much of the 
material of this paper which has been unreservedly placed 
in my hands ; and the Eev. F. W. Taylor, for access to 
the registers. 

^ The Hundred of BoBxnere, Uavant Press, 1817. 



r 
X 



THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS, 



By J. L. PAESONS, Esq. 



There is a valuable paper by the late Mr. M. A. Lower, 
on the subject of the Sussex ironworks in Vol. II. of the 
S.A.O., also some further information upon the same 
subject in Vol. III., whilst a number of incidental allu- 
sions are scattered throughout the remaining volumes of 
the series. A reference to these various records will 
enable anyone to gain a general idea of the antiquity 
and of the extent of this now wholly extinct and well- 
nigh forgotten branch of Sussex manufacture; and to 
understand the modus operandi adopted by the Sussex 
ironmasters, which was very different to that adopted by 
their " black country '* successors. Some of the imple- 
ments used in procuring iron ore, and in melting and 
refining the iron, are described, and certain of the most 
celebrated and artistic specimens of ironwork produced in 
Sussex are noticed in these articles ; I believe, however, 
that the following copies of some documents that have 
come into my possession will be found to comprise several 
additional particulars relative to this once important 
branch of local industry; and some details as to the various 
implements used in the iron mills and forges in Sussex, 
which have not before been published. It is not a little 
curious that so important and lucrative a manufacture 
existing for centuries in the county of Sussex spread as 
widely thoughout it, as the lists of mills and forges in- 
serted in this paper will show — an industry commencing 
before the Roman invasion — although the production of 
iron in Sussex is not mentioned in Domesday Book — 
and extending, it is said, to times almost within living 



20 THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS. 

memory — should have left so few traces behind it, and 
that many of these traces should be so faint and uncertain 
as to require searching for by the archasologist, instead 
of being matters of common notoriety in the county. 

Some fresh interest was excited on the subject of 
the Sussex ironworks during the Society's visit to 
Ashbumham in the autumn of last year. On that 
pleasant occasion some of the members visited the site 
of the Ashbumham Iron Forge — the last one, it is said, 
that was worked in Sussex. An old man was met with 
there who spoke of his own recollection of hearing the 
sound of the forge hammer's last blows, and of his 
having himself seen the mill pond drained off and con- 
verted into a hop-garden. The following documents 
relate in part to the decay of the once flourishing manu- 
facture of this county, which commenced at a period 
long prior to that within the range of the personal 
recollection of the ** oldest inhabitant," the decay, 
in fact, commenced soon after 1653. "Whether the 
arguments in favour of Protection, used in the peti- 
tions quoted, prevailed with the King or no, or 
whether the war caused a permanent revival of the iron 
trade, does not appear ; it is certain, however, that the 
work of the Sussex ironmaster died hard, if the manu- 
facture of iron, which was declining at the Restoration, 
survived in Sussex to a date as recent as the evidence of 
the aged inhabitant of Ashbumham would imply. 

The following documents are self-explanatory ; it may, 
however, be advisable to call attention to a few par- 
ticulars contained in them. For instance, it should 
be noticed that although the forge at Ashbumham is in- 
cluded in the list of those which " were ruined before 
1664, and so remain," the Ashbumham " ffurnace," 
although discontinued before 1664, and ruined, was ** re- 
paird & stockd upon account of the warre," no doubt 
because of its being one of the furnaces where " Gunns 
& Shott " were " made in the late warre." 

The immense extent of the iron manufactures in 
Sussex is strikingly brought out by the fact of their 
" employing at least 50,000 lusty able workmen." It is 



THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS. 



21 



curious to notice the arguments used with respect to the 
preservation of timber, which plainly negative the idea 
prevalent in the present day that the supply was then 
being exhausted. 

The arguments made use of in the Petitions deserve to 
have succeeded, if only for their ingenuity : the contrast 
between the slavery of foreigners and the " liberty wW 
the meanest of yr. Ma**®"* subjects comfortably enjoy/' is 
adroitly put, and gives incidentally a flattering testimony 
to the beneficent character of the " Merrie Monarch's " 
reign, perhaps a too flattering one all things considered ! 
Whatever results the various petitions produced, it is 
interesting to notice that whilst the outlook for the iron- 
masters of Sussex was still rather gloomy, fresh articles 
of agreement were being entered into for the working of 
iron furnaces at Chiddingly and at Frant, the details of 
which are given. 

"With these brief introductory remarks, the following 
copies of documents may be left to speak for them- 
selves : — 

All those marked with m made Gunns & Shott in the late warre for 
supply of his Ma**®* stores. 

In the yeare 1 653 Did blow these 27 ffurnaces in Sussex viz^ 



m 


Waldron 




m 


Bread 




m 


Robertsbridge 




m 


Crowhurst 




m 


Darvill 


These eleven were continued in 


m 


Hauisell 


" repair and found at y® begin- 


m 


Cusbaplea 


ning of 1664. 


m 


Streame 




m 


Horsted Kains 

Pallingham 

Frith 




m 


Mayfield 




m 


Millplace 




m 


Ewhurst at Norjam 


These 9 were discontinued before 


m 


Ganster 


1664 . . . ruined but repaird & 


m 


Ashburnham 


' stockd upon account of the 


m 


Beach 


warre & . . . future encourage- 


m 


Pownslow 


ment. 


m 


Tilgate 




m 


Backnesse > 





22 



THB SUSSEX IRONWOBES. 



These 7 were ruined before & so 
remaine. 



Cobeecb 

Bnape 

Eiverball 

Maynards gate 

Warnhain 

Northparke 

Baybusb 

In all 27 in Sussex 1658 reduced to 11 before 1664. 
Blowing Ann? 1653, 7 in Kent viz* 



m Hosmonden 



m 



Biddenden or Cissingberst 
Scarlets 



7 These 3 were found stocked in the 
V yeare 1664. 



m 
m 

m 



Hawkhurst 
Bedgbury 



vizV 



") These 2 were discontinued before 
> 1664, but repaird stocked upon 
3 account of the warre. 

Bard en 

Cowden y? lower s= Euined before 1664 & so remain. 

Blowing Ann? 1653 in Surrey. 

m Imbhams, w^ M^ Brown Stocked to make Gunns & is aside. 

In the year 1653 were 42 fiforges or Ironmills working in Sussex 



Ashbumham 

Bugshill 

Bur 

Constance 

Hoodsdall 

Ashbumham minor 

Cobeech 

Steele 

Biverhall 

Hoboome 

Tickridge 

Kinians 

Freshfeild 

Holmsted 

St. Leonards 

Leonards Minor 

Pounslow 

Bowfant Supra 

Bower 

Canseme 

Ichingham 

Sheffeild 

Budhall 

Bowfant 

Crowhurst 



These 19 were ruined before 1664, 
and so remain. 



These 5 are laid aside & not used 
only Budhall is sometimes used. 



TBB SUSSEX IBONWOBES. 



23 



These 18 are yet continued in hope 
of enconragement. 



Westfeild 

Eobertsbridge 

Glaziers 

Bibleham 

Hawksden 

Bay ham 

E ridge 

Hordley 

Streame 

Ardingly 

Tencely 

Birchden 

Pophole 

Dunsfeld 

Burton 

Burwash 

Marisfeild 

Bnxsted 

In all 42 fiforges reduced now in '67 to 18 only. 

In Kent : — 

Horsfeild n' Cissingherst. 

In Surry on the edge of Sussex : — 

Woodcock forge. 

Sheer forge further in Surry. 

(Not dated.) 

To the Kings most excellent Maj^i® 

The humble Petition of some of yT Ma**? Subjects in the Coun- 
ties of Sussex Surrey & Kent on the behalfe of themselves & 
many Thousands of the Inhabitants within the said Counties, 

Most humbly Sheweth, 

That for some years last past divers Furnaces & Forges have beene 
employed in the making of Iron within the said Counties which by the 
unlimeted Importation of Forraigne Iron are now reduced to neere half 
their late number : and if that Indulgence be furthr continued the whole 
Manufacture of Iron will within very few years probably bee lost : A 
Manufacture by which many Thousands of yT Ma"®* Subjects doe sub- 
sist in Peace and without which yo? Ma**!" Dominions cannot be defended 
in Warr. 

May it therefore pleas yT gracious Ma^?® In yT Ma**** most 
Princly wisdoni to finde some Expedient whereby the price of Im- 
ported Iron may stand Ballanced with that of the Native Manu- 
facture of this yT Ma**? kingdome Soe that our Trade may not 
be wholly lost 

And yT Ma**? most humble Petitioners shall for ever pray, &a 
John Gagb 
Tho. Nutt 
F. Haklkp 

NlSKLL KlU£RS. 



24 THE SUSSEX IHONWOBKS. 

(Another Dft. of a Petition without date.) 
To the Kings most excellent Majestie. 
The humble petition of 

Bheweth 

That in the year 1653, Thirtythree ffurnaces & fforty forges, 
being now half the number of Ironworks w^**in your Kingdom of Eng- 
land now employed in making Iron in the Counties of Kent & Sussex 
w^ Counties w%ut doing any damage to Timber are sufficiently stored 
with underwood, preserved for making of coales & w*^ plenty of mineral 
to be spent in the manufactory of Iron among w®? underwoods are also 
preserved some Millions of Oaks for Timber. 

That befar 1664 through the indulgence given to the importation of 
Forreign Iron w*^ brought down the price of English the number of 
these Ironworks was reduced to 24 Forges and 17 Furnaces & had soon 
been fewer, but that your Ma**1* occasions on these late warres & the 
probable hopes of future encouragement to this anctient Manufacture of 
your Kingdom appearing so eminently useful for the defence & safety 
thereof did invite these to continue working & also caused such other of 
the said Furnaces as were not ruined to be repaired & stocked again 
making in all 26 Furnaces of w*'^ number Twenty three were imployed 
for the supply of your Ma"®* Store with Ordnance and Shott wherein 
they did acquit themselves answerably to their severall Trusts. And 
are of all the Ironworks in your Ma"^* Dominions in respect of their 
manner of to your Citty of London in 

the west to serve your Ma'**' in of future warr In 

which Citty and other parts of this Kingdom only by reason of their 

they have had their markett w^? now by the 
of forreigen Iron is become so low that this Manufacture of yo' own 
Kingdome cannot be managed without great apparent loss it hath 
already caused Eight of those flfumaces lately employed in yo' Ma"®.* 
service to desist from working and the only to work 

out their Stocks contracted for, so that this Manufacture is in danger to 
be lost . . 

The flforreigner will have opportunity to inhanse the price of his Iron 
and make a Coarser . . , and may be of further dan 
especially in case of future warres. 

(Bough Draft of a Petition, without date.) 

Whereas by y* greate plenty of woods & iron mine in y® County of 
Sussex, The IStores for y® Navy Hoyali in al former times, and especially 
in the late warrs w*** y® french and dutch have bin supplyed from y® 
ironwork that are there w^ al sorts of Ordinans B And y® subjects in 
the (Jitty of London, & other parts of y® Nation have also in greate 
part bin furnished thence for theyr necessary uses of Iron, without w^ 
comodity neyther husbandry, nor almost any trade whatsoever can 
subsist. 

And whereas the yearly benefit accruing to y® faythfull subiects of that 
County by y* said ironworks cheefly enables very many of them not only 
for theyr familyes subsistance, but also to furnish y® yearly payments for 



THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS, 25 

y' Ma*y the mayntayning theyr poore & other necessary publick disburs- 
mencs, besides y? constant imployment of at least 50,000 lusty able 
workmen, ready for defence of yo' Majesty & y® Nacion in case of 
generall needs. 

And whereas y® incoppising from time to time of y* sayd woods 
(wh^ by computacion amount to 200,000 acres) for the use of theyr 
sayd ironworks prooves of greate advantage for y® growth & preservacon 
of the timber trees growing therein, as may evidently appeare (what ever 
is suggested to y® contrary) for that at this time timber in these parts is 
much cheaper than in most other parts of y® Nation, notwithstanding 
the long continuance of ironworks in that County. 

Now for as much as some Northeme Countryes beyond Sea, arc so 
extraordinarily abounding in woods iron mine & other conveniencyes for 
making Iron, and especially by y® cheapnes of theyr mens labor who 
work as Slaves (nor w*^ that liberty w*^ the meanest of y' Ma**®.* subjects 
comfortably enjoy) that of late years (having erected greater store of 
ironworks than they had formerly) they are thereby enabled to send vast 
quantities of that commodity to other Nacions, and particularly since the 
yeare into this kingdome and dayly more & more continue to 

doe eaven from wares ready wrought to the undoing of our Smiths & the 
dishartening and (in short time) destroying of our said important manu- 
facture of iron which once totally decayed is not recoverable in very 
many years half of the ironworks heretofore imployed in y® s* County 
being already layd downe, and most of these that are kept working is 
rather don to spend the whole stock then for other profit made thereby 
for they sell the s* iron soe imported hither, at cheaper rates for the 
reasons abovementioned than is possible to be affoorded here without loss 
to the maker, w^ causes many to wish well to such strange importacion, 
not reflecting that when they shal haue engrossed into theyr hands the 
sole manufacture (w'*' wil inevitably follow upon the decay of our s? iron- 
works that they (which is the design) which sale 
they will possibly not let us have it at all or by im on the seas, 
not be able to bring it, which in time of warr might absolutely ruin us, 
for the considerations abroad to w^ may be added theyr importing the s^ 
iron for the most part in theyr own bottoms to the increase of theyr ship- 
ping and the decay of ours which must be a great chardge uppon their 
lading iron more than the ships of that country are to pay upon such 
freight, nor are any of a native commodities transported into those parts 
for the iron w®^ they sent here as abou 
Therefore most humbly pray 

That the truth of the premises may be represented before y^ Mai : & 
the lords of y"^ most hon^^f privy Councill and that according to y^ sub- 
iects good an import may be im uppon such furreyne iron imp 

as such in a reasonable manner may ballance the trade thereof as to what 
is made in this Nation and that y^ Ma : wil graciously recommend the 
same to y^ parliament for the same, whereby may be prevented 

the imminent danger to the publick, by the loss of the said manufacture 
of iron, and the sendinge a begging of many thousands of y^ Ma : good 
Bubiects whose subsistence depends upon the same besides divers other 

XXXII. B 



26 THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS. 

public inconveniences that may occur by reason thereof w^ y« jus*" wil 
further represent to y\ Ma : uppon your gracious hearing of them in re- 
ceiving y* same. 

1652 jpj^jg ^tllitxdvitt made the ffirst day of Aprill in the year of our 
Ijord God One Thousand six Hundred ffifty and two ^ttfjJttttt Wilb'am 
Dyke of ffrant in the County of Sussex Clarke of the one pte and 
Thomas ffoley of the Citty of London in the County of Midlesex Esq' and 
George Browne of Spelmanden in the County of Kent Esq' of the other 
pte WixlAJXtuffli That the sayd William Dike for and in Concideration of 
the yearely Kent and Covenants hereafter in and by these presents 
reserved mentioned and expressed JgvATji 'btJXthtb granted leased and to 
farme letten and by these presents doth demise grant lease and to farme 
lett vnto the sayd Thomas ffoley and George Browne ^nt Jron Worke 
or Jron fforge and one Jron shope therevnto belonginge to gether with 
all the pondes water layes watercourses bankes bayes floodgates Coale 
places synder places and all other appurtenances, therevnto belonginge or 
therewith all letten vsed and enioyed, late in the occupacon of John 
Browne ffather of the sayd George Browne, Esq' : deceased, and now in 
the occupacon of the sayd Thomas ffoley and George Browne or their 
assignes ^xib alsoe all the workinge Tooles implements and instru- 
ments belonginge to and vsed with the sayd fforge which are in a schedule 
herevnto anexed mensioned ^xib alsoe one Massuage one barne and 
certaine peeces or parcells of land with the apurtenances, containinge by 
Estimation ffowrteen Acres lyinge neere and adioyning to the sayd 
Massuage and therewithall vsed, nowe in the occupation of Thomas 
Ougley. ^ttbr alsoe all vsuall wayes and passages, leading to and from 
the sayd demised Messuage lands and premisses, and therewithall letten 
vssed and enioyed all which sayd Messuage fforge, Lands and premisses 
are situate lyinge and beeng in the parrish of ffrant in the County of 
Sussex Kent or one of them (Hutj^ mi all wayes reserved out of this 
present demisse and lease vnto the sayd William Dyke his heires and 
assignes all Tymber Treese and other trees woodes and vnder woodes 
what soever, nowe standing growing and beinge, and which hereafter 
duringe the tearme hereby granted, shall stand, growe renue and be in 
and vpon the demised premises together with free liberty and power, to 
and for the sayd William Dyke his heires and assignes, and his and 
their servantes, and workmen To fall Cut Downe Coarde Coale, hewe 
sawe and Carry away the sayd Tymber trees, woods and vnderwoods and 
Coales, with Oxen horses waynes and othere Carriages at his and their 
will and pleasure in over and throwe the demised premises in fitt and 
conveniant places not hurting corne or mowing grasse ^ntf alsoe 
Except liberty, and power to and for the sayd William Dyke his heires 
and assignes to come goe ride drive Carry and recarry with Oxen horses 
waynes and other Carriages in over and thorowe the demised premisses, 
to and from the wood lands of the sayd William Dyke, lying and beinge 
in ffrant aforesayd in the wayes pathes passages heretofore vsed ^ujbr 
nlhat €xctgi liberty and power to and for the sayd William Dyke, his 
heires and Assignes to come goe and remove into vpon and from the 
demised premisses for the purposes aforesayd, and to vie we and over 



THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS. 27 

looke the same and the reparations thereof Zo IgiKVit nxA tcr IgonDf the 
sayd demised massuage fforge Land and premises, and every part and 
parcell thereof with the appurtenances, and all the sayd working Tooles 
implements and instruments in the sayd Schedule herevnto anexed men- 
tioned (except before excepted) vnto the sayd Thomas ffoley and George 
Browne their Executors Administrators and Assignes from the first day 
of may next coming after the date hereof, vnto the end and tearme, and 
for and duringe the full tearme and tyme of Three yeares from thence 
Ensuinge fully to be compleate and ended yealding and payinge there- 
fore yearly and every yeare during the sayd tearme vnto the sayd 
William Dyke his heires and Assignes the yearly rent of Twenty 
pounds of Lawfull money of England in and vpon the first day .of 
November and y® first day of may by even and equall portions, ^vib if 
it shall happen the sayd yearly rent of Twenty poundes or any part or 
parcell thereof to be behinde and vnpayd by the space of one and 
Twenty dayes next after any of the sayd dayes in which the same ought 
to be payd as aforesayd that then and soe often, and from thenceforth it 
shall and may, be lawfull to and for the sayd William Dyke his heires 
and Assignes into the said messuage, fiforge Landes and premises to 
enter and distreine for the sayd yearly rent, soe beinge behinde and 
vnpayd, and the distress, and distresses, then and theare founde, from 
thence to leade, drive, carry away, and jmpound, and the same to 
detaine, and keepe untill the sayd yearly rent of Twenty poundes with 
the arrerages thereof (if any bee) be to the sayd William Dyke his 
heires and Assignes fully satisfied, contented and payd ^nti if the sayd 
yearley rent of Twenty poundes, or any parte thereof, shall be behinde 
and vnpayd by the space of fforty dayes next after one of the sayd 
dayes, in which the same ought to be payd, as aforesayd, that then and 
from thence forth it shall bee lawfull for the sayd William Dyke his 
heires and assignes into the sayd messuage fforge Landes and premises 
with the appurtenances wholey to renter and the same to haue again re- 
posses and enioy, as in his and their first and former estate, any thing 
before herein Contained, to the contrary thereof, in any wise notwith- 
standinge ^nlSf ilgt saglr Thomas ffoley and George Browne, for them- 
selves and either of them, their Executors administrators and assignes, 
doe covenant and grante to and with the sayd William Dyke his heires 
and Assignes by these presents that they the sayd Thomas ffoley and 
George Browne their Executors administrators and assignes, shall and 
will from tyme to tyme and at all tymes during the sayd tearme att 
their owne proper Costes and chardges, well and sufficiently repaire vphold 
susteine, maintaine and keepe the sayd demised Jron fforge and Jron Shope 
messuge barne, and buildinges, in by and with wheeles gutts sluces pen- 
stocks and all manner of needfull and nessary reparations what soever 
^Xlb alsoe shall and will from tyme to tyme duringe the said terme, dense 
scouer, make repaire, amend maintaine and keepe all the hedges, bankes, 
bayes, fludgates sluses fences, and inclosuers of the aforesayd premises 
where such nowe are and alsoe shall and will make the hedges and fences 
in conveniant and seasonable tymes of the yeare, that the Quike frith 
therof bee not wasted or destroyed ^ntf shall and will new make amend 
and repaire the sayd workinge tools, implements and instruments in the 



28 THB SUSSEX IBONWOBES. 

Bayd schedule herevnto enexed mentioned, when and as oft as need shall 
requier duringe the sayd tearme, and the sayd Jron fforge Jron shope 
messuage bame and buildinges all things soe well and sufficiently vpheld 
and repaired, and the sayd hedges ditches, fences, inclosuers banckes, 
bayes, fludgates and sluses, soe well and sufficiently repayred amended 
fenced and inclosed, and all the sayd workinge Tooles, instruments and 
implements in the sayd schedule anexed mentioned, soe well and suffi- 
ciently new made amended and repaired as afforesayd shall and will at the 
end and expiration or other determination of the sayd terme, leave deliver 
and yeld vp vnto the sayd William Dyke, his heires and assignes ^ttjbr 
ilgt sagbr William Dyke for himselfe his heires Executors Administrato'* 
and Assignes, doth Covenant and grant to and with the sayd Thomas 
flfoley and George Browne their Executors Administrators and Assignes 
by these presents That hee the sayd William Dyke his heires and 
Assignes shall and will from tyme to tyme and at all tymes duringe the 
sayd terme pay or cause to be payd vnto the Chife Lord or Lords of the 
flfee or flfees of the premises, all chife rents, and quite rents issuinge due 
and payable out of and for the demised premises, and thereof and of every 
part thereof shall and will exonerate acquite and dischardge the sayd 
Thomas flfoley and George Browne, their Executors Administrators and 
Assignes, and the demised premises duringe the sayd terme. ^xA 
ull&Ot that the sayd William Dyke his heires and Assignes shall and will 
vpon reasonable request thereof to him or them made, as oflften as need 
shall requier duringe the sayd terme assigne and apoynt, and alowe vnto 
the sayd Thomas flfoley and George Browne their Executors Adminis- 
trators and Assignes, in and vpon the demised premises or other the 
Lands of the sayd William Dyke situate and lyinge in the parrish of 
Pembury in the County of Kent (if it may there bee had) competent and 
sufficiant rough Tymber for the repairinge and amendinge of the sayd 
demised Jron flforge and Jron shope, messuage barne and buildinges, and 
for all other needfull nesessry reparations of the aforesayd premises 
9^Ctgt for Hamber beames, to be vsed in the demised Jron fforge ^xA 
fat JijOfje mttjcjf as the sayd William Dyke did pay vnto the before named 
John Browne, at his first entrance vpon the premises the sume of ffive 
pounds in money for the buying and getting vp of a good newe Hamber 
beame, in the sayd flforge, the sayd Thomas flfoley and George Browne doe 
therefore for themselves, their Executors Administrators and Assignes 
Covenant to and with the sayd William Dyke his heires and Assignes 
that if hee the sayd William Dyke his heires and Assignes, shall not like 
the Hamber beame which at the end and determination of this demise 
shall bee left in the sayd Jron worke, by reason of any vnfittness and vn- 
cervisableness of the same That then the sayd Thomas flfoley and George 
Browne, their Executors Administrators and Assignes, shall vpon notis 
thereof giuen vnto them, by the sayd Willia Dyke his heires and Assignes, 
repay or cause to bee payd and satisfied, the some of ffive pounds of Law- 
full English money, vnto the sayd William Dyke his heires and Assignes, 
towards the getting vp of A newe Hamber beame and in liewe and satis- 
faction of the ffive pounds, formerly payd by the sayd William Dyke unto 
the sayd John Browne as aflforesayd ^Vits that then vpon the payment of 
the sayd ffive pounds to the sayd William Dyke his heires and Assignes 



THE SUSSEX IBONWOBKS. 29 

it slialbe lawfull to and for the sayd Thomas ffoley and George Browne 
their Executors Administrators and Assignes to take, Carry away and 
dispose of the sayd Hamber beame sett vp by the sayd John Browne 
leavinge to the sayd William Dyke his heires and Assignes, the Iron 
hopes thereof, and all other Jron thinges, vsed about the sayd Hamber 
beame gn foitttW whereof the parties aforesayd to these present Jnden- 
tures, their hands and seales interchangably have put and sett Dated the 
day and yeare above written. 

A Schedule of the working Tooles inplements instruments, 
& other thinges by y® Jndenture herevnto annexed menconed to 
bee demised viz. 

One ffynery furnished with plates and other thinges necessary with A 
payre of belowes redy leathered w*|* four hoopes & .Two gudgeons to the 
flynery beame. 

One Chaffery furnished w*^ plates & other things necessary w'? a 
paire of bellowes redy leathered with five hoopes & Two gudgeons to y® 
Chafrey beame ffive paire of smale, & three paire of greate fforgding 
Tonges Two Ringers three furgons : one tumesowe one Jron shouell Two 
great and Two small Clams : Two quashes Two sledges one Loope hamber, 
one old hamber gudgeon seaventeene hoopes vppon the Hamber beaine 
and Two gudgeons in y® beame Two hoopes about the Anvill block one 
plate and a peece of A plate about that blocke one smiths Anvill of Cast 
Jron. 

Three forge hambers fit to worke, with other three old hambers one old 
Anvill in y® blocke and one old one, by, and one new : one herst vpon the 
hamber helve, & three old hersts and Two new hersts three new finery 
plates & Two new boyts ffive cole basketts new & old, one Jron beame & 
scales one Cast Iron hundred wayht Two half hundreds one beame to way 
sowes with, and the weight Two newe hamber helves & one paire of Armes 
Tenn hundred wayht of sowe Jron one hundred and A quarter of hoopes 
of Jron And one hundred thirty & Two pales, and poastes about y« Coale 
place. 

{JSigned) 
Thomas ffoley Geo. Browne. 

( Seal ( Seal 

appended) appended) 

{pn back) 

Sealed & delivered in 

the presents of 

John Jones 

the marke of William | Kinge. 



30 THE SUSSEX IB0NW0EK8. 

^ttich% of Agreement Indented made and Agreed uppon 
Betweene Sir Thomas Dyke of Horeham in the pishe of Wal- 
dron in the Countie of Sussex Knight, of the one pte And John 
ffuller of Waldron aforesaid, gent of the other pte the Tenth 
Daie of October Anno Dom One Thousand Six Hundred & 
ffiftie, as followeth. | 

1. ^tnirimis it is agreede by and betweene the said pties to these 
p'sents That whereas they hold by Lease of Stephen ffrenche of Streame 
in the pishe of Chiddingly in the Countey aforesaid Esq" A certaine Iron 
ffurnace Iron fforge Jron Shoppes w'^ Thapptences thereunto belongeinge 
lyeinge in Chiddingly aforesaid for the Terme of Seauen Yeares That they 
the said Sir Thomas Dyke & John ffuller shall equally stock the said 
ffurnace and fforge w^.** Coles and Myne Dureinge the said Terme And 
alsoe shall equally beare the seuall payments to workmen and other 
payments charges & expences wch shall arise & be expended in workinge 
out the said Coles and Myne And that neither ptie shall buy any wood or 
Myne w*?out the consent & good likeinge of the other ptie. | 

2. ^itm that the Rent due for the said ffomace & fforge wth Thapp- 
tennces thereunto belongeinge Together wth all needfuU and necessarie 
Rpacons thereto (accordinge as they are bound by the said Lease) shalbe 
equally borne & paide betweene them. | 

3. gittlr that twice in every yeare duringe the said Terme uppon reason- 
able request made each tu other there shalbe an equall true uist & pfect 
accompt made betweene the said pties of all payments & disbursements 
expended & laide out in & about the said ffurnace & fforge & in stockinge 
of them And once in euerie yeare shall mutually cleere theire accompte. | 

4. ^ni that the Jron Sowes Jron Barres & all such other pffits 
wch shalbe made out of the said ffomace and fforge shalbee yearely equally 
deuided betweene the said pties. 

5. ^ni that whereas there are bellowes hammers and diuers other tooles 
& implements belongeinge to the said ffurnace & fforge It is fully agreede 
by & betweene the said pties That the said Bellowes hammers tooles & 
implements shalbe all kept & Repaired at theire equall charge & att the 
end & expiracon of the terme aforesaid the said Bellowes Hammers tooles 
& other implements soe sufificiently kept & Repaired shalbe left & yielded 
vpp into the hands of the said Stephen ffrenche as is expressed in the 
said lease and scedule thereunto annexed. 

6. gittlr it is agreede by & betweene the said pties to these p'sents that 
they shall at theire equall Costs & Charges repaire the banks bayes flud- 
gates & watercourses belonginge to the said ffomace & fforge dureinge the 
said terme. | 

7. ^ni it is agreede by & betweene the said pties to these p'sents That 
(reservinge to themselves onely what wood & coles shalbe yearely Requi- 
site for theire houses) they shall each of them Cutt Cord Cole and De- 
liuer in and at the said fforge & ffornace All such woods of theires as are 
lyeinge w*^in the seuall pishes of Hellingly Heathfeilde and Waldron 
aforesaid in the said County of Sussex as nowe are or shalbe become fell- 
able duringe the said terme in such yeares & at such time & times as shalbe 
heerafter in these p'sents agreede on by & betweene the said pties. 



THE SUSSEX IRONWORKS. 31 

8. ^tA it is likewise agreede by and betweene the said pties That they 
shall seually Cut theire seuall woods at theire ioynt charge at the growths 
of twelve yeares and not before, euerie Cord of wood whereof to contain 
fourteene ffoote in length and three flfoote in height all three ffoote wood 
euerie Cord thoreof to be rated each to other at the Rate and price of 
eight shillings six pence P Cord uppon the stubb. And further that if any 
Diflference shall arise or be betweene the said pties Concerninge theire 
said seuall woods That one ptners wood is better then the others att the 
fellinge thereof That then there shalbe twoe indiflferent men Chosen & 
elected betweene the said pties the one to be Chosen by the said sir 
Thomas JDyke & the other by the said John flfuUer & they twoe to order 
award & decree what shalbe paid & allowed to either ptie concerneinge 
the values of theire seuall woods And in case the twoe Arbitrato'? cannot 
agree concerneinge the allowances thereof to either ptie That then they 
two shall elect & choose a third man to ioyne w*^? them And they three to 
order and decree what shalbe paid & allowed each to other in respect of 
the goodnes and quantitie of theire said seuall woods. 

9. ^ni it is further agreed by and betweene the said pties that they 
shall each of them Drawe out of theire seuall Lands lyinge w***in the 
seuall pishes of Waldron Hellingly & Heathfeild aforesaid Twoe Hundred 
loads of good Myne at the least euerie yeare Dureinge the said terme 
(except onely the last yeare) And that they shall each of them Draw & 
Deliuer in the said Myne at the said flfornace at theire seuall charge And 
if one Deliuer in more loads of Myne then the other in any one yeare it 
is agreede that he shalbe allowed by the other ptner after the Rate of 
fower shillings for eurie loade tae by him in more then the other by waie 
of Co-partners. | 

10. gittlr lastly it is agreede by & betweene the said pties That if either 
of them shall happen to dye & Dpte this mortall life before the end and 
expiration of the said terme That then there shalbe noe benefitt taken of 
the said p'mises by the ptie suruiving by waie of suruiuorshipp but that 
a full & compleate accompte of all expences Receipts Disbursements & 
Charges whatsoever beinge made at or before the first Dale of May then 
next foUoweinge after the Death of the ptie soe dyeinge betweene the 
executo" or Assignes of the ptie soe dyeinge & the suruiuinge ptys And 
shall w^Mn one yeare next followinge the said first Dale of May wholly 
cleere theire Accompte & truly pay to the executo" Administrato" or 
Assignes of the ptie soe dyinge or the suruieinge pty All such some or 
somes of money as shalbe by such accompte become Due & payable to 
either ptie And that the suruiuinge pty shall wholly employe & vse the 
said ffomace & flforge w^ Thapptennces himself alone payinge & dis- 
charginge all such charges payments & expences as were to be paid by 
both the said pties had both vsed the same And further that the Execu- 
to" Administrato" or Assignes of the ptie soe dyeinge shall Dureinge the 
remainder of the terme then to come & vnexpired in the lands before 
menconed Drawe and Deliver in such a quantity of Myne as is before 
menconed at the time & place aforesaid & at the Rate <& price of fower 
shillings p loade before menconed And likewise shall fell all such woods as 
are before herein menconed to the suruiuinge ptie at the grouth & price 
before menconed In witnes whereof the pties abovesaid to these p^sents 



32 



THE SaSSEX IRONWOBKS. 



Jnterchangeabley theire hands & eeales have sett the Dale & jeare first 
aboue written 1650. ] 

[Signed) Thomas Djke 
( Seal 

appended.) 

{On back) 

Sealed and Delivered in the prsence of 

The tt rak of 

Joane Chesman 

Thos Lade 



Sir, Lond? Wed 19 Apl A» 1695 

I hane sold & this day deliv* to the Office of Ordnance 28 of 
your Small gunns at the rate of £16. 10 pT ton And have rece* money 
for the same, Soo that I am now £100 more in cash for you beyond what 
I have disbursed for freight &c And care nott how Soone your occasions 
require it of me 

I know not how to make up your Wharf Ace* with M' Edmonds for 
want of regular Bills of Lading, I have not yett paid him .... a more 
pcrtinant acc^ which hee has promissed on Survey of his Books at home 
to send mee, on our differing on what's delivered at our Wharfe, shall 
endeavour to find out a true ace*. And discharge you of the same 

I wish M' Fuller would send forward for a ready money trade if you 
have them 

20 Mino of 5^ foot 1 ^ ^ ^. - 

20 Three poundT of 5 foot f^^ ^- ^^^^' P^^^^^' 
Doo believe they would be Soone turn* to Cash for I foresee a want of 
these Sorts I am ;our humble Serv^ 

Philip Fincher 

Iron Ordnance Generally wanted for resupplying their Maj*» Fleet Vizt. 

9 Foot of 26 or 27 each 

SJFoot 25 

8 Foot 24 

7J Foot 23 

7 Foot 21c 22 

rlO Foot 27 c28 

8^ 23 

8 21 



Demy Culvering of 



Saker of 



1 



71 

•9 



18 



Mynion of 

8 Pounders of 
28 January 169| 



{ 



H 



7 16 c 17 

14 

12 

61 Foot 12 

6 Foot 10 

6 Foot 8 

5i 7 



S. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 



Br SOMERS CLARKE, Jun., P.S.A. 



On the occasion of the visit of the Sussex Archa9ological 
Society to Brighton in the year 1878 it fell to my lot to 
read a paper upon the ancient Parish Church of S. 
Nicholas. This paper I had proposed to enlarge by 
acquiring all the information I could glean from various 
quarters, and I had already added considerably to my 
stock when some very interesting articles upon the 
churches of Brighton began to appear in the Sussex 
Daily News, the first being dated July 18th, 1880. 
Naturally enough the Church of S. Nicholas came soon 
to the front, and on August the 9th I saw a considerable 
quantity of the matter I had collected make its first 
appearance in the columns of the newspaper instead of 
in our own Transactions.^ 

I have, however, no cause to complain. The writer 
of the articles was bent on the same errand as myself, 
and, of course, went to many of the same sources for in- 
formation. I have only to congratulate him on the 
manner in which his very laborious task has been carried 
through, and to wish him every success. 

Notwithstanding that much which must now be said 
has but so recently been published, it would seem a 
mistake on that account to hold one's hand. 

I have endeavoured as far as possible to confine myself 
to a history of the fabric, which as being the most ancient 
building in the town, is deserving of more careful con- 
sideration than it has yet received. 

* The articles, which are by Mr. Joho Sawyer, Brighton, have since been pub- 
lished Id a separate form. 

XXXII. F 



34 S. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 

I bave, therefore, brought down the history to the pre- 
sent day, and have given a full account of the omameats 
and decorations of the church. I am indebted to the 
courtesy of Mr. Herbert R. Carpenter, son of the late 
Mr. Richard Carpenter, for the plan of the building as it 
existed prior to the alterations made in 1853-4. 

We know that a church existed at Bristelmestune, or 
Bristelmetune, in 1086, from the entry in Domesday 
Book. The question arises, " Where was this church?" 
There is no direct evidence that the existing fabric 
stands on the site, or includes any part of the building 
mentioned in Domesday Book. Mr. Horsfield^ quotes 
an anonymous correspondent from Brighton, to the 
following effect : — *' During my various visits to different 
parts of England, in my profession as a surveyor, I have 
frequently observed that our early churches have been 
erected on spots previously hallowed by Saxon supersti- 
tion. It occurred to me that this parish church might 
have been erected on ground so used, when dawning 
Christianity, in treading out the embers of Paganism, 
carefully studied to indulge popular superstition in minor 
points. Upon making search, I visited three large 
masses of stone, and learned that many more had been 
upon the hill, as well as a large tumulus, known to 
the boys by the name of Bunker's mound; but that 
the new settlements in that vicinity caused them 
to be destroyed." Upon the words - brit^ the in- 
sulated or high ; hael, holy ; stane^ temple or stone 
of worship, he then bases the name oi Brighthelmstone, 
I cannot find any evidence to prove that there was a 
circle of stones about the site of the church, as has been 
stated, nor to confirm the conjecture' that some of them 
were used around the base of the fountain on the Old 
Steyne. The fountain was put up in 1846. Erredge,* p. 
188, in describing it, states very definitely that these 
stones came from Goldstone Bottom, and gives instances 
of similar stones being dugup in various parts of the town.* 

* ' Horsfield, " History of SnisBex,* Vol. L, p. 106. 1836. 
» " S. A. C," Vol. XXIX., p. 200. 
* " History of Brighton." J. A. Erredge, 1867. 
See also " Horstead*s History of Sussex," Vol. I., p. 166. 



S, NICHOLAS* OHUfiOH, BBIGHTOK. 35 

As we now see it, the church stands surrounded by 
houses, but until very recently it lay quite outside the 
town, upon the side of the road to Henfield, one of 
the main roads or tracks over the Downs. Until the 
middle of the last century the town was bounded by 
the three streets, Bast Street, West Street, and North 
Street, but below the cliff there also once dwelt a con- 
siderable population. 

It seems difficult to understand why the church should 
have been placed so far away from those who had to use 
it. We do not find, as a rule, that ancient parish churches 
are situated far from the centres of population. In some 
villages the church is now quite away from the houses, 
but one can generally find that there is a reason for it ; 
this is not the case at Brighton. I venture to think 
that something may be said in favour of the present 
site being of comparatively recent choice ; that is to say, 
not older than any part of the existing fabric. We 
know that the whole coast line has been constantly 
shifting, portions of it still being carried away by the 
sea, which finally destroyed the lower town. Why 
should not some serious inroad have so alarmed the in- 
habitants that they thought fit to remove their church, and, 
being determined to be on the safe side, rebuilt the edifice 
above the upper town. Again, we know that Brighton is 
a much older place than any part of the existing fabric of 
the church shows itself to be. When a building of this 
nature has been altered, enlarged, and re-arranged, as 
this must have been if it really occupies the site of the 
Norman or earlier church, it is very seldom that we 
cannot trace some of these changes. In most instances 
a part of the Norman church can be found. Here, on 
the contrary, the font — an object easily movable — is the 
only piece of work earlier than the fourteenth century. 
All the neighbouring churches show unmistakable evi- 
dence of their high antiquity and of their growth. Mr. 
Gordon Hills, who assisted Mr. R. C. Carpenter in the 
re-construction of the church in 1853, informs me that 
remains of Norman work were found, as stated in the 



36 S. NICHOLAS' CHUEOH, BRIGHTON. 

! 

Brighton Herald of April 8th, 1854.^ It there says that ; 

during the repair of the tower in 1853, •' in taking down j 

the quoins, or corner stones, of the buttress and em- \ 

battlement many of these stones were discovered to be ' 

carved with Norman ornament, which had been turned 
inward." This discovery seems to me no convincing 
proof that the older church stood on this spot. Stone 
is so scarce at Brighton that the materials of one church 
would certainly be re-used in building the other wherever 
erected. 

The only ancient representation of the Church which 
we have, is not to be relied on. The original drawing, 
dated 1545, in the British Museum, is reproduced by 
Horsfield.^ The church at that time, as, indeed, the exist- 
ing building sufficiently testifies, occupied its present 
position. It is shown as cruciform, with a circular centre 
tower and a west door facing south-east. The church at 
Hove is also shown, and is identical, both in shape and 
misplaced orientation, with that at Brighton. This, 
beyond question, is incorrect, clearly proving that, as was 
usual in drawings of this nature, the draughtsman 
merely indicated '* a church " — no more. 

In ** A Survey of the Coast of Sussex,"® made in 1587, 
and published in facsimile in 1870, Brighton is indi- ; 
cated with a church quite unlike the foregoing, whilst 
the churches at New Shoreham, Kingston bushie, 
Aldrington, Hove, Ovingdean, and Rottingdean are all 
alike indicated by what is, in fact, a hieroglyph. 

It is needless to speculate further upon the site occu- 
pied by the original church. I must proceed to an 
examination of the existing fabric ; but before making 
this it will be necessary to describe the building as it 
was prior to the alterations and enlargement undertaken 
in 1853, and to give a history, so far as may be, of matters 

« Brighton Herald Supplement, Saturday April 8, 1854. Statement also ' 

appears in StLSsew Daily News, Aug. 9, 1880 ; and in " Churches of Brighton," 
Fart 1., p. 55. i 

7 Horsfield, " His. Suss.," Vol. I., p. 119. 1 

* A Survey of the Coast of Sussex made in 1687, "with a view to its defence ^ 

against foreign invasion, and especially against the Spanish Armada. Edited by ^ 

M. A. Lower, F.S.A. 1870. ^ 

i 

1 



1 



n;i. 



PLATE I 



S. NICHOLAS CHURCH. 
I8S2 




Il^ffl Ultfflllfclrfil 




■• ^ 




UftfcfV**--**-*^ 



nm 



S. NICHOLAS CHURCH. 
• 1882 



•^f^afUant 




S. NICHOLAS CHURCH BRIGHTON. 

PLAN N? I aJwwingthe Chzirokiis it waj be/orv ^le^ altendums in 1853. 
PLAN li^'ZshemnpiheQiuivhcLSitjwwia. 

Sonvers CLark&JunT dei. 



S. KIOHOLAS' CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 37 

connected with the fabric. Plan I., Plate No. 1,^ shows 
the plan before alterations were commenced. It con- 
sisted of a nave of five bays, divided from the aisles by- 
octagonal columns carrying pointed arches, the arches 
of two orders, chamfered, the bases of the columns regt- 
ing upon a sort of bench, the capitals moulded ; and by 
the section of these mouldings we may fairly conjecture 
that the arcade was constructed somewhat late in the 
fourteenth century. This arcade still remains, and is 
built of warm-coloured Sussex stone. The nave was, as 
it now is, without a clerestory. The north and south 
aisles were several feet narrower than they now are. At 
the west end stood, and still stands, the tower, a low, 
sturdy structure opening into the nave by a pointed 
arch, similar in character to those already described. 
The level of the tower floor is still, as it was, several 
steps above that of the nave. The inequality is caused 
by the natural slope of the hill on which the building 
stands, which not only falls from north to south, but, 
in a less degree, from west to east. There was a 
western door to the tower. The present door and 
doorway are entirely new. I am not able to state 
whether they are a reproduction of the old, or whether 
those may not have been previously destroyed. A rect- 
angular window, with wooden frame, divided into three 
lights by muUions, had been inserted over the door. The 
existing window was a conjectural restoration. 

The north aisle did not extend so far west as it now 
does, but was similar to the south aisle, its western 
wall being on a line with the east wall of the tower. 
The aisles were lit by small two-light windows, which 
were reproduced in the new work, but the erection of ex- 
ternal stairs to galleries, and the carrying out of other 
alterations had done away with many of the original 
windows. 

The porch occupies its old position relatively to the 
wall in which it is placed, and seems to have been of 

' I slionld state that this plan is exactly copied from the original lent me hy Mr. 
Carpenter, which does not show the west door, the position of any window, nor 
the thickness of walls. 



38 s. Nicholas' church, Brighton* 

about the same size as it now is, but the outer doorway 
was of the 16th century, having a pointed arch within 
a square label. 

The chancel is small. It was probably of the same 
dg^te as the nave. 

On the south side was, and still is, a small aisle. The 
north aisle is entirely modern. 

The chancel arch still stands, and is similar in character 
to the nave arcades, and is constructed of the same stone. 
The side walls of the chancel were a little lower than those 
of the nave, that on the south being pierced by the 
opening leading into the south aisle of the chancel, that 
on the north being pierced by a two-light square-headed 
window. The east window was of three lights, with 
simple tracery in the head, whether the present window 
is an exact reproduction of the old I cannot ascertain, 
but the old one was a very poor example of Decorated 
work. I cannot say much for the new. 

The south aisle of the chancel was evidently an addition 
to the 14th century plan. The responds of the arch, be- 
tween it and the chancel, are built of Reigate stone, and 
decorated with three attached shafts, the caps and bases 
being of 15th century character. The arch is not built 
of the same stone, and, judging from some old sketches, it 
had been cut away to form a square opening up to the wall 
plates, through which the occupants of a gallery could 
see down into the chancel. It is probable, therefore, 
that the mouldings of this arch are entirely new.^® In 
the south wall of the chancel, east of this arch, were 
found the remains of a piscina. It stood a little west of 
the position it now occupies ; it having been moved to 
accommodate the sedilia inserted in 1876. 

The south windows, door, and roof of this aisle were 
much as they now are, but the east window was square 
headed and of three lights, without tracery over. 

In some sketches in the possession of Mr. W. J. 

w On reference to the Plan No. I., Plate 1, it will be seen that there is a con- 
siderable difference between this part of the church as it was before 1853 and as 
it now is. I am not able to acconnt for this. The plan would lead us to suppose 
that there were two arches, but doubtless Mr. Carpenter had good reason for put- 
ting onlj one in their place. 



S. NICHOLAS* OHUBCH, BRIGHTON, 39 

Smith, of North Street, Brighton, the south elevation of 
this aisle is very carefully shewn, and we are enabled to 
see that the restoration in this case has been very faith- 
ful. They shew, however, that, as with the porch 
doorway, so with the east wall of the church, consider- 
able liberties were taken to bring the building back to a 
supposed 14th century character, regardless of the fact 
that, by so doing, certain pages in the architectural 
history were effaced, and that without any reason. 

A drawing by N. Whittock, also engraved, shews that 
a plinth, similar to that round the exterior of the south 
aisle, had been carried across the east wall. The angle 
buttresses appear also to have been identical in character 
with those of the south aisle. The plinth is now gone, 
and the buttresses do not seem to follow the old ones. 

The arch opening from the S. aisle of nave into the 
chancel aisle is, I believe, entirely modern, the old one 
being utterly destroyed. 

The floor of the chancel was one step above that of 
the nave, an arrangement still retained. The roof was 
of the same shape as now, i.e.^ a trussed rafter roof, 
boarded under the rafters, and divided by ribs into panels. 
The nave roof had been much mutilated. Large dormer 
windows were pierced in it, as also into the roofs of the 
aisles, and part of it was plastered over to a level. 

The roof, as constructed by Mr. Carpenter, seems to 
be a copy of the old roof. 

The nave was separated from the chancel by the 
beautiful rood screen, which still retains its old position. 

To increase the number of pews (it would be a mis- 
nomer to say that an increased number of parishioners 
were accommodated)^ galleries were made in the north and 
south aisles of the nave, nearly blocking them up. A 
very deep gallery, which held the organ, covered the 
tower arch, and extended eastward far into the second 
bay ;^^ a gallery, already mentioned, was contrived in the 

11 The inscription commemorative of the liberal gift of Mr. Swan Downer, and 
g^venat length in ''Horsfield/' Vol. I., p. 143, was painted on a long panel on the 
front of this gallery, in gold letters on a brown groond. Some of the children 
benefited by his charity sat on the front row of the gallery in large white caps 
and aprons. 



40 S. NICHOLAS' OHOROH, BRIGHTON. 

south aisle of the chancel, but, more remarkable than the 
rest ; the rood loft had a direct descendant in the shape 
of a gallery carried across the chancel arch on the top of 
the screen, and facing westward. This was called the old 
men's gallery, and was used by the recipients of a local 
charity. 

In the north gallery, and close to the pulpit, was a 
pew belonging to a house in West Street, since pulled 
down to make way for the Concert Hall. This house 
was occupied by the Thrales, and in the pew was wont 
to sit Dr. Johnson on his visits to Brighton. Doubtless 
many other seats had their traditions connected with 
local celebrities, could they but be traced. 

Huge square pews encumbered the floor of the church, 
and were built up against the screen, whilst in the 
chancel, in addition to the usual square pews, two 
narrow pews (the vicar s) were constructed inside the 
altar rails (which stood more to the east than now) one 
on the north side and one on the south. 

The walls of the church were incrusted with monu- 
mental tablets. These, unfortunately, were all of them 
removed in 1 853, some were set up at the west end, some 
against the aisle walls, others now line the interior of the 
lower part of the tower, and the rest are placed out of 
sight above the belfry ceiling. A great deal of the 
history of Brighton during its gradual rise to importance 
might be read in these tablets, and although their 
number made the question of dealing with them one of 
no small difficulty, it is much to be deplored that all were 
removed from their proper places, and their interest 
thereby lessened. 

I doubt not that there were many slabs upon the floor, 
but these gave place to a common tile pavement, in 
black and red squares. 

The exterior of the building shewed much the same 
outline as it now does. A chancel nearly as high as the 
nave, long low roofs to nave and aisles, and the sturdy 
battlemented tower at the west end, with spreading 
diagonal buttresses. The numerous external stairs gave 
access to the galleries, and the huge square dormer win- 



8. NICHOLAS* CHURCH, BRIGHTON, 41 

dows, pierced through the roof both of nave and aisles, 
gave a strange, half domestic aspect to the whole. The 
roof of the nave was covered with lead. In the chamber 
immediately below the bells, two pieces are fixed to the 
walls, placed there in 1853, on which are the names of 
the vicar and churchwardens, under whom, in 1675 and 
1677, repairs were executed, or perhaps a new covering 
of lead was put on.^^ 

The gossiping description given in the Sussex Daily 
Newsj of August 30th, 1880, gives an admirable idea of 
the building as it stood until 1852.^^ 

The late Vicar, the Rev. Henry Michell Wagner, who 
was instituted to the benefice in 1825, had long desired 
to improve the church, and to render it more decent and 
commodious. Plans had long been prepared by Mr. R. 
C. Carpenter, for a restoration and enlargement. One 
of these shews a very extended scheme, with gabled 
aisles and other alterations of a radical nature. Efforts 
were made to raise a church rate, but, as had often 
happened before, the inhabitants were stoutly opposed to 
it. Many riotous vestry meetings were held, some in 
the church itself, but nothing was done. 

The first entry relating to this which I find in the vestry 
minute books, now under the charge of the Vestry Clerk, 
Mr. Somers Clarke, is dated Sept. 23rd, 1 839.^* The 
meeting was held at the Directors' and Gruardians' 
Offices, " for the purpose of making a rate for S. Nicholas 
Church, etc., etc." " Resolved that the Churchwardens 
do prepare a specification and estimates of the requisite 
repairs to S. Nicholas Church, and that they do present 
a report thereon at a subsequent vestry meeting to be 
convened to receive the same." 

The next entry is as follows : — 

^^ " A public vestry meeting was held in the Town Hall, 
28*^ day of May, 1846, pursuant to the following notice: — 
Parish of Brighton. Notice is hereby given that a 

12 These are shewn in Erredge's " History of Brighton," p. 90. 
»» See also " The Churches of Brighton," p. 89, 
" Minnte book, beginning July 4, 1826, p. 191. 
^^ Minute book, beginning Oct. 21, 1844, p. 66. 

xxxir. G 



42 S. NICHOLAS^ OHUBOH, BBiaHTON. 

Public Vestry Meeting of the Inhabitants of this parish 
will be held in the Town Hall, on Thursday, the 28*^ day 
of May instant, at 11 o'clock in the forenoon precisely, 
For the purpose of making a Church rate to defray the 
necessary and lawful expenses of the Church of S* Nicho- 
las and the Church or Chapel of Base of S*" Peter in the 
said parish, and for providing such things as are usual 
and necessary for the due performance of Divine Worship 
in the said Church and Chapel of Ease, and the other 
expenses usually incurred by the Ch : Wardens in and 
about the execution of their office, and for the restora- 
tion and enlargement of the said Church of S* Nicholas 
according to the estimate of the expenditure which will 
then be submitted to such meeting by the Churchwar- 
dens of the Parish, and if on the result of a shew of 
hands a Poll shall be demanded for the making such 
rate or otherwise the same will be held at the Town Hall/' 
The way in which the polling shall be conducted is 
then described. 

"J. Cordy, ^ 
W. Bowdidge, > Ch : Wardens. 
E. Williams. ) 
G. Cheesman, Junr., ") ^ 
Edwin Thunder. ' jOvevseeva. 

Mr. Jas. Cordy in the -Chair. 

" A church rate of 6"^ in the pound was proposed to be 
made, but on a Poll being demanded the votes were 754 
in favour, 1328 against the proposal." 

I give this in full, as it is the first entry that I find of 
a very determined effort made to repair S. Nicholas 
Church, but which always met with the same result. 
The indomitable perseverance of Mr. H. M. Wagner was 
not, however, to be overcome. 

On Jan. 7th, 1847, another meeting was held, and 
again on May 6th of the same year, on which occasion 
the churchwardens produced a lengthy statement of the 
condition of the church. 

In August a vestry meeting was again convened, and 



8. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 43 

again on the 9th Deer. On this occasion a monition 
issued under the seal of the Archdeaconry Court of Lewes, 
and which had been served on the churchwardens in 
October of the same year, was read. A stormy meeting 
ensued but without result, except that the inhabitants 
presented a petition to Parliament against the compulsory 
imposition of church rates. 

On the 20th Sept., 1849, a vestry meeting was again 
held, and another on the 4th Dec, 1851, still without 
result. On Monday, May 17th, 1862, the last vestry 
meeting was held, but without effect. Some time pre- 
viously to this, the idea had occurred to Mr. Somera 
Clarke that an opportunity must soon present itself 
which would make the repair and reconstruction of the 
parish church not a bone of contention, but an act of 
grateful remembrance on the part of all the parishioners. 
This was the death of the Duke of Wellington, whose 
great age made it but too certain that the nation must 
soon mourn his loss. The effort to raise a memorial on 
the death of Sir Robert Peel in 1860, had suggested the 
idea, which was immediately communicated to Mr. 
Wagner, and met with his cordial assent. 

The Duke had been a pupil of the Rev. Henry Michell 
(grandfather of the late H. M. Wagner) who was vicar 
from 1744 to 1789, and had been a frequent worshipper 
at S. Nicholas. 

On the death of the Duke in 1862, Mr. H. M. Wagner 
seized the opportunity, and called a meeting of the in- 
habitants on Sept. 20. More than £4000 was soon col- 
lected. The names of the principal donors are set up in 
the church, and a copy of them is to be found at the 
end of this paper. 

A faculty was obtained, and the work was com- 
menced on June 3rd, 1853. In the Sussex Daily News, 
August 30, 1880, a fuller account of the particulars can 
be found .^® 

The roofs were entirely removed, the walls of the 
aisles pulled down, and indeed but little of the old fabric 
remains except the tower, the arcades of the nave, the 

^' See 4lB0 ** Churches of Brighton/' pp. 94»5. 



44 S. NICHOLAS* CHUECH, BEIQHTON. 

chancel arch, and parts df the chancel walls. A sketch 
taken o£ the building when in this state,^^ shews the sad 
skeleton to which it was found necessary to reduce the 
venerable fabric. 

It may be well to mention here that a considerable 
number of drawings, prints, and sketches exist, shewino^ 
both the exterior and interior of the Church as it stood 
prior to 1863. Many of these are hung in the Pavilion ; 
several are in the vestry of the Church ; and it is 
very desirable that possessors of original drawings 
should add them to these collections, where they would 
be accessible to the public. 

The plans for carrying out the work were prepared by 
Mr, Eichard Cromwell Carpenter, than whom a more 
competent man could not have been found. His know- 
ledge of and love for English Gothic have seldom been 
equalled. 

In addition to the cast lead inscriptions found in the 
roof, to which attention has been called, but few 
objects of antiquity were discovered. A few encaustic 
tiles, considerably worn and of ordinary pattern, and 
also tiles with the decoration produced by a slightly 
incised line, were found. Some of these came into the 
hands of Mr. Somers Clarke, and have since been pre- 
sented to the Brighton Museum. Of the carved stones in 
the tower buttress I cannot find any further evidence or 
particulars, nor of an inscription — illegible — said to have 
been found on one of the octagonal columns of the nave. 

Having carried my work thus far, it now becomes 
necessary to describe the Church as it emerged from 
the ruins, and to note the various changes or additions 
that have been made up to the present time. 

On April 8th, 1854, the Church was re-opened. On 
comparing the plan No. 2 with plan No. 1 [see Plate I.], it 
will be seen that the area of the building has been con- 
siderably enlarged. The north aisle, which had been six 
feet wide, was increased to fifteen; the south aisle was 
increased from eight to fifteen. The north aisle was 
also lengthened towards the west, so as to embrace the 

17 %Kow in the pofisession of Henrj Wagner, Esq. 



S. NICHOLAS* CHURCH, BBIGHTON. 45 

nortTi wall of the tower, and an opening was pierced 
through the north wall of the tower, giving direct 
access to the aisle. The tower remained in general out- 
line as before; the flint facing to the west and south — 
exposed to all the violence of the weather — was partly 
renewed. The western wall of the tower was cracked 
— and no wonder. In the earlier part of the cen- 
tury a huge vault and catacomb had been con- 
structed. The entrance was under the floor of the 
central passage of the nave, and has since been utilised as 
a receptacle for the stove; but with singular want of 
judgment the vault itself was constructed beneath the 
tower, the heaviest part of the whole edifice. It ex- 
tends, in part, beneath the walls themselves, and were 
it not for the firm chalk on which the structure rests, 
and its sound and substantial character, greater damage 
might have been caused. The tower is, however, now 
free from crack or flaw, and may stand yet for many 
centuries. The battlements were entirely renewed. 
Unfortunately the stone used for the new work all 
through the Church was of a character quite unsuited to 
the exposure to which it is subjected. Undoubtedly 
stone from Caen was largely imported and used in the 
middle ages, but the beds from which it was taken must 
have been better than those opened recently. Both at S . 
Paul's Church, West Street, and at S. Nicholas, the Caen 
stone has perished to so great a degree that much has 
already had to be replaced by a more durable material. 
I have already called attention to the fact that the tower 
doorway and the window over are new. 

In the chamber below the bells and above the ceiling 
visible from the Church a deep hole exists nearly pene- 
trating the east wall. I cannot ascertain the object 
of this, nor the date when it was made. It may have 
been made for access between the outer roof and the 
flat plaster ceiling that was removed in 1853. The 
traceried opening which now makes a communication 
between the hole and the interior of the Church was 
constructed a few years since for the purpose of assisting 
the ventilation. 



46 8* HICHOLAS' CHURCH, 6B1GBT05. 

The flooi'S and most of the roof in the tower were 
completely renewed* 

The nave having been disencumbered of its square 
pews and huge galleries revealed the fact that the 
columns and arches had been considerably cut into, and 
numberless little patches may still be seen upon the 
sides of the pillars, where new stone was inserted. 

The arcade is of graceful proportions — 1 feet 7 inches 
high from the floor line to the top of the capital, and 
18 feet 7 inches to the underside of the crown of the 
arch, the columns being 13 feet 9 inches from centre to 
centre. The full height of the wall is but 23 feet 
6 inches from the floor to the underside of the wall 
plate from whicb the roof springs, and the pitch of the 
roof is also low ; consequently the greatly increased size 
of the area in the reconstructed Church compared with 
what it had previously been has given an additional 
sense of lowness to the building, and has changed 
the internal effect radically. The two-light windows, 
sufficient to light the building when it was con- 
structed, were reproduced without any regard to the 
increased area they had to serve. The consequence 
of these changes has been that the building is in- 
conveniently dark. The length of the nave from the 
tower to the chancel arch is 70 feet and its width from 
wall to wall about 19 feet 3 inches. 

I believe that the roof as we now see it was a repro- 
duction as far as possible of the old. The eastern bay 
is, as it had been, boarded beneath the rafters, and 
shews five faces divided into panels by moulded ribs 
with carved bosses at their intersections. The remain- 
ing bays of the roof shew the rafters, boarded behind, 
and are without mouldings or decorations of any sort. 
The roof is carried by four tie beam trusses, one over 
each column, the tie beams being also assisted by struts 
from the wall ; the struts stand upon bold corbels. 

What may be the difference between the original con- 
struction of the aisle roofs and the present, does not appear. 

The span of the new roofs is much greater than that 
of the old. 



S. NICHOLAS* OHUROH, BRIGHTON. 47 

The chancel arch springs from half columns, the 
detail similar in all respects to the nave columns, and 
the caps at the same level. The crown of the arch is 
consequently but little higher than that of the side 
arches. It is much hidden by the beautiful rood screen, 
which will be described hereafter. The font, which had 
been placed in the centre of the nave [see Plate I., Plan 
No. 1], was removed to its present position near the 
south door. At the north end of the screen stood a 
plain pulpit; at the south a small platform, with prayer 
desk facing north, and a reading desk facing west. 
These are now removed. 

The nave was entirely reseated with the benches of 
stained deal which we now see. The windows were 
filled with grisaille glass by Hard man — of good pattern, 
but crude in colour. The Tables of the Commandments, 
Lord's Prayer, &c., were hung on the walls at the east 
ends of the north and south aisles ; whilst the Tables of 
Benefactions were hung on the south wall of the south 
aisle, where they now are. 

No system of artificial lighting or heating was intro- 
duced. In the chancel were four pews facing north and 
south, occupying very nearly the position of the present 
stalls, three of the pews being appropriated to the lay 
Rector, the fourth to a house in West Street. The 
south aisle had one pew against the wall, as now. The 
north aisle the same. The east end of the south aisle 
was occupied, as now, by the Wellington Memorial, but 
in the north aisle a low wall, about 9 feet high, extended 
across the aisle, inclosing the space beyond the respond 
of the arch. This small space was the vestry, and over 
it,' with a small archway looking southward into the 
sanctuary, was a loft for the organ. 

Small as the old organ was, it could not be squeezed 
into this space, and the Church was without an organ 
for many years. 

The chancel, as has been said, is raised one step above 
the nave floor level. The sanctuary step was, as it now 
is, on a line with the eastern responds of the side arches 
of chancel walls. This is somewhat in advance of the 



48 S. NICHOLAS* OHUECH, BRIGHTON. 

position shewn on Plan No. 1 ; whether it was a return 
to the old position I am unable to say. The walls of the 
sanctuary up to the level of the sill of the east window 
were lined with glazed "majolica" tiles, presenting a 
most chilling aspect. 

The three circles in the tracery of the head of the old 
east window had been filled with glass of the worst 
description ; the new window was filled with glass by 
Hardman, which, although it may be better than that 
whicli preceded it, is still crude and affectedly archaic in 
the extreme. The roof of the chancel was boarded in a 
polygonal form below the rafters, and divided into panels 
by moulded ribs with carved bosses at the intersections. 
It was a close reproduction of the old roof. A door 
lead out of the north aisle of the chancel opposite to 
that in the south aisle. 

The Church remained in the state here described for 
many years, receiving only two gifts — one the font 
cover, the other the iron pulpit in place of its prede- 
cessor of wood. One memorial was put in — a brass 
fixed to the step immediately before the Wellington 
Memorial. This bears the following inscription : — 

" In memory of R. C. Carpenter, who but a short 
time survived the completion of his design, the restora- 
tion of this Church, mdcoolv." 

In the year 1870, the Venble. Archdeacon Hannah 
succeeded to the vicarage of Brighton-cum-Blatchington, 
and in 1872, the organ was placed in the north aisle of 
the chancel, and inclosed by oak screens. 

In the year 1873, S. Nicholas ceased to be the Parish 
Church of Brighton, S. Peter's superseding it. The Rev. 
John Julius Hannah, son of Dr. Hannah, who had served 
in the Church as curate to his father, was appointed 
to the vicarage of the district parish assigned to S. 
Nicholas, and under his care numerous additions and 
improvements have been made, both structural and 
decorative. 

In 1874, oak stalls were erected on the north side of 



w 



\ 




PtATE H. 





Tttt^l UijU- ^fn 



«/ J. tt 



i> 



FONT. SNIiWLAS CHURCH. 



S. NICHOLAS* OHUROH, BRIGHTON. 49 

the chancel, and shortly after, those on the south side 
were put up. 

In 1876, the choir vestry and approach thereto from 
the north was added. In the same year the oak wall 
panelling and sedilia on the south side were put up, 
shortly followed by the panelling on the north side of 
the sanctuary, — this part of the work being completed 
by the generous gift of the reredos. 

Since that time numerous gifts of painted windows 
and other things useful or ornamental have been made ; 
they are enumerated near the close of this paper. 

Having thus completed a survey of the fabric, I 
must enter upon a description of its furniture in detail, 
and will begin with the font, which is undoubtedly the 
most ancient, as it is the most interesting feature in the 
Church. 

Plate II. presents a drawing to scale of the font. It 
has been illustrated several times, but I make no excuse 
for adding one more to the list, as all of those which I 
have been able to find are little more than sketches 
varying very much amongst themselves. 

Until the year 1853 the font stood as is shewn in 
Plate I., Plan No. 1, in the middle of the Church, 
on a brick base, and surrounded by a wooden 
bench. The sculptured compartments faced exactly 
as they now do, but there is no evidence to shew that 
the position it then occupied was one of any consider- 
able antiquity. Probably not, as it is certainly un- 
usual to find a font standing so far east in a small 
church, and in the middle of its central axis. It is most 
probable that it stood near a pillar ; perhaps not far 
from where it now is. A description of the font accom- 
panies the illustration already referred to,^® but it is 
sufficiently obvious that the meaning of the sculptures 
was but little understood. 

It is mentioned by John Carter in the GentlemarCs 

*• Sussex Arch. Coll., Vol. XXIX, p. 200. Illustration taken from Grimm. 
„ „ „ p. 201. See Antiquarian Repertory, 1808, 

Vol. III., p. 185, and Horsfield's " History of Sussex,*' Vol. I., p. 142. 



XXXII. 



50 S. NICHOLAS* OHTJBOH, BRIGHTON. 

Magazine^ 1808. He there calls it a trick of anti- 
quaries. Also in the same magazine in 1814. 

Erredge^® says that " in 1743 its beauty was nearly 
effaced by the churchwardens, Thomas Stranbido, 
William Buckell, and G. Warden, who had it cleaned, 
partially recut, and their names carved in the base — a 
monument of their vitiated taste, confirmed vanity, and 
profound ignorance." He then goes on to give a feeble 
description of the sculptures. 

Notwithstanding the dreadful castigation which 
Erredge gives to these unfortunate churchwardens, a 
careful investigation of the font shews that very little 
harm was done, and a reference to Hussey's Notes,^ 
where a somewhat careful drawing will be found, shews 
that the inscription cut round the base of the font 
was '' H. Stanbridg. W. BuckoU. C. Wardens. 1745." 
A lithograph signed "J. Rouse,"^^ shews the same in- 
scription as that last given. Erredge has, therefore, 
fallen into the curious mistake of turning an office into 
an individual. 

The present position of the font is near the south door 
of the Church ; it was placed there in 1863. Its material 
seems to be hard Caen stone. The figures are generally 
in mezzo relievo^ but the heads in fuller relief. It now 
stands on a stone base and plinth, resting on a square 
step. The names of the offending churchwardens are 
entirely effaced, indeed it would appear that the stone at 
this part is quite new. 

The plan is circular. The decoration is divided hori- 
zontally into three parts of unequal width. The lowest 
consists of an ornament changed four times in the 
circuit. A part consists of semi-circular decorations, 
these give place to elaborate interlaced scroll work, which 
is most skilfully changed into a species of vertical leaf 
ornament, which is as clevely blended into leaf work of 
another form. This resolves itself into the first orna- 



" " History of Brighton," p. 87. 

*• " Notes on the Churches of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey,'* etc., Rev. A. Hussey, 
UDCCCLII., p. 206. 

*» J. Rouse, •' Beauties of Sussex,'* 1825, Pts. 91, 92. 



S. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, BBIGHTON. 51 

ment, the whole being cut with clearness, and only in 
the last part shewing any sign of retooling. 

Above the band just mentioned are four panels 
of sculpture. Facing the south is the Baptism. 
Although the central figure is without a nimbus, I 
think that beyond question the subject represented is 
the baptism of Our Lord. The figures stand each under 
an arch; the figure of Our Lord under that in the 
centre, the right hand raised in benediction, the lower 
part of the body immersed in water. The head is 
covered with long waving locks, but the face is without 
indication of hair, and is considerably damaged. Under 
the arch, on our right, is a figure in a long garment 
reaching from the throat to the ground. The feet 
are not visible, nor is there any indication of them 
under the garment. A band is round the throat, a 
girdle round the waist ; the vertical band has its ends 
hidden by those at the throat and waist. No beard or 
moustache are indicated. The head is covered with 
waving hair. In the left hand is held an object consisting 
of two rolls, with a smaller one at the top, which shews 
a spiral twist, and seems to have the upper end broken 
off. The hand shews between the folds of along napkin, 
on which the vessel or object rests; the ends of the 
napkin falling nearly to the ground. The right hand 
passes behind a pillar, and is not visible, but the direc- 
tion of the arm is towards the central figure. Under 
the arch, on our left, stands a winged figure with 
abundant hair and youthful countenance. The drawing 
shews that the hands appear to pass through a garment 
or napkin, and to grasp two long folds, which curl over 
the hands and do not seem at all connected with the gar- 
ment or napkin on which they lie, except at the bottom. 
The figure is clothed in a dress showing the feet. 
There are no indications of ornament upon it. 

Moving eastward, the next subject is the Last Supper. 
It faces eastward, as it did before its last removal. The 
central figure, that of Our Lord, is a little larger in scale 
than the figures of the six apostles. The face is well 
preserved, beardless, but with a moustache much curled 



62 S. NICHOLAS* CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 

lip at the ends. The head is covered with a quantity of long 
hair, falling to the shoulders. There is a cruciform nimbus 
— the arm of the cross immediately above the head is ef- 
faced. The figure is vested in an under garment, and a cloak 
falling over the shoulders, coming partly -on to the left 
hand, but pushed back in folds from the right, which is 
raised in the act of benediction above a cup or standing 
vessel. The left hand rests on a flat loaf. 

Three figures are seen on our left. The first, next 
the central figure, with the head enclosed in a long-eared 
hood, or cap, the ends resting on the shoulders. The 
beard is somewhat long, the moustache much turned up 
at the ends, and brushed away from the mouth. This 
head is upon a separate piece of stone, inserted into the 
main block. It is not, however, a mend, but clearly a 
contemporary work with the rest. The dress consists of 
a large cloak, closed up at the throat, but thrown back 
in folds from the right hand, which is raised, as are the 
right hands of the two next figures. The left hand 
grasps a scroll, resting on one end, on the table. 

The second figure has a head-dress much like the last, 
but not reaching to the shoulder. A moustache is 
plainly shewn, but not a beard. 

The third figure has the head enveloped in a hood, 
with an escaloped border, and the traces of a chevron 
pattern slightly sunk in the stone. 

Of the three figures to the right of that in the centre, 
the first has a long and very pointed beard, with curly 
moustache, and is habited in an under garment and large 
cloak. 

The second is without a beard, and is similarly dressed 
to the last. The third has a beard and moustache. He 
seems enveloped in a cloak. The hoods of these three 
figures are alike. It will be observed that these three 
figures have the left hand raised, whilst the three figures 
to our left have the right hand raised. This may be 
done for symmetrical reasons, as the bearded and non- 
bearded faces balance in like manner. All the figures 
sit behind a long table, the cloth arranged in folds. 

Moving on to our right, we find the next subject 



S. NICHOLAS* OHTJKOH, BRIGHTON. 53 

separated from those adjoining on either hand by thin 
pillars. 

The group consists of two figures. On the right is 
one seated, the head enclosed in a close-fitting hood, no 
hair being shewn. On the top of the hood is a round 
ball. Whether this is the original shape of this orna- 
ment, or whether it was reduced to its present form by 
improving churchwardens, is not evident. The con- 
dition of the figures leads me to think that the work is as 
the sculptor left it. The face is without hair. The 
figure is vested in an under garment, reaching to the 
feet. Sleeves shew at the wrists. On this garment, a 
couple of folds show, one on each knee, and depending 
from them nearly to the foot. Falling across the knees is 
seen the lower edge of another garment, hanging at the 
sides nearly to the ground. Over the shoulders is drawn 
a cloak. The left shoulder is damaged, but the folds 
suggest that it was fastened there, and not at the throat. 
The left hand rests upon the lap. The right is raised, 
with the fingers folded over the palm. 

On our left we see a figure kneeling on one knee. 
The head is enveloped in a long hood, no hair shewing 
either on head or face ; but the countenance is curiously 
marked by very deep wrinkles from the nose to the corner 
of the mouth, and round the eyes. The figure is habited 
in a long garment, fitting closely, and falling to the 
knees. Over this is a cloak, falling back over the 
shoulders, and with a band round the neck. The left 
hadnd is not visible — it passes behind, and apparently sup- 
ports an object, on the top of which rests the right hand. 
This object consists of a top part (on which the hand 
rests) something like^ a flat cap ; from this depends a 
long flowing fold to our left, and a short pendant piece 
to our right, hanging over something scored with straight 
lines. The kneeling figure seems to offer, and the sitting 
to refuse, this object. 

Again moving to our right, we come to the next object, 
which was identified by a visitor to Brighton as illustra- 
tive of a passage in the life of S. Nicholas, the patron 
of the church. This panel faces west. 



54 S. NICHOLAS' OHUBOH, BRIGHTON. 

The chief object, and occupying a central position, is 
a ship, floating on conventional waves. In the ship are 
two figures — at each extremity is also a figure. Beginning 
on our left is an individual represented — an ecclesiastic 
— without hair on the face, the head ornamented by a 
curiously shaped cap, rising into four points (I think it 
has been somewhat recut) and falling at the back to the 
shoulders. The left hand is raised to a level with the 
face, and points over the prow of the ship to an object 
held by a man on board. The right hand holds a crook. 
The outer vestment seems to resemble a chasuble of early 
form, falling in long and large folds. The folds of the 
under garment do not suggest a vestment of any par- 
ticular nature. The next figure, to the left of the mast, 
as we look, is seated in the ship. It is without hair on the 
face, the head is enclosed in a hood. A close-fitting coat, 
with long tight sleeves, and girt about the middle, covers 
the whole of the body visible above the side of the ship. 
Lines of reticulated or chevron work, very slightly sunk, 
follow the outline of the girdle, also extending from the 
throat, down the front and around the arms. As now 
visible, and without the colour which probably at one 
time covered the whole, the treatment suggests a thick 
woollen garment, much like a sailor s jersey of to-day. 
The right hand of this figure is not visible, the left is 
raised, and holds an egg-shaped vessel, banded with 
horizontal lines. The figure to the right of the mast 
has the face considerably broken. It is dressed in a long 
coat, like the one already described, but without having 
the girdle so clearly defined. The head is enclosed in a 
cap or hood, not enveloping the ears, as in the previous 
instance. The right hand grasps the end of the tiller, 
the lower end of which is seen in the water, beneath the 
stern of the ship. The left hand is raised, and holds a 
round ball (as it now appears) which is also held by the 
female figure in the extreme right of the panel. This 
last figure stands on the water. The hair falls over the 
shoulders — I take it to be hair from the method of repre- 
sentation, and not a hood — but it is diflEicult to feel any 
certainty on this point. It is clothed in a close-fitting 



S. NICHOLAS* CHUBOH, BRIGHTON. 55 

bodice, with long sweeping sleeves. About the neck are 
three deep folds or collars, suggesting the old-fashioned 
coachman's cape. The feet are seen below the skirt. 

It is sufficiently easy to identify the subject depicted 
upon this panel — S. Nicholas admonishing the pilgrims 
to throw into the sea the vessel of oil received from the 
devil. The sculptor has shown the devil in the guise of 
a woman, as described in the latter part of the legend, 
which I subjoin. 

Whether the panel containing two figures — one of 
them with a round ball on the head — may represent the 
" worshyppe" of ** the false image of the cursed Dyane," 
I cannot say. Above the band of sculpture is a narrow 
band of lozenge ornament, very usual in Norman work. 
The drawing shows that in the band two n ew pieces are 
inserted. On plan, these come exactly opposite one 
another, and doubtless mark the place of the hinge and 
lock of the ancient cover. 

The history of S. Nicholas is set forth in the " Legenda 
Aurea" of Jacobus de Voragine. It was done into 
English, and known as " The Golden Legend," being 
one of the earliest printed books.^ I have transcribed 
as much as seems to bear upon the subject shown on 
the font. 

" Nycholas cytezeyn of y® cyte of Pancraes^^ was borne 
of ryche and holy kynne, and his fader was named 
Epyphanus, and his moder Johane." From earliest child- 
hood he would take food once only on a Wednesday and 
Friday, and eschewed all childish amusements. After 
the death of his parents he disposed of their riches, ** not 
to the praysynge of this worlde, but to y® honoure and 
glorye of God.'' *' After this the bysshop of the cyte of 
Myre dyed, and other bysshoppes assembled for to 
purveye to this chyrche a bysshop. And there was 
among y® other a bysshop of grete auctoryte, and all the 
eleccyon was in hym. And whan he had warned all to 
be in fastyges and in prayers. The bysshoppe herde that 

^ 1st ed., Westminster, 1484; second, 1487. Bj Caxton. 8rd ed,, 1493, bj 
Wynkyn de Worde. 

» •' Oivis patere," in the Latin. 



56 S. NICHOLAS* OHUEOH, BKIGHTON. 

nyght a voyce whiche sayd to him that at y® houre of 
matynes he sholde take hede to the dores of the chyrche. 
And him that sholde fyrst come to the chyrche and have 
the name of Nicholas, they sholde facte him bysshoppe." 
Thus was Nicholas made bishop, and ' folowed as he dyde 
to-fore in all thynges of humylyte and honeste of 
maners." He was " Joyous in admonestynge and cruell 
in correctynge." 

" And on a daye as a shyppe with raareners were in 
perysshynge on y* see. They prayed and required 
devoutly nycholas servante of God, sayenge yf those 
thynges y* we have herde of the sayd ben true, preue 
them now. And anone a man appered in lykenes and 
sayd. Lo see ye me not, ye called me. And then he 
began to helpe them in theyr exployte of the see. ^Lud 
.anone y® tempest ceased. And whan they were come to 
his chyrche they knewe hym. And yet they had never 
seen hym. And then they thanked God and hym of 
theyr delyueraunce, and he bad them to attrybute it to the 
mercy of God, and to theyr beleue, and no thynge to his 
merytes." 

The next meritorious act recited of the holy Nicholas 
is the means he adopted for saving his people in the time 
of famine. Idolatry was also rife. " In this coutree the 
people served ydoUes and worshipped the false ymage of 
the cursed Dyane. And to the tyme of this holy man, 
many of them hadde some custoraQS of the paynyms for 
to sacryfyce to Dyane under a sacred tree. But y* this 
good man made theym of all the countre cease thenne 
these customes and commanded to cut of the tree. Than 
the duyll was angry and wrothe agenst hym and made an 
oyle that brenned agenst nature in water and brenned 
stones also and thenne he transformed hym in the 
guyseof a relygyous man, and put him in a lytyll bote, and 
encountred pylgryms that sayled in the see towarde 
this holy man, and areasoned theym thus and sayd, I 
wolde fayne goo to this holy man, but I maye not, 
where fore I pray you to bere this oyle in to his chyrche. 
And for remembraunce of me that ye anoynte y® walles of 
y^ halle. And anone he vanysshed awaye. Tha they 



S. NICHOLAS' OHUEOH, BEIGHTON. 57 

sawe anone after another shyppe with honeste persones 
amonge whom there was one lyke to sayt Nycholas 
whiche spake to them softely. What hathe this woman^*" 
sayd to you, and what she hathe brought. And they tolde 
to hym all by order. And he sayd to them, this is 
y® euyll and foule Dyane. And to the ende that ye knowe 
that 1 saye trouthe caste that oyle in to the see. And 
whan they hadde caste it. A grete fyre caught it in the 
see. And they sawe it brenne longe agaynst nature. 
Than they came unto this holy man and sayd to him, 
Uerely thou arte he that appeared to us in the see. And 
delyuerdest us fro the see, and awaytes of y® deny 11." 

The font is surmounted by a cover of oak, given, T be- 
lieve, in 1857. It is octagonal on plan, each side of the 
octagon displaying a recessed circle enclosed in a square. 
From within a brattishing, which surmounts the squara 
panels, rises a top of eight sides, suspended by cords to 
the roof of the aisle, and balanced by a counterpoise 
through which the cords pass. On the lower edge of the 
cover are the words, " In memoriam." Each circle en- 
closes a subject, carved in high relief, of which the fol- 
lowing is a list. 

1. The Baptism of our Lord. 

2. Noah entering the Ark. 

3. Little children blessed by Christ. 

4. S. Paul baptising the gaoler and his family. 

5. Christ at the well of Samaria. 

6. S. Peter baptising converts. 

7. The ark of the covenant borne across the Jordan. 

8. Philip baptising the Eunuch of Queen Candace. 

Next to the font the screen presents the greatest in- 
terest. Sussex is but poorly off in remains of screen 
work. I suppose that no remaining example in the 
county exceeds this for beauty or completeness. It is 
divided into eight bays, the two centre bays being used 
for the doorway. It stands against the west side of the 
chancel arch. The vertical muUions at the end do not 
stand against the north and south responds of the nave, 
but are a few inches from them. The muUions stand 

'* The story begins with, " a relygyous man/' but ends as above. 
XXXII. I 



58 S. NICHOLAS* OHUROH, BRIGHTON. 

upon a continuous cilP forming the step to the chancel. 
A small buttress run up the face of each muUion, changing 
near the top to a shaftlet from which springs the groin- 
ing of the cove. This occurs both on the east and west 
sides. The solid part of each bay, forming the enclosure 
to the chancel, is divided vertically into two panels, with 
exceedingly rich traceried, cusped, and crocketed heads 
beneath a deep horizontal band of minute tracery. On 
the east side these panels are plain. The muUions are 
joined over head by depressed arches, and beneath them 
stand independent flying arches, rising into tall terminals. 
All parts are fully moulded, and have double planes of 
cusps, crockets, etc., etc. The cove under the rood loft is 
groined with fan tracery. On the west it now over- 
hangs but so far as to complete the fan, on the east the 
projection is very much greater and the fan ribs ramify 
on the soffite of the ceiling into various geometrical 
forms. 

It is unusual to find the projection of the rood loft 
greater eastward than westward, but I cannot say how 
much of the projection westward may have been de- 
stroyed when the old men's gallery was put up, or, in- 
deed, whether some of the rood loft may not thought- 
lessly have been destroyed at the time this gallery was 
taken down. In consequence, as I suppose, of the greater 
projection towards east than towards the west, and the 
fact that the angle muUions of the screen do not actually 
fit into the corners north and south, it has been suggested 
that this screen came from elsewhere, was not made for 
the church, and is turned round. I fail to see this. It 
is quite evident that the lower part of the screen stands 
as it was always intended to stand. The most richly 
decorated side is always found to the west as it is here. 

The screen retained its original colours, much impaired 
by time, till into the second quarter of this century. It 
was then neatly painted white. The lower portion was 
fortunately enclosed by the square pews which stood on 
the east and west sides. When these were removed in 

as This cill stood in the doorway, two inches aboye the ohancel pavementi bat has 
recently been cat down to a level with it. 



S. NICHOLAS* OHUEOH, BRIGHTON. 59 

1852 the original colour was revealed. This, however, 
was not accurately followed, and the present crude and 
garish positive colours, which time only has made bear- 
able, were laid all over the old work. I recollect at the 
time this was done, seeing as a child the old work, and 
also being told that the panels on the east side shewed 
traces of figures which it was not thought desirable to 
restore, they were consequently painted over. It would 
certainly be curious to find figures on the east side of a 
screen. They occur universally on the west side. The 
present mean board with a text upon it which crowns 
the cove on the west side was put up at the time of the 
restoration. 

I am not aware that at the time the north wall of the 
chancel gave place to the present arch, any remains of a 
rood stair were discovered. The method of gaining 
access to the rood loft is not obvious. 

At the south end of the screen stands the pulpit on the 
site of the prayer-desk already mentioned. This is of 
wrought iron, partly gilded and partly black. It has the 
following in iron letters around the top : " The Lord is 
my shepherd, 1867." Its design was an early effort of 
my own. The pulpit was presented by my father. 

A lectern, in oak (very unworthy of the church), 
stands in the central passage of the nave a little west of 
the screen. 

The chancel is richly furnished. The stalls have been 
already mentioned. The back row on the south side is 
divided by elbows into three seats. At the west end of 
each set of stalls is a chair for one of the clergy, and be- 
fore it a small kneeling desk with front of open tracery. 
The book board of the desk on the south side bears the 
following inscription in slightly sunk characters : 
" a.m.d.g., M.D.C.O.C.L.V.I.I.I., Gertrude Pym Reading, 
f .f ." That on the north is inscribed, in similar characters, 
" a.m.d.g., M.D.O.O.O.L.V.I.LL, B. J.S. et. XVIII, alise 
in pasohaB memoriam f.f." 

The arch on our left as we proceed eastward is filled 
with an oak screen, behind which is the organist's seat. 
The screen, rises to the top of the capitals of the re- 



60 S. NICHOLAS* OHUEOH, BRIGHTON, 

sponds, and is surmounted by a small brattishing. Above 
this an open trellis encloses the organ pipes. 

The sanctuary is surrounded with oak panelling to a 
height of seven feet six inches from the floor. The 
panels are divided by small vertical buttresses into com- 
partments, each one of which has the upper part filled in 
with elaborate tracery to correspond with that in the 
rood screen. At a height of two feet six inches from the 
floor runs a moulded string, and the heads of the panels 
below this are also filled in with tracery of a simpler form. 
The cornice above is surmounted by a pierced brattish- 
ing. 

The panelling on the South side differs from that on 
the North. The piscina, which had been placed in the 
middle of the length of wall, was removed more to the 
East and a recess was sunk, lined with oak and sedilia 
formed. These are surmounted by pierced canopy work 
and ogee labels with crockets and finials the general face 
of the work being kept on the same plane as the wall 
panelling on either hand. 

The Eastern wall of the sanctuary is also lined with 
oak panelling, keeping the same lines as that on the side 
walls, but with greater decoration in the tracery. In 
the centre below the East window is the reredos. 

This is eight feet wide and rises to a somewhat higher 
level than the panelling on either side of it. • It is of 
oak and is divided into three panels containing paintings 
in oil, the work of Mr. Matthew Ridley Corbett. 
They rise above a shelf, which, in its turn, stands a 
few inches above the top of the Altar. In the centre is 
" The adoration of the Magi." On our right " The 
Annunciation," on the left " The Baptism of Our Lord 
in the Jordan." The pictures are surmounted by a deep 
cornice of flowing leaf work, crowned by a pierced 
brattishing. On the front of the shelf is the following 
inscription : — ** Hoc sacrarium pio ac grato animo 
voluit exornatum F.A. Stapley hujus ecclesiae olim v. 
ann. e vie die xi Februarii mdcoolxxviii magno et 
repentino periculo ereptus." 

The window above has been already mentioned. 



S. NICHOLAS* OHUBOH, BEIGHTON. 61 

Beneath the chancel on its North side is the yault of the 
Friend and Kemp family. A slab with a commemorative 
inscription formerly lay above the vault, but in 1853 it 
was removed with the rest, and lay for some time 
before the porch door^ beside the still more venerable 
stone of Mr. Thomas Friend.^^ An inscribed stone to 
Mr. Friend and Mr. Kemp has recently been placed in the 
chancel. 

At the east end of the south aisle of the chancel 
stands the Wellington Memorial. This was erected from 
Mr. R. 0. Carpenter's designs at the time the church 
was rebuilt. It stands on a pavement of encaustic tiles. 
The plan is hexagonal. Upon a solid plinth richly 
diapered and with a deeply moulded and carved cornice 
stands a mass of open tabernacle work (the idea clearly 
based on the design of an Eleanor Cross) surrounding a 
central column. Upon the cap of the column stands a 
figure of S. George beneath a lofty pinnacled canopy 
which crowns the whole. With the exception of the 
central column, which is of dark marble, the memorial 
is constructed of clunch, which already shews signs of 
failing before the influence of the sea air. The design is 
in the style of the XIV. Century. The decorative work 
is carried out with a thoroughly appreciative feeling. 
Upon a label winding diagonally upwards around the 
column are the following names : — ** Assaye, Torres 
Vedras, Vittoria, Waterloo." 

Around the upper part of the solid plinth is engraved 
the following inscription upon a brass plate: — "In 
Memoriam Maximi Ducis Wellington haeo domus 
sacrosancta qua ipse adolescens Deum colebat 
reaedificatur." 

I regret that I am not able to give a list of the stops 
of the old organ. The immense advances made within 
the last few years and the reconstruction and improve- 
ments effected in the " king of instruments " have given 
a considerable interest to the specifications of old instru- 
ments of this class. 

** See " Chnrches of Brighton," Pt. 1, p. 98. 

" See " Horsted Histy. of Sussex," Vol. I., p. 111. 



62 S. NICHOLAS* OHUROH, BRIGHTON. 

The organ, built by Lincoln,^ in 1813, stood in the 
west gallery of the church. It was taken down in 1852 
and stored in a room at the Pavilion. When the church 
was re-opened it was found that the place provided for it, 
over the vestry, was quite inadequate for its accommoda- 
tion, small as it was. The church consequently remained 
without an organ till the present instrument was built 
by Bevington, 1872. The mice had by that time de- 
molished all that was eatable of the old organ, and the 
remainder being without value, none of it was worked up 
into the present instrument. 

The bells, eight in number, which hang in the tower, 
will be found described by Mr. Amherst Daniel- Tyssen, 
in Vol. XVI., of the " S. A. C," p. 202, where it is also 
mentioned that two smaller bells were taken from S. 
Nicholas, and are now at S. Peter's Church. In Brredge, 
p. 91, will be found sundry details as to the exploits of 
the ringers, etc. 

The Altar Plate, consisting of two chalices, a flagon, 
and two patens, of silver, was presented to the church in 
1824. It bore the following inscription, *' Given by 
Nath. Kemp, Esq., and Augusta Caroline, his wife, to 
the Church of St. Nicholas, Brighthelmston, Anno 
Domini, 1824.'' The chalices, which were clumsy and 
inelegant, were recast in 1880, and bear the following 
inscription : " Given by Nathl. Kemp, Esq., and Augusta 
Caroline, his wife, to the Church of S. Nicholas, Bright- 
helmston, Anno Domini, 1824. Ee made Easter, 
1880." 

A credence plate, of silver, was also provided, bearing 
the following inscription : — " Presented to S. Nicholas 
Church, Brighton, by the congregation. Easter, 
1880." 

On the south side of the church and to the east of the 
paved pathway leading up the hill from North Street, 
stands the lower part of the church yard cross. This is 
drawn to scale on Plate III. 

Not many years since the footpath divided at a short 

>> The organ in the mnsio-room at the Pavilion is by the same bailderi who was 
in considerable repute early in the century. 



t J A r 6 



J^=4 



3ME. OF- CHMCHYAKO. OtOtS. S.NIOlOLM.CMVIiCH, BRiqHTOM 
W£AS0/t£O . /8S0 Jm>ai CfikJ-^ /mm:.i o^.- 



S. NICHOLAS* CHUROH, BRIGHTON, 63 

distance south of the church, a branch leading directly 
to the south door of the chancel. This path was closed 
when it was found necessary to rail in the church yard. 
The cross then stood between the two paths. 

It consists of an octagonal base stone, each side of the 
octagon presenting a face 12in. long and 12in. high. The 
top is reduced to an octagon shewing 9^in. on each face 
by a bold chamfer, which, as far as the mouldering sur- 
face permits me to judge, appears to have been slightly 
hollow. From the upper surface of the base stone sprang 
the shaft, only the lower part of which remains. When 
the drawing was made, from which this illustration is 
taken (in July, 1880), this stone was as is here shewn, 
but during the last winter the over-hanging piece was 
knocked off or perished by the frost. The remain- 
ing part of the shaft is square on plan, and is run in with 
lead to the base stone. The steps, owing to the slope of 
the ground, are not equal all round, but are gradually lost 
as the hill rises. There are no vestiges of panel work or 
inscription. The whole surface is much decayed. 

The following is a copy of a painted panel fixed to the 
south wall of the south aisle, on the east side of the porch 
door : — 

" To THE Glory of God 

This ancient Church was restored by Contributions at the time of 
England's mourning for the death of Field Marshal the Duke of 
Wellington, who in his youth worshipped in this Holy Place. 

Henry Michell Wagner. Vicar. 

James Cordy. 
Thomas Smith. 

Churchwardens. 

Charles Cheesman. Succeeded. 
Thomas Pocock. 

Somers Clarke. Vestry Clerk. 

Richard Cromwell Carpenter. Architect. Bobert Bushby. Builder. 



64 



S. NICHOLAS' OHUBOHi BRIGHTON. 



CONTRIBUTORB. 



£ 8. d. 

His Qrace the Archbishop 

of Canterbury ... 10 
The Lord Bishop of Chi- 
chester ... ...100 

The Marquis of Bristol 100 
The Rev. H. M. Wagner, 

Vicar of Brighton 1000 

G. H. M. Wagner, Esq. 20 

Miss Wagner ... 50 

Rev. Arthur Wagner^... 10 

Rev. George Wagner ... 10 

Rev. H. V. Elliott^ ... 25 

Ret. Thos. Cooke* ... 20 

Rev. Thos. Trocke* ...10 

Rev. James Vaughan^... 10 10 

Rev. S. R. Drummond^ 10 

Rev. I. H. North® ... 10 

Rev. F. Reade ... 10 

Rev. S. Clarke ... 10 

Rev. F. W. Watson ... 10 
The Lord Alfred Hervey, 

M.P., Brighton* ... 20 
Adl. Sir G. Brooke 

Pechell, M.P., do.i<>... 20 

Thomas Attree, Esq.ii... 62 10 

Bomers Clarke, Esq. ... 50 

Miss Burdett Coutts ...105 

W. M. Trocke, Esq. ... 50 

Mrs.W. Trocke ... 50 

P. G. Cazalet, Esq. ... 52 10 
Earl of Stamford and 

Warrington ...100 
Countess of Stamford and 

Warrington ... 50 
Messrs. Yallance, Catt, 

and Co. ... ... 50 

Wm. Catt, Esq. ... 30 

Wm. Catt, Esq., jun. ... 30 

A Friend of the Vicar... 30 '0 
Another Friend of the 

Vicar, Thank-offering 

for blessing reed, at 

S. Nicholas ... 50 

Lewis Slight, Esq.12 ... 20 

Henry Smithers, Esq. ... 20 
Messrs. G. Cheesman and 



Son 



... 20 



W. Eirkpatrick, Esq.... 
Messrs. Palmer and Co. 
W. Beedham... 
Mr. Wm. Hallett 
Robert Taylor, Esq. ... 
Mrs. Standert 
The Misses Windle^' ... 
R. Upperton, Esq. 
Captain Keane 
S. K. Scott) Esq. ••• 

LHoskin, Esq. 
I. Blencowe, Esq. 
Miss M. A. Blencowe ... 
Dr. Ormerod... 
Alexis Dorat, Esq. 
E. I. Turner, Esq. 
E. Blaker, Esq. 
Mrs. and Misses Blaker 
H. M. Blaker, Esq. 
I. S. McWhinnie, Esq. 
R. C. Carpenter, Esq., 

archt. 
Miss White ... 
Isaac Smith, Esq. 
G. P. Hill, Esq. 
Mrs. L. Goldsmid 
H. P. Tamplin, Esq., 

High Constable 
Mr. Samuel Weller 
Miss Gordon... 
Mrs. Thompson 
Mrs. Vallance 
Mrs. Mayers... 
Miss Shephard 
Price Bowen, Esq. 
Miss Willis ... 
Chas. King, Esq. 
Isaac Hargraves, Esq.... 
Thomas Barber, Esq. ... 
Thomson Hankey^ Esq. 
Dr. Sutherland 
Captain Pasley 
Francis Sheriff, Esq. ... 
Mr. Olliver ... 
Robert Steell 
Mrs. Garbett 
Miss L. M. Robertson... 



£ 


8. 


d. 


10 








10 








10 








10 








10 


10 





10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 


10 





10 








10 


10 





10 








15 


15 





10 








10 








10 








10 


10 





10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 








10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 





10 


10 






S. NICHOLAS OHUBOH, BRIGHTON. 



65 



M. D. Scott, Esq. 
Rev. A. W. Greenfield 
Eev. R. Tritton 
Rev. Dr. Holland 



£ 

10 
20 
10 
10 



Rev. Lutman Johnson... 10 



• • • 



25 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



Rev. Dr. Bliss 
Rev. W. Cooper 
Rev. R. Moore 
Rev. C. A. Hunt 
Miss Hunt ... 
I. Cordy, Esq. 
Mr. T. Smith 
Mr. G. Gheesman, 

succeeded bj 
Mr. T. Pocock, 

Churchwarden 
Messrs. Gilburd 
Major-General Walton 
SirT. Blomefield, Bart. 
The Marquis of Exeter 
Mrs. Sober and Mrs. 

Ghatfield ... 
L. T. Flood, Esq. 
F. I. Nugee, Esq." 
Lord Willoughby 

d'Eresbyi* 
A Friend, unknown (sent 

to the Vicar from 

Scarborough) ... 20 

~ 25 

20 
10 



... 



... 



20 
20 
20 
25 

25 
10 
21 



W. I. Gampion, Esq. ... 
Miss Hanington 
Sir A. Dalrymple, Bart. 
Gol. Wyndham, Pet- 

worth^® 
The Miss Gonnop 
Messrs. Hall, West, and 

Borrer" ... 
A Dissenter ... 
I. Atkinson, Esq. 
Mrs. G. Hopkins 
I. G. Young, Esq. 
Thos. Freeman, Esq. 
W. A. Soames, Esq. 
John Alfree, Esq. 
Brighton Oazette 



. . . 



a . . 



s. d. 







10 















10 

10 



10 



















20 











25 

20 

60 

40 

20 

20 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



Henry Dawes, Esq. 
Lt.-Col. Paineis 
Fredk. Perkins, Esq. 
W. Selwyn, Esq. 
Gary Etwes, Esq." 



£ 

10 
10 
21 
10 
25 



Frederick Gooper, Esq. 10 

Isaac Tree Rich, Esq. ... 10 

Thomas Gubitt, Esq. ... 10 

E. W. Wadeson, Esq.... 10 

Thos. Freeman, Esq., 

Sillwood ... ... 10 

W. Stanford, Esq.20 ... 10 

Mrs. H. Neville ... 10 

Joseph Harvey, Esq. ... 10 

P. Gazenove, Esq. ... 10 

Reeves, Esq. (^tc) and 

Mrs. Reeves ... 10 

Mr. R. Edwards ... 10 

Messrs Ghapman ... 10 
Brighton Gas Light and 
Goke Company, Black- 
rock ... ... 10 

Brighton and Hove Gas 
Company ... ... 15 

Brighton and South 
Coast Railway Com- 
pany ... ... 26 

A. B., by the Vicar ... 20 



s. d. 













10 





10 





10 

10 



10 





10 
15 



5 




3554 15 
Sums contributed 
under £10 ... 1403 6 6 



£4958 1 6 



There is a considerable amount of interest attached 
to many of the names in this list. I have noted, so far 
as I have been able, some of the names and their asso- 
ciations with Brighton at the time : — 

XXXII. K 



66 S, NICHOLAS* OHUEOH, BBIGHTON. 

^ Freqnentlj resident at that time in Kemp Town, a munificent 
donor to many charitable objects. He gave the site and contributed 
mainly to the cost of erecting S. Mark*s Church, Sussex Square. He 
was equally liberal to S. Mary's Hall. He also presented a large piece 
of ground to the parish for a cemetery. His eldest son was Lord Alfred 
Heryey, at that time M.P. for Brighton. See also Erredge, p. 844. 

2 Now Vicar of S. Paul's, West Street. 

^ Incumbent of 8. Mary's, S. James' Street, since rebuilt partly 
by the Elliott family and partly by public subscription. 

* Perpetual Curate of 8. Peter's Church. 

* Incumbent of the Chapel Royal, North Street. 

* Incumbent of Christ Church, Montpellier Road. 
^ Incumbent of S. John's, Carlton Hill. 

® Incumbent of 8. George's Chapel. 
® Son of the Marquis of Bristol, 
w See S. A. C, Vol. XXVI., p. 113. 

11 Of the Queen's Park. 

12 To whose energy we mainly owe the purchase of the Pavilion by 
the town. 

w They built S. MichaeVs Church. 
1* Who built Eastern Terrace. 

1* His Lordship's Brighton house still exists, though considerably 
altered, on the the King's road, immediately west of Oriental Place. 
1® Afterwards Lord Leconfield. 
17 Of the Union Bank, North Street, 
w Of Patcham Place. 
1* A mistake for Elwes. 
20 Of Preston Place. 

On the painted panel on south wall of south aisle next 
west of porch door are inscribed the following : — 

" Benefactions to the Town op Brighthelmston. 

Mr John Wooler,2» AD 1617 left 20«per annum For the relief of 
the Poor of the Parish 

Mr Thos Humpheryso AD 1629 left £2 per annum For the relief of 
the indigent and aged 

. Mr Ed** Joye^i AD 1663 left £4 per annum For the relief t)f the in- 
digent and aged 

The Rev AnthoT Springaltsa AD 1725 left 8" per annum* And in the 
year 1740 the further sum of £25 per annum For the education of 20 
poor boys belonging to this Parish 

Mr George Beach^^ AD 1735 left £2 10* per annum to the aforesaid 
Oharity School for an annual sermon and for the Poor of the Parish 

29 "Horafield/' Vol. I., p. 165. 

«o "Horsfield," Vol. I., p. 165. 

»i " Horsfield/* Vol. I., p. 155. 

" See Erredge's " History of Brighton," p. 853. 

" See " Erredge," p. 363. " Horafield/^ Vol. I., p. 166. 



S. NICHOLAS' OHUECH, BRIGHTON, 67 

The Countess of Gower^^ AD 1771 left £7 V per annum for the 
aforesaid Charity School 

Mr William Grimmett^^ AD 1768 left £69 8' per annum for the edu- 
cation & clothing 20 poor boys of this Parish 

Mrs Mary Marriott^^ in pursuance of the directions contained in the 
wills of Mrs Dorothy & Miss Anne Percy AD 1796 erected six Alms- 
houses for the reception of 6 poor widows of the Church of England 
who have received no Parochial relief & endowed them with the sum 
of £48 per annum to be increased at her decease to £96 

Swan Downer Esq^'' died Feb 22 1816 aged 81 years & bequeathed 
the sum of £5000 in perpetuity the interest thereof to be applied to the 
clothing 25 poor men & 25 poor women of this Parish or any other 
number for which the said funds may be found sufficient at the rate of 
£5 for each man & £3 for each woman at Christmas in every year and 
also the sum of £7100 for providing and endowing a school for the in- 
struction of 20 or more poor girls of this Parish & for clothing them 
twice in every year O /^ ^/^^, Ji <^^ 

John Hervey OUney of Chellinham Esq L*. Col? of the South 
Gloucester Militia by his Will dated 1836 bequeathed to this Parish 
the sum of £500 to be invested in the names of the Vicar & Church- 
wardens in the Public Stocks or Funds the interest & divid^® whereof 
are to be expended in the purchase of coals and blankets to be dis- 
tributed at Christmas annually to such poor deserving persons as the 
Vicar & Churchwardens might select & directed that this bequest 
should be notified in legible characters in the Parish Church. The 
above sum has accordingly been invested in the purchase of 
£548 „ 13 ,, 11 3 percent consols in the names of the Rev^ Henry 
Michell Wagner Vicar and Messrs John Holford George Cheesemau 
& George Chittenden Churchwardens 

(Second Board of Benefactions.) 

Mrs Ann Elizabeth Wagner bequeathed in the year 1844 £100 
sterling to her son the Revd Henry Michell Wagner Vicar of Brighton 
Upon trust to be invested in Government Stock & Dividends applied 
to the Brighton National Schools 

Henry Bnrnell Esq in the year 1848 bequeathed £100 sterling to 
the Vicar of Brighton Upon similar trust Both the sums now form part 
of £874 „ 2 ,, 4d three per cent reduced invested in the names of 
Henry Michell Wagner Thomas Cook and Eardly Nicholas Hall. 

James Charles Miohell Trustee of the Percy Almshouses in the year 
1841 gave £1 „ 10 per annum in aiigmentation of th« fund. 

The Viscountess Combermere in the year 1844 upon the decease of 
her father directed £200 consols to be invested & the same all now 
standing in the names of the Vicar of Brighton and the Perpetual 

»* «Erredge,»' p. 354. " Horsfield," Vol. I., p. 165. 

" " Erredge/* p. 354. " Horsfield," Vol. I., p. 165. 

»• See Erredge'a ** Hiatory of Brighton," p. 343. " Horsfield," Vol. I., p. 155. 

»7 See " Erredge," p. 356. " Horsfield," Vol. I., p. 165. 



68 S. NICHOLAS* CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 

curates of St. Peters Gharch and All Sonls Ghnrch upon trust to dis- 
tribute the dividends in halfcrowns amongst the poor Widows at 
Christmas. 

Miss Mary Ann Billington in the year 1855 gave to the Vicar £200 
sterling which has been invested in £214„16„ 11 consols in the names 
of Henry Michell Wagner, Thomas Cook and Arthur Douglas Wag- 
ner Upon trust to apply the dividends or a competent part of them or 
of the I stock if need be in repairing & renewing the headstone plinth 
& iron railing around her grave in the Parish Church Cemetery and 
to apply the surplus of the dividends for the benefit of the poor of 
Brighton as the Vicar shall think fit. Charles Pieschell Esq in the year 
1820 bequeathed £200 per annum to the Earl of Chichester Upon 
trust as to £100 for the poor parishioners of Brighton as the trustee 
should think proper the other £100 for the dispensary & infirmary" 



The Windows. 

A complete scheme was drawn up and hung in the 
porch in 1879, for filling all the windows in the church 
with stained glass. The following is a copy. Subjoined 
is a copy of the inscriptions upon each window : — 

East window. The Crucifixion. 

East window of Chancel Aisle. Christ appearing to St. Mary Magdalene 

in the Garden. 

Side windows of Chancel Aisle. 

1. The Incredulity of St Thomas. 
. 2. Small windows over the door. Heraldry. 
3. The walk to and supper at Emmaus. 

North Aisle. South Aisle. 

1. Via Dolorosa. 1. Christ in the Temple among 

2. Christ before Pilate. the Doctors. 

3. The Betrayal. 2. Adoration of the Magi. 

4. Gethsemane. 3. Nativity. 

5. Institution of Eucharist. 4. Annunciation. 

6. Entry into Jerusalem^ 

West Wall. ; West Wall. 

St. Nicholas. St. WUfrid, 

Tower. Adam and Eve. 

These windows are all designed and executed by Mr. 
Charles Emer Kemp, son of Mr. Nathaniel Kempe, of 
Ovingdean, the donor of the Altar plate. 



S. NICHOLAS* CHURCH, BRIGHTON. 69 

Copy of Inscriptions on the Windows. 

East window. This is not yet put in, but is promised 
as a memorial of the Kemp family. 

East window of Chancel Aisle. 

In joyful hope of a blessed resurrection & in loving remembrance of 
William Boxall & Lucy Ann his Wife this window is dedicated by 
their son William Perceval Boxall AD MDCCCLXXXI. 

Side windows of Chancel Aisle. 

1. In the reverence of God and in loving remembrance of Emily Jane 
Smithers who fell asleep April 7th 1881 this window is dedicated by her 
sorrowing husband and children. Also in God*s Acre adjoining this 
church rest in peace the beloved Mother & Brother of Henry Welsford 
8mithers many years Vicar's Church Warden of this parish.^* 

2. In memory of Henry Mich ell MA Vicar of Brighton 1744-89 & 
those of his family who rest below. 

In memory of Henry Mich ell Wagner MA Vicar of Brighton 1824- 
70 & of those of his family who rest below. 

Giving thanks to God & in memory of Henry Michell Wagner MA 
for 45 years vicar of Brighton Somers Clarke has caused this Window 
to be made 1879 Amico Amicus 

South Aisle of Nave. 

1. In the reverence of God & in memory of Herbert Alexander Orr 
MA Deacon & sometime curate of this Church his many friends 
have caused this Window to be made 1878. 

2. In the reverence of God & in memory of her parents & others 
gone before Catherine Brooke Hart has caused this window to be made 
MDCCCLXXVIIL 

3. In the reverence of God & as humble acknowledgment of his good- 
ness & mercy John Frederick Eyles of Brighton has caused this 
Window to be made 1879. 

4. In the reverence of God & in memory of Elizabeth Cleaver & 
Louisa Hunt Thomas Brown Crunden their brother has caused this 
window to be made 1879. 

West Wall, South Aisle. 

1. In memory of his grandfather and uncle For twenty years succes- 
sively organists of this Church Arthur Stanley now Organist dedicates 
this Window. 

West Wall, North Aisle. 

2. In dear memory of John Pocock, for 38 years Parish Clerk of 
Brighton this Window is dedicated by his daughter Emily Pocock 1880. 

'" The subject of this window was changed from that stated in the list. It is 
*• Feed my lambs." 



70 S. NICHOLAS* OHUBOH, BRIGHTON. 

North Aisle of Nave, 

1. To the glory of God and to the dear memory of Anne Sophia 
Hannah who for 8 years worshipped near this spot, her husband and son 
have dedicated this window A.D. 1879. 

2. To the glory of God and in loving memory of Catherine Anne 
Ghilver who died in 1 874 her husband sometime Curate of this Church 
has dedicated this window 1880. 

3 (a). To the memory of John Shelley sexton a faithfulservant of this 
Church all the days of his life A.D. 1818-1875 his family and friends 
dedicate this window. 

(b). In the memory of his uncle William Shelley 54 years sexton 
George Shelley many years Churchwarden dedicates this window A.D. 
1880. 

4. In the reverence of God and in memory of Sarah Williams a faith- 
ful servant and friend Gertrude Pym Heading has caused this window 
to be made 1880. 

5. To the glory of God and in grateful recollection of the Parochial 
Mission held in this Church in February 1880 186 Parishioners have 
dedicated this window. 

6. Not yet filled. 

Inscriptions and Tombstones in Choir Vestry and approach from 

Church Street. 

This addition to the church was constructed so as to 
pass between the few graves that occupied the site. 
Every tombstone and headstone was preserved ; the 
flat stones being laid in the floor, the headstones built 
into the walls. 

Inscription on a Slate Tablet over the Choir Vestry Fireplace, 

" This Choir Vestry and adjoining Cloister were added to the ancient 
church of S* Nicholas A.D. 1876-7. The foundation stone was laid by 
John Hannah, D.C.L., Archdeacon of Lewes, The Vicar of Brighton, 
on S* Matthew's day (Sep* 21^, 1876) and the buildings were first used 
by Eichard, Lord Bishop of Chichester, on Wednesday in Holy Week 
(March 28<^) 1877. 

John Julius Hannah, M.A., Vicar. 

Frederick Anthony Stapley, M'.A."^ 
George Eawlinson, >Curates. 

Herbert Alexander Orr, M.A. J 

Somers Clarke, Jun., Architect. 
George Lynn & Sons, Builders. 



S. NICHOLAS* OHUEOH, BRIGHTON. 71 

On the Floor of Choir Vestry, 

Here lieth y® body of Richard Masters gent who departed this life 
March y« 27. MDCCXVI Aged 77 years Here Also lieth Alice his Wife 
who Died May y« 25. 1696 aged 56 years. 

Here Also Lyeth the Body of Capt° Benjamin Masters Gent who 
departed this life the 28*** day of September 1749 in the 48th year of 
his age. 

Here also Lieth the Body of Hannah the Wife of Capf* Benjamin 
Masters who departed this life the 22^^ day of July 1755 Aged 55 
years. 

Inside the Cloister leading to Choir Vestry , built into the East Wall, 

Here lyeth Anne y® wife of Rich* Hal aged 28 & Elizabeth aged 
22 years bot^ Daughters of Henry & Mary Stanbridge^^ who died in 
May 1728 They were 2 Loving Sisters 

Who in this dust now ly that 

Very day Anne was Bury* 

Elizabeth did dy. 



On the West Wall 

Here lyeth the Bodyes of Eliz abeth and Mar^ Peircy Daughte rs 
of Cheesman And Mary Peir cy who departed this Life 1709. 

Upon the Eastern face of the East Wall of the Cloister beginning at the 

North end, 

1. Sacred to the memory of George Pearce who was unfortunately 
drowned 17"* August 1817 in the 20^ Year of his Age 

His fate was hard but God's decree 
Was drown'd he should be in the sea. 

2. To the Memory of 10 HN son of SAMUEL and SARAH 
TOWNER who departed this life April 5«* 1836 Aged 26 years 
This stone is erected by his sister JANE 

3. HERE .LYETH THE. BODY. OF THOMAS TVPPE (n?) 
BRICKLAYER . DIED Ye 4«» OF . MAY . 1712 IN. THE. 72. 
YEAR — 

4. IN MEMORY of W"' Marchant who died December 24*»» 
1780 aged 63 years 

5. IN MEMORY of M" Susanna Standing who died 3 Feb 
1803 Aged 67 years 

6; Here lie the Remains of Mary Wife of William Marchant who 
died June 4*^ 1789 aged 63 years 

My loving Children all 

agree 

Pray live in Love & Unity. 

'^ Possibly H. Stanbridge, who, as Churchwarden, put his name on the font. 



72 8. NICHOLAS* CHUEOH, BRIGHTON. 

7. In memory of DAVID JONES Esquire who died the 16 day 
of June 1804 aged 83 years I know that my Redeemer liveth 

8. Sacred to the memory of ESTHER daughter of WILLIAM 
and MARY HINE who departed this life September 14. 1819 aged 
19 years WILLIAM GODFREY HINE who died April 29*>^ 1818 
aged 28 years 

Monument to Captn. Nicholas TetteraelL 

Although it is not proposed to give the inscriptions 
upon any other monument or tombstones in the church- 
yard, I may be pardoned for giving a description of the 
tomb in which rest the remains of Tettersell, more 
especially as I find that the copies of the epitaph, as 
given in Horsfield's ** History," Vol. I., p. 125 ; in 
Erredge's "History of Brighton," p. 104; in Martin's 
" History of Brighton," p. 36 ; and in " Churches of 
Brighton," p. 103, do not accurately agree amongst 
themselves, nor with the inscription upon the tomb. 

The tomb itself lies immediately to the south of the 
south aisle of the Chancel, and in the angle formed by 
the projection of the south wall of the nave beyond that 
of the chancel aisle. 



p. H. s. 

OAPT NIOBOLAS TETTEBSELL THBOUGH WHOSE PBITDENOB 

UALOUB AN LOYALTY OHABLES THE SECOND KINGh OP 

ENGhLAND. AND APTEB HE HAD ESCAPED THE SWOBD ov 

HIS MEBCHiESS BEBELLS AND HIS PPOBSES BECEIUD A 

PATALL OtJEBTHBOWE AT WOBCESTEB SEPi* 8d 1651 

WAS PPAITHPULLY PBESEBVED AND CONUEYED INTO 

PPBANCE. DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 24th DAY OP lULY 1674 
» • » 

M 

WITHIN THIS MABBLE MONUENT DOTH LYE 

APPBOUED PPAITH HONOb AND LOYAI/TY 

IN THIS COLD CLAY HE HATH NOW TANE UP HIS STATION 

AT ONCE PBESEBUED Ye CHUBCH THE CBOWN AND NATION 

WHEN CHABLES Ye &BEAT WAS NOTHING BUT A BBEATh 

THIS VALIENT SOULE STEPT BETWEENE HIM AND DEATH 

USUBPEBS THBEATS NOB TYBANT BEBELLS FBOUNE 

COULD NOT APBIGHT HIS DUTY TO THE CBOWNE 

WHICH GLOBIOUS ACT OP HIS POB CUBCH AND STATE 

EIGHT PBINCES IN ONE DAY DID GBATULATE 

PBOPESSING ALL TO HIM IN DEBT TO BE 

AS ALL THE WOBLD ABE TO HIS MEMOBY 

SINCE EABTH COULD NOT BEWABD HIS WOBTH HAUE GIUEN 

HE NOW BECEIVES IT FBOM THE KING OP HEAUEN 



8. NICHOLAS* CHUEOH, BRIGHTON. 73 

IN THE SAME OHEST ONE lEWELL MOBE YOU HAUB 
THE FABTNEB OP HIS UEBTUES BED AND GBAYE 
\\\ /// \\\ /// 

SUSANNA HIS WIFE WHO DECESED Ye 4 DAY OF MAY 1672 

Ob cE Ob 

TO WHOSE FIOUS MEMOBY AND HIS OWN HONOb NICHOLAS 
THEIBE ONLY SON AND lUST INHEBITE OF HIS FA^HEBS 
UEBTUES HATH PAYD HIS LAST DUTY IN THIS MONUMENT 

1676 

HEBE ALSO LIETH INTEBBED THE BODY OF CAPTAIN 
NICHOLAS TETTEBSELL HIS SON WHO DEPABTED THIS 
LIFE THE FOURTH OF THE CALENDS OF OCTOBEB 
1701 IN THE 57 YEAB OF HIS AGE 

List of Stops in the Organ, erected by Bevington, 1872. 

Mixture. Trumpet. Mixture. Gomopean. 

Harmonic Flute. Principal. Lieblict Gedact. Principal. 

Dulciana. Claribel. Bell Gamba. Wald Flute. 

Open Diapason. Bell Diapason. Double Diapason. Open Diapason. 

Great to Pedals. Swell to Pedals. Swell to great. Bourdon. 

Open Diap. 16ft, 
Two manuals and pedal. 



Since the above was written a new pavement was laid 
down in the chancel, Nov., 1881. During the progress 
of the work the entrance to a vault was laid open imme- 
diately under the centre of the first step of the sanctuary. 
The opening disclosed a steep flight of steps leading 
westward to a strong iron door which opened into a large 
vault immediately under the centre of the Chancel. This 
vault proved to be that of the Kemp family, and was 
erected by Mr. Thomas Read Kemp. At the southern 
extremity of its eastern wall opened out a long brick 
grave, the floor considerably above that of the vault, and 
extending under the sanctuary to the eastern wall of the 
church. In this grave were eight coffins, six on the floor 
and two above. The following inscriptions were legible : — 

Annie Elizabeth Sober, bom 1807. died 1809 

Anne Kemp, wife of Thomas Kemp Esq M.P — 
1807 aged 58 years 

Thomas Kemp Esq M.P. died 3* May 1811 aged 65 years 

John Kemp, died 25"* September 177— 
XXXII. L 



74 S. NICHOLAS' OHUEOH, BRIG ETON. 

In the large vault were three coffins on the floor, with 
the following inscriptions : — 

Mrs Frances Eemp, wife of Thomas Bead Kemp Esq 
M.P died a* March 1825. Aged 41. 

Mary Esther Sober, died 16^ October 1832. 

Frances Sober, bom 1811. died. 7^ January 1827. 

Two of the coffins in the brick grave are undoubtedly 
those of the two Mr. Thomas Friends. 

I find the following entries of burials in the parish 
books : — 

Dec' 14^ 1761. Thomas Friend, gentleman 

December 23^ 1763. Thomas Friend. Oentleman 
from Lewes. Lord of this Manoor. 

Mr. John Kemp was a nephew of the first Thomas 
Friend, and from him received the bulk of the property 
held in Brighton by the Kemp family. 

The Friend and Kemp memorial stones already men- 
tioned were, when the vault was opened, placed within 
it. A stone, with the following inscription, is laid on 
the chancel floor at the east end of the north stalls : — 

Beneath this Chancel rest the bodies of Thomas Friend who died 1761. 
Thomas Friend who died 1763. Also of Nathaniel Kemp. John Kemp 
and Mary his wife, Thomas Kemp. M.P. and Ann his wife and others of 
their kindred.—1881— 



LEADEN FONTS IN SUSSEX. 



By J. LEWIS ANDES, Esq. 



Although stone or marble were the materials com* 
monly employed in the construction of fonts, they were 
occasionally formed of metal, lead being that most fre- 
quently so used. Many foreign examples remain, and a 
list I have compiled gives a total of twenty-nine (either 
wholly or partially so composed), as existing in our own 
country. Of this number three are in Sussex, the rest 
being distributed over eleven other counties. The 
examples in our own district are in no way inferior to 
the other specimens, but replete with interest to the 
antiquary, the architect, and the artist ; Edburton, Par- 
ham, and Piecombe — parishes situated in the southern 
part of " Southsex," and the first and last almost adjoin* 
ing one another ; possess examples of leaden fonts, each 
of much quaint beauty. 

Those at Edburton and Piecombe are of late Norman 
date, that at Parham is, I believe, imique as belonging 
to the purest of the Pointed styles, the Decorated ; all 
other specimens remaining in England appear to be either 
Norman or Post-Reformational as regards the period of 
their execution. 

Leaden fonts were, from the flexible nature of their 
material, most easily and readily fashioned into a cir- 
cular or tub-shaped form, and many of them are there- 
fore of this outline, being, in fact, short cylinders, whilst 
others are curved inwards at the base, as in the Norman 
one at Avebury, Wilts. In each example I have seen m 
sitUy or know of by means of descriptions or drawings, 



76 LEADEN FONTS IN SUSSEX. 

the bowl alone is of metal, placed upon a stem or base 
of stone or brick. The majority of those of the Norman 
era have foliage work twining about the surface, or small 
figures under a continuous range of arches. The finest 
specimen appears to be one at Brookland, Kent, which 
has two rows of arcading encircling the bowl, the lower 
with the labours of the months, the upper having the 
signs of the zodiac, twenty figures in each circlet. 
Arcaded bowls exist at Dorchester, Oxon, and Walton- 
on-the-Hill, Surrey, both have figures within the arches. 
At Ashover, Derbyshire, the statuettes only are of lead, 
whilst the rest is of stone. Woolhanfipton font has the 
metal cut away at the back of each image, showing a 
stone foundation round which the lead has been pressed. 
Another Berkshire example at Childrey has twelve effigies 
of mitred bishops in as many recesses. Llancourt and 
Tidenham, in Gloucestershire, have fonts with patterns on 
them, evidently cast in the same mould, as is probably 
the case with portions of those at Edburton and Pie- 
combe. 

The method employed in making these vessels was 
apparently first to cast them flat, afterwards bend them 
into the required circular form, and then solder them up, 
the edges which have been so joined are clearly seen on 
the bowls at Edburton and Piecombe, where the patterns 
are " botched " or mutilated by it. On some examples 
the figures and ornaments are/ac simiUes, many times re- 
peated on the same work, and it is most likely in these 
cases that a single one was first carved out of wood, and 
then impressed on sand as often as required to complete 
the entire design. All the Sussex specimens would 
appear to be thus formed, and the practice was a common 
one in the cast-iron works of the South of England, 
many Sussex fire-backs being composed of a shield or 
monagram, repeated at intervals over the surface, a 
good instance of which may be seen on a casting belong- 
ing to Miss Alman, East Street, Horsham. 

Mr. Burges, who made metal work one of his chief 
studies, noted a leaden font at Amiens, in which all the 
traceries, buttresses, arches, and figures were fastened 



;i 



I 







K 
h 

r 



t ' 

f 

} 

1 



LEADEN FONTS IN SUSSEX. 77 

on with rivets in the same manner as if the material used 
were iron. 

As mentioned above two of the specimens of metal 
fonts in Sussex are evidently in great part moulded from 
the same pattern, the whole of the upper portions of the 
bowls at Edburton and Piecombe being precisely similar 
in design ; the latter, I am iacliaed to think, the oldest 
of the two. It is now placed on a modern circular stem, 
and measures 23^ inches across the outside of the cornice 
22 inches inside diameter, the depth of the outer face is 
15 inches, and inside the bowl 13f inches ; the design 
is divided into four horizontal bands of ornament sur- 
rounding the cylindrical basin, the lowest is composed 
of fifteen circular-headed arches on moulded caps and 
thin flat pilasters, within each compartment so formed is 
a pattern of peculiar character, but by no means inele- 
gant, it has a central ring through which foliage scroll- 
work is interlaced, over this is a band of continuous 
floriated ornament, with leaves above and below an un- 
dulating scroll, all the upper foliage being alike, but the 
lower, formed of two alternate patterns ; above this is an 
arcade of nineteen trefoil arches of a purely Early Eng- 
lish motifs the whole composition being finished with a 
cornice formed of a series of members similar to those 
of a cushion capital of Norman date. The upper range of 
arches at Piecombe has on the alternate bays small 
circular bosses which are wanting at Edburton. 

Besides the interesting font there remain several other 
features worthy of note in the lowly temple at Piecombe, 
such as the triple chancel arch of Norman date, and a 
piscina of Decorated work, with two basins under an ogee 
cinque foliated arch, a late example of this, as after the 
Early English period a single basin was the almost 
universal use ; there is also a pretty tile on the sanctuary 
floor with two birds seated on a branch of foliage. 

Returning to the subject of this paper we find a second 
example of a leaden font at Edburton, a romantically 
situated village on the north side of the Southdowns. 
Here the bowl is also on a new base, of a more elaborate 
character than the one at Piecombe ; it differs from the 



78 LEADEN FONTS IN SUSSEX. 

I'. 

latter in the composition of the lowest range of the four 
circles of ornamentation ; here instead of an arcade is a 
series of square panels enclosing scroll and foliage work 
of an almost Early English type, and on the cornice are 
small projections or brackets opposite each other, which 
may have held the staples of the flat font-cover such as 
was then usually employed, canopied covers originating 
in the Perpendicular Period of Gothic art. The size of 
the basin is rather less than that of the first example, being 
21^ inches extreme outside diameter and 19 inches that 
of the inside of the bowl, the height is 13f inches and the 
inside depth 13 inches. 

The church at Parham has been so altered and muti- 
lated that very little of interest has been left either in 
the structure or fittings, except the leaden font. This is 
still smaller than the two preceding ones, and has the 
disadvantage of being sunk into a modern octagonal stem, 
so that its full size and complete design are not visible, 
the outside diameter is 18 inches, whilst the external 
height of the bowl is only 9 inches above the stone 
pedestal, the cornice has been made by rolling over the 
upper edge of the surface ; this latter is divided into com- 
partments by upright and horizontal panels of oblong 
shape, enclosing in each the legend + IHC NAZAR in 
beautiful Lombardic lettering of pure Decorated char- 
acter. In the spaces between these bands are small 
shields with gironny within a bordure, charged with 
roundels, a coat which Mr. Lower ascribes to " Andrew 
Peverell,^ Knight of the Shire, in 1351." (Lower's 
"Sussex" Vol. II., p. 77). This is probably correct, and if so, 
no doubt he was the donor of this unique font. Heraldic 
devices were rare on these vessels in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, but were more abundant at the Perpendicular Period 
— that succeeding the date of the Parham example. 

There are no Post-Reformational leaden fonts existing 
in Sussex, although the Piecombe one is assigned to that 

1 Andrew Peverell married Katherlne, widow of Henry Herssey, tem, Edward 
I. The Feverells held land in Boscham, Sompting, Ewhnrst, Blatchington. A 
manor in Sompting is still called Sompting Peverell. Andrew was Knight of the 
Shire in 1351-53.56-61-66 and 73. His name occors as witness to a gift of land in 
Sompting made by William Bemehus to the Kuighta Templar. 



LEADEN FONTS IN SUSSEX. 79 

age in the handbook of English Ecclesiology (p. 130). 
One remains at Clunbridge, Gloucestershire, c. 1630, and 
at Eythome, Kent, is another . dated 1628, this latter 
being a very fair attempt in imitation of a Norman bowl. 

Black lead or whitewash have been in recent times 
freely applied to these interesting works of art ; and a 
new coat of the former made a Sussex font shine resplen- 
dently on a late visit of the Bishop of the Diocese. 

A bronze font formerly existed at S. Alban's Abbey, 
but perished at the time of the Commonwealth. A very 
fine foreign example remains at Munster Cathedral. 
Fonts of the precious metals were not unknown in Eng- 
land, one at Canterbury Cathedral was of silver, and was 
carried backwards and forwards to Westminster for use 
at Royal christenings. Queen Elizabeth gave two pre- 
sents of golden fonts, one to Mary Queen of Scotland, 
the second to Charles IX. of France, each of these golden 
vessels cost one thousand pounds. 

LIST OP LEADEN FONTS IN ENGLAND. 

The following is, the* writer believes, the fullest list 
hitherto compiled : — 

Berkshire — Childrey, Late Norman ; Clewer, Norman ; 

Long Wittenham, Late Norman ; Wool- 
hampton, Norman ; Woolstone, Nor- 
man (?). 

Derbyshire — Ashover, Norman. 

Dorsetshire — ^Wareham, Norman. 

Gloucestershire — Clunbridge, ca. 1640 ; Frampton-on- 

Sevem ; Llancourt, Norman ; Siston ; 
Tidenham, Norman. 

Kent — Brookland, Norman ; Chilham, Post- 

Reformational ; Eythorne, 1628. 

Lincolnshire — Barnetby-le-Wolde, Norman. 

Norfolk — Brundal, Hasingham, Plums tead Gt., 

Norman. 

Oxfordshire — Clifton ; Dorchester, Norman ; War- 

boroiigh, Norman. 



80 



LEADEN FONTS IN SUSSEX. 



Somersetshire 

Surrey 

Sussex 

Wiltshire 



— Pitcombe. 

— Walton-on-the-hill, Norman. 

— Edburton, Late Norman ; Parham, De« 

corated ; Piecombe, Late Norman, 
— Avebury, Norman, 

Cbirton, 






CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TETTER8ELL AND THE 
ESCAPE OF CHARLES THE SECOND. 



By FEBDBRICK ERNEST SAWYER, Esq., F.M.S. 



Nicholas Tbttbbsbll (for so he spelt his name, though 
various writers have given it as Tattersall, Tettersally 
Tatterskallj Tetersole^ Tettersfield^ and Tedersall) was the 
owner of a small coasting vessel, and engaged in the coal 
trade. Of his early history we know nothing. The 
name Tettersell does not occur in any early subsidy 
rolls, petitions, or other documents relating to Brighton 
before the year 1640. 

The Parish Registers of Brighton (kindly placed at 
the disposal of the writer by the Ven. Archdeacon 
Hannah) contain the following entries in the name of 
Tettersell during the 17th century : — 

Baptisms. 

164|^ Januarii The xxvi*^- baptized Nicholas sonne of Nicholas 
Tettersoale 

1645 Septemb (vi.^) then bap Eobert sonn of Robert Tetter- 

seale • 
November (ii^*) then bap Nicholas sonn of Stephen 
Tetterseale 

1646 October (iii'^ ) Then bap Susana daughter of Nicholas 

Tettershale 
1648 September The ffirst bap Sussana daughter of Nicholas 

Tetterseale 
1653 July xxx.^^ bapt Susana daughter of Robert Tetterseale 

Marriage. 

1640 November the ix.^** married Stephen Tetterseale & Joane 
Howns booth of this 

Burials. 

164f March The viii.*** buried Sussana daughter of Nicholas 
Tetershale 

1647 October The vii.*^ buried the widow {sic. aed qu, wife) of 

Nicholas Teterseale 
1670 May 6. Susan the wife of Captaine Nicholas Tetersole 
1679 Oct 25 Nicholas son of Nicholas Tattershall Esquire 
1682 November 9. buried Stephen Tettersell a child. 

XXXII. M 



82 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TETTERSELL AND 

Possibly Stephen and Robert Tettersell were brothers 
of Nicholas, and this view is confirmed by the use of the 
names of Nicholas and Susanna in each of their families. 
There are still among the Brighton fishermen some 
persons of the name of Tettersell, and these are, no 
doubt, descendants of Stephen and Robert Tettersell. 

On the death of Nicholas Tettersell's first daughter, 
Susanna, a second daughter received that name. The 
latter subsequently married John Geering, a joiner. The 
only entry of that name in the parish register is " 1681 
July 3 bapt Richard sonn of John Geering." 

Tettersell first comes into prominence in connection 
with the escape of Charles II. 

There are (so far as Sussex is concerned) three 
accounts of the King's escape : — 1. That dictated by 
him to Pepys, at Newmarket, on 3rd and 5th Octr., 1680 
(printed in " The Boscobel Tracts," &c., edited by J. 
Hughes, Esq., A.M., 1830). 2. Col. Gunter's narrative 
(addl. MS., British Museum, 9008, printed in Parry's 

Coast of Sussex," 1833). 3. The account in Baker's 

Chronicles of the Kings of England." The information 
in the latter was probably to some extent furnished by 
Tettersell, as he alone could know the conversation with 
his wife, the release of his vessel in the Downs, &c. As 
it refers to Tettersell, " now a Captain in his Majesty's 
Navy," it must have been written between 1660 and 
1674 (the year of Tettersell's death). Col. Gunter died 
before the Restoration, so that his narrative is the oldest. 
The first mentioned account of the King's escape forms 
the basis of the historical part of the late Mr. Harrison 
Ainsworth's ingenious novel, " Ovingdean Grange." 

It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to reprint these three 
accounts entirely, but rather to collate them, so as to 
form a connected narrative, as they have been very im- 
perfectly quoted by local historians, and many interest- 
ing points omitted. 

The King was at Heal (3 miles from Salisbury) early 
in October, 1651, and whilst there Lord Wilmot per- 
suaded Col. Gunter to undertake to provide a vessel for 
the King's escape. On Saturday, October 11th, Col. 






THE ESCAPE OP CHARLES THE SECOND. 83 

Gunter made an agreement at Chichester with Tettersell, 
through Francis Mansell (a French merchant) to have 
Tettersell's vessel ready at an hour's warning. On 
Sunday (12th) Colonel Philips went to the King to 
inform him of the arrangements. On Monday Colonel 
Gunter, with Lord Wilmot, met the King and Colonel 
Philips near Winchester, and they all passed the night 
at the house of Gunter's sister (Mrs. Symones), at 
Hambledon, in Hampshire. Next day (Tuesday 14th) 
they started at daybreak, and passing through Arundel, 
Houghton (Howton), and Bramber, arrived at Beeding, 
Here Gunter left the party, and went on to Brighton. 

What then ensued is best stated in the words of the 
chroniclers : — 

" Being come to the said Brightemston, I [ Gunter] found all clear 
there ; and the Inne (the George) free from all strangers att that tyme. 
Haying taken the best roome in the house and bespoken my supper ; as I 
was entertaining myselfe with a glass of wine ; the King not finding 
accomodation elsewhere to his mind was come to the Inne ; then upp comes 
mine hoast (one Smith by name). * More guests ' saifch he. He brought 
them into another roome I taking noe notice." (Gunter,) 

" We went to a place, four miles off of Shoreham, called Brighthelm- 
stone, where we were to meet with the master of the ship, as thinking it 
more convenient to meet there than just at Shoreham where the ship was. 
So when we came to the inn at Brighthelmstone we met with one, the 
merchant,^ who had hired the vessel, in company with her master,^ the 
merchant only knowing me, as having hired her only to carry over a 
person of quality that was escaped from the battle of Worcester without 
naming anybody." (^Charles 11,^) 

*' It was not long but drawing towards the Kings roome I [Gunter] 
heard the King's voice saying aloud to my Lord Wilmot ; ' Here Mr. 
Barlow I drinck to you.' * I know that name,' said I to my hoast then 
by mee. * I pray enquire and whether he were not a Major in the Kings 
Army.' Which done he was found to be the man whome I expected ; and 
presently invited as was likely to the fellowship of a glass of wine. From 
that I proceeded and made a motion to joyne companee, and because my 
chamber was largest that they would make use of it. Which was 
accepted, and so we became one companie againe." (Gunter,) 

" And as we were all sitting together (viz. Eobin Philips, my Lord 
Wilmot, Colonel Gunter, the merchant, the master and I, [Charles IL] I 
observed that the master of the vessel looked very much upon me. And 
as soon as we had supped, calling the merchant aside the master told him 

^ Francis Mansell. 

s Nioholas Tettersell. 

' Narrative dictated to Fepys, as before mentioned. 



84 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TBTTBBSBLL AND 

that lie had not dealt fairly with him ; for though he had given him a 
very good price for the carrying over that gentleman, yet he had not been 
clear with him ; * for,' says he, * he is the King, and I very well know him 
to be so.' Upon which the merchant denying it, saying he was mistaken, 
the master answered, * I know him very well, for he took my ship, 
together with other fishing vessels at Brighthelmstone,^ in the year 1648 ' 
(which was when I commanded the King, my father's fleet) and I very 
kindly let them go again. ^ Bat ' says he to the merchant, ' be not 
troubled at it, for I think I do God and my country good service in pre- 
serving the King, and by the grace of God, I will venture my life and all 
for him, and set him safely on shore, if I can, in France.' Upon which 
the merchant came and told me [Charles II.] what had past between 
them and thereby found myself under a necessity of trusting him. But I 
took no kind of notice of it presently to him ; but thinking it convenient 
not to let him go home, lest he should be asking advice of his wife, or any 
body else, we kept him with us in the inn,^ and sat up all night drinking 
beer, and taking tobacco with him. 

" And here also I [Charles II.] run into another very great danger as 
being confident I was Known by the master of the inn ; for as I was stand- 
ing after supper, by the fireside, leaning my hand upon a chair, and all 
the rest of the company being gone into another room, the master of the 
inn came in, and fell a talking with me, and just as he was looking about, 
and saw there was nobody in the room, he, upon a sudden, kissed my 
hand that was upon the back of the chair, and said to me, ' God bless you 
wheresoever you go I I do not doubt, before I die, but to be a lord, and 
my wife a lady.'® So I laughed, and went away into the next room, not 
desiring any further discourse with him, there being no remedy against 
my being known by him, and more discourse might have but raised 
suspicion. On which consideration, I thought it best for to trust him in 
that manner, and he proved very honest." {Charles II.) 

" About a quarter of an hour after, the King went to his chamber, where 
I [Gunter] followed him and craved his pardon with earnest protestation 
that I was innocent, soe altogether ignorant of the cause how this had 
hapned. * Peace, peace I Colonell,' said the King, * the fellow knowes 
mee, and 1 him. Hee was one ' (whether soe or not, I know not, but soe 
the Edng thought all that tyme) ' that belonged to the back staires to my 
Father ; I hope he is an honest fellow.' 

" After this I [Gunter] began to treat with the boateman (Tettersfield 
by name) asking him in what readiness he was. He answered he could 
not of \jqu. ofif] that night, because for more securitie he had brought his 

* Baker^s '* Chroniole '* says (p. 541) that Tettersell bad seen the King in the 
Downs, " where he obtained the Belease of his Ship loaden from Newcastle." 

^ The King's escape from Dorsetshire was frustrated by the boatman consnlting 
his wife, who refused to let him carry the King. 

' Gunter describes the innkeeper as kissing the King's hand, and saying, '* It 
shall not be said but I have kissed the best man's hand in England,** and adds he had 
waited at supper. (" Parry," p. 43.) The same incident appears in Pepys's " Diary," 
Hay 2drd, 1660, where the King said the innkeeper remarked " He would not 
ask the King who he was, but bid God bless him whither he was going." Carte 
Bays that Smith (the innkeeper) ''had been one of the late king's guards.** 
" General History of England," Vol. IV., p. 650. 



THE ESCAPE OF OHABLES THE SECOND. 85 

vessel into a breake, and the tyde had forsaken it ; soe that it was on 
ground. It is observable that all the whjle this busines had beene in 
agitation to this very tyme the wind had been contrarie. The King then 
opening the wenddowe took notice, that the wind was turned and told the 
master of the Shipp. Whereupon because of the wind and a cleere night, 
I offered 10" more to the man to gett oflf that night. But that could not 
bee. However we agreed, he should take in his company that night. But 
it was a great business that we had in hand : and God would have us to 
know soe, both by the difficulties that offerd themselves, and by his help, 
he afforded to remoove them. When we thought we had agreed the boate- 
man starts back and saith noe except I [Gunter] would ensure the barke. 
Argue it they did with him, how unreasonable it was being so well paid, 
&c., but to no purpose soe that I yeelded att last and 200" was his valua- 
tion which was agreed upon. But then as though he had beene resolved 
to frustrate all by unreasonable demands, he required my bond. Att 
which mooved with much indignation I began to be as resolut as he ; 
saying among other things, There were more boates to bee had, besydes 
his, if he would not another should, and made as though I would go to 
another. In this contest the King happily interposed. ' Hee saith 
right ' (said his Matie) * a Gentleman's word especially before wittnesses, 
is as good as his bond.' At last, the man's stomach came downe, and 
Carrie them he would, whatever became of it ; and before he would bee 
taken, he would run his boat under the water. Soe it was agreed that 
about tooe in the momiiig they should be aboard. The boateman in the 
meane tyme, went to provide for necessaries, and I perswaded the King 
to take some rest ; He did in his cloaths, and my L* Wilmot with him, 
till towards twoe of the morning." (Gunter,) 

"The King conferred with the Master (who being wrought upon by 
Promises and Money paid down, and his own Loyalty) agreed to trans- 
port him to France, and departed to call up his Mariners then on Shore 
(pretending his Ship half laden with Coals was a Drift) ; but coming 
home for a Bottle of Aqua-vitcB, his Wife by the Unreasonable of the 
Night suspecting the Truth, encouraged him to the Undertaking, not 
caring (as she said) if she and her little ones begged their Bread, so the 
King were in Safety,^* (Baker's Chronicles,) 

" About four o'clock in the morning, myself [Charles II.] and the com- 
pany before named went towards Shoreham, taking the master of the ship 
with us, on horseback, behind one of our company, and came to the vessel's 
side, which was not above sixty tun. But it being low water, and the 
vessel lying dry, I and my Lord Wilmot got up with a ladder into her, 
and went and lay down in the little cabin, till the tide came to fetch us off. 

" But I was no sooner got into the ship, and lain down upon the bed, but 
the master came in to me, fell down upon his knees, and kist my hand> 
telling me that he knew me very well, and would venture life and all that 
he had in the world to set me down safe in France. 

" So about seven o'clock in the morning, it being high water, we went 
out of the port ; but the master being bound for Pool, loaden with sea-coal, 
because he would not have it seen from Shoreham that he did not go his 
intended voyage, but stood all the day with a very easy sail, towards the 
isle of Wight (only my Lord Wilmot and myself, of my company, on 



86 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TETTEBSELL AND 

board). And as we were sailing the master came to me, and desired me 
that I would persuade his men to use their best endeavours with him to 
get him to set us on shore in France, the better to cover him from any 
suspicion thereof. Upon which I went to the men, which were four and 
a boy,^ and told them truly, that we were two merchants that had some 
misfortunes, and were a little in debt ; that we had some money owing us 
at Eouen, in France, and were afraid of being arrested in England ; that 
if they would persuade the master (the wind being very fair) to give us a 
trip over to Dieppe, or one of those ports near Rouen, they would oblige us 
very much ; and with that I gave them twenty shillings to drink. Upon 
which they undertook to second me if I would propose it to the master. 
80 I went to the master, and told him our condition, and that if he would 
give us a trip over to France, we would give him some consideration for 
it. Upon which he counterfeited difficulty, saying that it would hinder 
his voyage. But his men, as they had promised me, joining their per- 
suasions to ours, and at last he yielded to set us over. 

" So about five o'clock in the afternoon as we were in sight of the isle of 
Wight, we stood directly over to the Coast of France, the wind being 
then full north ; and the next morning, a little before day, we saw the 
coast. But the tide failing us, and the wind coming about to the south- 
west, we were forced to come to an anchor, within two miles of the shore, 
till the tide of flood was done. 

" We found ourselves just before an harbour in France called Fescamp ® ; 
and just as the tide of ebb was made, espied a vessel to leeward of us, 
which by her nimble working I suspected to be an Ostend privateer. Upon 
which I went to my Lord Wilmot, and telling him my opinion of that ship, 
proposed to him our going ashore in the little cock-boat for fear they 
should prove so, as not knowing but, finding us going into a port of France 
(there being then a war betwixt France and Spain) they might plunder us, 
and possibly carry us away and set us ashore in England ; the master also 
himself had the same opinion of her being an Ostender, and came to me 
to tell me so, which thought 1 made it my business to dissuade him from, 
for fear it should tempt him to set sail again with us for the coast of Eng- 
land ; yet so sensible I was of it, that I and my Lord Wilmot went both 
on shore in the cock-boat,® and going up into the town of Fescamp, staid 
there all day to provide horses for Rouen .^*^ But the vessel which had so 
affrighted us proved afterwards only a French hoy. ( Charles II.) 

'' In their Passage, the King sitting upon the Deck, and directing the 
Course ; as they call it, conning the ship, one of the mariners blowing 
Tobacco in his Face, the master bid him go further off the Gentleman 

7 There is a little difficulty here. Charles II. stated to Pepys, on the voyage 
from Holland just before the Bestoration, that all the ship's company consisted of 
a foreman and a boy. " Diary," May 24th, 1660. Lingard says : " The ship floated 
with the tide, and stood with easy sail towards the Isle of Wight, cls if she were 
on her way to Deal, to which port she was bound." " History of England," Vol* 
YIII., p. 328. This is evidently an error. 

• Fecamp. 

* Danish. Kog, Kogge, a small boat. 

^° Charles II. told Pepys that " at Bouen he looked so poorly, that the people 
went into the rooms before he went away to see whether he had not stole some' 
thing or other ! " Pepys's " Diary," May 23rd, 1660. 



THE ESCAPE OP CHABLES THE SECOND. 87 

who murmuring, unwittingly replied, * That a Cat might look upon a 
King.' {Bake? 8 Chronicles,) 

" They were no sooner landed but the wind turned and a violent storme 
did arise in soe much that the boateman was forced to cutt his cable, lost 
his anchor to save his boate, for which he required of mee [Gunter] 8** and 
had it. The boate was back again e at Chichester by Friday to take his 
fraught." {Gunter.) 

These extracts shew Tettersell in a much more favour- 
able light than that in which several historians have 
painted him, and the conduct of his wife entitles her to 
a high place amongst "the female Worthies of Sussex.'* 

A question of some interest arises as to the exact 
situation of the George Inn, at Brighton, visited by the 
King. The house now known by the sign of " The 
King's Head," in West Street, has been generally 
indicated as the place, but on a careful examination of 
the Court Rolls there seems nothing to corroborate this 
view. The present " King's Head " is not even described 
as an Inn until 1754 (when it is first called " The George") 
whilst in surrenders in 1657, 1693 and 1721 " it is called 
" the middle part of a tenement in the lower part of the 
West Street." 

There was "an Inne called the George" on the east 
side of Middle St. (in Brighton Manor) as we find it sur- 
rendered by John Howell on Aug. 21st, 1656, to the 
use of his will. At a Court held April 21st, 1670, the 
will of John Howell dated Janry. 26th, 16^^, was pre- 
sented, by which it appeared he gave " the house ^^ in 
which then he was dwelling in the Middle Street of 
Brighthelmeston the brewhouse malthouse and other 
appurtenances " to his daughter Katherine, provided she 
paid his daughter Margaret £100 at 18 years of age or 
marriage, &c. Margaret married John Morren, and on 
payment released her interest to Katherine, who had 
married Richard Tidy. The house of John Howell in 
Middle Street was no doubt that visited by the King, 
and so far as can be traced it occupied the site of No. 44, 
Middle Street, now the residence of Chas. Catt, Esq. 

>i Court Bolls Brighthelmstone-Michelham. 

^' It is not improbable that the Inn was given up or tnmed into a brewhouse 
between 1656 and 1660. 



88 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TBTTBBSBLL AND 

An interesting incident connected with the King's 
escape is recorded in a letter from Ellis Hookes to 
Margaret Fox (wife of George Fox, the founder of the 
Society of Friends). The letter, dated 16th of 11th mo 
1669, says: — 

** Yesterday there was a Friend with the King, one that is John 
Grove's mate : he was the man that was mate to the master of the 
fisher-boat, that carried the King away, when he went from Worcester 
fight ; and only this Friend and the master knew of it in the ship : 
and the Friend carried him [the King] ashore on his shoalders. 
The King knew him again, and was very friendly to him ; and told 
him he remembered him, and of several things that was done in the 
ship at the same time. The Friend told him, the reason why he did 
not come [forward] all this while was — that he was satisfied, in that 
he had peace and satisfaction in himself, that he did what he did to 
relieve a man in distress : and now he desired nothing of him, but 
that he would set Friends at liberty, who were great sufferers 
or to that purpose ; and told the King he had a paper of 
110 that were prsemunired, that had lain in prison about six years, 
and none can release them but him. So the King took the paper — 
and said, there were many of them^ and that they would be in again 
in a month's time ; and that the country gentlemen complained to 
him, that they Were so troubled with the Quakers. So he said, he 
would release him six : but the Friend thinks to go to him again for 
he had not fully relieved himself." 

The letter is endorsed by George Fox : — 

" e hookes to m ff of paseges consarning richard carver ^^ that carred 
the King of [on] his backe. 1669" 

The editor added the following note : — 

** The honest simplicity of his answer, and his appeal to the King on 
behalf of his suffering brethren will doubtless not be lost on the reflecting 
reader.^* 

There is another letter from Ellis Hookes to George 
Fox :— 

" February 16|^f 

« Dear G. P 

" As for the Friend that was with the King, his love is to 
thee. He has been with the King lately, and Thomas Moore was with 
him, and the King was very loving to them. He had a fair and free 

" Possibly a descendant of Derick Carver, the Brighton brewer, who was burnt 
at Lewes in 1553. 

1* This letter is published in " A Select Series j Biographical, narrative, &o., of 
productions of Early Friends," edited by John Barclay, (London, ISilJ* 



THE ESCAPE OF OHAELBS THE SECOND. 89 

opportunity to open his mind to the King, and the King has promised to 
do for him, but willed him to wait a month or two longer. I rest thy 
faithful friend to serve thee. 

"E. H." 

The two interviews of Carver with the King were 
followed up by Moore and Whitehead, and a pardon 
for 471 Friends and 20 other Nonconformists was 
ultimately obtained. Amongst the latter was John 
Bunyan. The facts are fully set out in " The Whole 
Works of John Bunyan'' (Greo. Offer, London, 1862). 

It is perhaps the most interesting fact in connection 
^ith the King's escape from Sussex that the interven- 
tion of Tettersell's mate secured the release from prison 
of the author of the immortal " Pilgrim's Progress." 
Mr. Offer says : — " It is an honour to Christianity that 
a labouring man preferred the duty of saving the life of 
a human being, and that of an enemy, to gaining so 
easily the heaps of glittering gold." 

The vessel of Tettersell was of 34 tons burden, but it 
must be remembered that the Brighton fishing boats in 
use formerly were of much greater tonnage than now, 
and therefore the modern boats are not a correct type of 
the vessel in which the King escaped. 

We lose sight of Tettersell until the Restoration 
(1660), when, "according to a current [1766] tradition 
in the town," he " was appointed at his own request 'a 
captain in the navy."^^ It has been stated by many 
writers that Tettersell was forgotten by Charles; but 
this is quite incorrect, as we find by the State Papers 
that in June, 1661, and subsequently, he was in com- 
mand of "The Monk" (or "Loyal Monk"), a frigate 
carrying from 210 to 220 men, and he seems to have held 
an important position in the navy. 

Major-General Pasley, R.B., C.B. (Director of Works 
in Her Majesty's Navy) has kindly furnished the follow- 
ing particulars of Tettersell and his ships : — 

" * Tattersal,, Nicholas,, was appointed Commander of the Sortings in 
1660, and in the following year was removed into the Monk,*^^ It 

" « Gent's Mag.," Vol. XXXVI. (1766), p. 60. 
" Chamook, " Biographia Navalis," I., p. 47. 

XXXII. N 



90 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TBTTBRSELL AND 

appears from the Calendars of State Papers that the Monk was repaired 
at Chatham about 1664-5 and re-commissioned in the latter year under 
the command of Captain Thos. Penrose. I have looked over the Navy 
Lists in Chamberlaynes volumes" for 1671, 1684, 1702, & 1723. The 
earliest one does not enumerate the small vessels, but the Royal Escape 
is given in the other three lists. In the list for 1684 she is described as 
a * smack' of 34 tons, 10 men, no guns. The tonnage is not mentioned 
in 1702, but 10 men still appear as her complement. In 1723 no com- 
plement is mentioned. The Monk appears as follows : — 

BATB. TONS. MEN* GUNS. 

In 1671 3rd — 260 60 

In 1684 3rd 696 840 60 

In 1702 4th — 832 60 

In 1723 she has disappeared from the list. As Chaniock says^® she was 
at Plymouth in 1711, she was probably sold or broken up between that 
date and 1723. The Sorlings appears only in 1671, where she is 
described as a 5th rate of 250 tons, 110 men, and 22 guns. It was 
therefore a promotion for Capt. Tettersell when he was removed from her 
into the Monk,^^ 

On June 10th, 1661, St. John Steventon (clerk of the 
cheque at Portsmouth) writes to the Navy Commis- 
sioners that " * The Monk' had sailed for the Downs with 
212 men " ; and on the 16th Tettersell writes to them 
from " * The Monk. Downs.' That several things were 
necessary for his ship, which were not in the stores, and 
he was obliged to put to sea without them."^® On July 
15th, Tettersell, writing from the " Loyal Monk " to Sir 
Wm. Penn (one of the Navy Commissioners), says : 
" Vice-Admiral Lawson has taken his boat and begs 
another." Nothing further occurs until January 10th, 
1661-2, when Roger Read (boatswain of " The Monk "), 
writing from the Downs to the Navy Commissioners, 
encloses a " note by Nich. Tettersell and Roger Jones of 
cables and other stores wanted for * The Monk ' ; " and 
on the 16th he writes to them again that " he wants 
another boat, theirs being staved in, sending for a packet 
on shore in the night from the fleet, which sailed on the 
15th." Tettersell writes next day (17th) to Sir Wm. 
Coventry (secretary to the Duke of York), and " asks 

" " AnglisB Notitia." 

" " History of Marine Arohitecture/' Vol. III., p. 279. Charnook did not know 
where the " Monk " was built. 
^^ " Cal. state Papers, Charles II., 1661-2," pp. 6, 10, and 38. 



THE ESCAPE OF OHABLES THE SECOND. 91 

an order to send a small frigate to discover the transport 
of some prohibited goods. Has lost his boat, and some 
Deal men have bored it in pieces."^^ 

On January 20th Roger Eeed writes again, giving 
"particulars of the loss of his boats;" and John 
Tatnell,^^ in a letter on the 22nd, states that he " pro- 
vided a long boat for * The Monk,' but finds she has got 



one. 



Tettersell was evidently blamed by the Navy Commis- 
sioners for the loss of his boats, and in reply sent the 
following interesting letter :— 

"Hono* S*" 

*' A longe boat Pinnis & yall I baue received w*?* other stores 
w^^ hath binn ordred yo® Hono® and where as y° ritt me that it is 
some neglict that the other ware lost He a sure yo flfor my owne partt I 
was as carfiTul as lie in me And shalbe ffor the presaruation of any thing 
belonging to his Ma^^ Soe I am 

« Y^' Hon« hum^i Serv* 

*' Niou Tbttbrsell. 
*• Monck this 26^ 
« of Jan (61) 

^' The Pinnis is soe'oald that shee will scarce hange in the backells. I 
should a giuen yo' Hono® an accou* of the ffleett could I a herd ffrom 
them by any." 

The letter is addressed to the Commissioners of the 
Navy, Seething Lane, and at the foot is a note in another 
handwriting, •* chide him for sending this by expresse in 
the next letter we tvrite him^^ 

He writes again on Feb. 1st, 1661-2 :— 

« Hono« S»" 

*< Since my last yo' Hon®" we haue had here a very sad 
stress of weather in soe much that some hath putt a way w** I fifeare hath 
miscaryed, and other some cuting there Mast by the Board ; But as to 
vs god be thancked we are all well. Hon® S^" vpon the desire of Cap* 
Jo^ Shaw Comand of a Mirch Shipp the Blessing w*** lattly came from 
Jemecco : he cutting away his mast & other his prouitions ffor his 
security I have spared him a Streame Cable of a ii Inches and ioi ffatham 

20 *«Cal. State Pap. Car. II., 1661," pp. 240, 246, 247 and 250. 

«i Pepys disliked Tatnell, and says in his ** Diary " (March 1st, 1667-8) [Captam], 
*• Tatnell is a very rogue j" and on March 24th, Pepys promised Sir William 
Coventry to sift Tatnell as to a petition for getting back money paid for places* 

« « State Papers, Domestic, Charles XL,'* Vol. XLXIX., No. 90. 



92 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TETTERSBLL AND 

whose Owners wilbe accomptable to yo® Hon®" flfor him whose names I 
haue ynd® lined Soe I am 

" Y® Hon« Hum^i ggj-^tt 

" NicH Tkttbrsell.^^ 
** Monck ffeb 1-* (61)" 

** Si' Will Vincent 
** Si' Rich ffoord 
*' Si' Will Rider 
"M' RichLantt" 

Next day (2nd February) there is a letter from Theo- 
philus Sacheverell (purser of " The Monk ") to Sam. 
Pepys (" the Diarist/' who was Clerk to the Acts in the 
Navy), in which he " hopes he and Capt. Tettersell will 
not be blamed for discharging the men by written 
tickets/* as they have asked twice for printed tickets, but 
received no answer." 

A note on the letter says : " 300 tickets to Capt. 
Tettersell to distribute & send up his receipt for them."^^ 
The tickets were not sent, as Tettersell writes from 
Deal, on Feb. 6th, to the Commissioners requesting 
" some printed tickets being forbidden to discharge men 
by written ones."^® He writes again on Feb. 21st, that 
he " has lent a sail to Capt. Gunne ^^ of the Greyhound,^ 
who had lost his. He will return it or pay for it in 
London." As such a loan of Royal stores might appear 
very strange, Tettersell carefully adds as a postcript : — 

His Ma*** intrest being greatt in hir made me the bould® to spare him a 
Saile the Comand® tells me his dutise will a mount to at least 10 or 12 
thousand pounds. ^^ 

*» " State Papers, Domestic, Charles II.," Vol. L., No. 6. Sir Richard Ford and 
Sir William Byder were Commissioners for Tangiers, and are frequently referred 
to by Pepys. 

2* See Pepys's " Diary," Nov. 30th, 1660, and other dates. The seamen instead 
of receiving their pay in cash were discharged with tickets which were not paid for 
a considerable time. He states that when the Dutch fleet came np the Thames 
Englishmen on board the Dutch ships were heard to say, ** We did heretofore fight 
for tickets, now we fight for dollars." ** Diary," June 14th, 1667. 

2» " State Papers, Domestic, Charles II.," Vol. L., No. 6, 

26 " Cal. State Pap., Car. II., 1661-2,»* p. 267. 

27 Gunn was, and is, a well-known name amongst the Brighton fishermen, so this 
Captain may have been an acquaintance of Tettersell's. 

*• This was no doubt the ship referred to in Pepys's " Diary," Feb. 9th 1663-4 
** Great doubts of two ships of ours, the Greyhound and another, very rich, 
coming from the Streights for fear of the Turks." 

w " State Papers, Domestic, Charles II.," Vol. L., No. 75. 



THE ESCAPE OF OHABIiES THE SECOND. 93 

There is another letter by Tettersell to the Navy 
Commissioners, on Feb. 26th, 1661-2, reporting " abuses 
in victualling, the victuallers not taking notice of com- 
plaints : the meat is small and very short in weight." 
He adds as a postcript : — 

" The VictuUers allowe & victuall for but 210 men. I shall contynue 
my number 220 vnless I haue an ord® from y® Hon® ' 

Enclosed is the following curious account of deficien- 
cies : — 

" From the 26*^ Decb* to the 29*^ of Ffeb* we want of the weight of 
Beefe and Porck. Lowing 22*^ in the Hundred for blud & salt as 
foUoweth 

lb. 

' Beefe 9:6:8 

Porck 3:6:2 

Peese they lowe vs by the wine pint & ffish two cupell wayes but 22^^.***® 

Next day (27th) Tettersell and Eeed write to the 
Commissioners for provisions and stores for " The 
Monk." On March .I5th, the former " sends a survey of 
the bread room of the Sorlings [Serloines] which is said 
to be defective ; " and on April 4th, 1662, he reports the 
** damage done to the Pembroke in the late storm and 
defects in her cables."^^ 

In the following month (May) Tettersell was ordered 
by H.R.H. the Duke of York, afterwards James II., (then 
Lord High Admiral) to proceed to Plymouth to convoy 
some ships to Lisbon. We find him writing to the Navy 
Commissioners on May 10th, 1662, that he had received 
the order on the previous night, and would sail, " though 
much in want of stores hopes to get in more provisions 
at Dover." He writes on 12th that he " has taken some 
of the Dolphin's gunner's stores but wants gunpowder " ; 
and again, on 14th (still from " The Monk. Downs ") : 
** The Isabella bound for Ireland requested a convoy : 
expected an order for it, but none came, and meanwhile 
on a fair wind the vessel sailed without one. Will take 
in beer at Dover and hasten to Plymouth."** 

*• •* state Papers, Domestic, Charles IL," Vol. LI., No. 21. 
» '* Cal. State Pap., Car. II., 1661-2," pp. 289, 310, and 331. 
»* lb., pp. 367, 368, and 370. 



94 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TBTTERSBLL AND 

Tettersell no doubt proceeded soon after to Lisbon, and 
then to Tangiers in Africa, which had recently become a 
British possession by the marriage of Charles II. with 
Catherine of Braganza.^ On his return Tettersell 
writes from Portsmouth on Sept. 8th, 1662, that " he 
changed his ship master Rogers Jones at Tangiers for 
Sir John Lawson's** master who is * anshant and weeke.' 
Wm. Cillam [or Gillam] is an able man, recommends 
him."^ He then returned to the Downs, and with Roger 
Reed, writes on the 19th to the Commissioners with an 
account of the sails in their ship and stores wanted.'* 
This is the last letter by Tettersell that occurs in the 
State Papers. 

In 1663 we find him giving the following certificate 
to one of his crew, who was concerned in the Royal 
flight :— 

« May 23* (63. 
" These may sertifie whome'. itt may Conceme that the Barrer hereof 
Thomas Tuppon was Sailing w*** me when I carried his Ma**® for 
fifrance. 

" NicH : Tbttbrsbll.*'*^ 

Tettersell was no doubt meanwhile actively engaged in 
trying to obtain a pension for his services, and in 
December, 1663, his efforts were successful, as we find by 
the following note in the State Papers, by the clerk of 
the Privy Council : — 

" December 1663 

" Capt Tettersall's annuity A Grant to him of 1001 yearly out of ye 

Beyenues arising from Kent Sussex & 
Surry for 99 years, if Susan his wife, 
Nicholas his Sonne or Susan his Daughter 
live soe long."^* 

'' Catherine arrived at Portsmonth on 20th Kay, 1661, and was married next 
day. Tangier (with Bombay) formed part of her dowry, and was taken possession 
of by Lord Sandwich and a small fleet before the marriage. 

'^ Sir John Lawson was Vice- Admiral under Sir Edward Montagu (afterwards 
Lord Sandwich) at the time Charles II. was brought over from Holland. He 
was wounded in an engagement against the Dutch on June 8rd, 1665, and died 
soon after. Pepys was not sorry when he died, becatise the Admiral had been no 
friend to him. 

3« '* State Papers, Domestic, Charles II.,'* Vol. LXIX., No. 26. 

M " Cal. State Pap., Car. II., 1661-2," p. 493. 

»7 « State Papers, Domestic, Car. II.,'* Vol. LXXIV., No. 34. 

»» lb., Vol. LXXXIV., p. 176. 



THE ESCAPE OF OHIBLES THE SECOND. 95 

This sets at rest the varied and conflicting statements 
which have been made as to the pension, as it was simply 
an annuity for the longest of three lives. It shows, 
moreover, the extent of Tettersell's family, viz. : 
wife, a son Nicholas, and a daughter Susan, the latter 
of whom are mentioned in the extracts from the Parish 
Registers already given. 

It appears to have been thought that there was a 
grant of arms to Tetter sell, but this is incorrect, as no 
such grant is recorded at the College of Arms during the 
reign of Charles 11.^ 

In the return to the subsidy of 16th Ohas. II. (1665), 
amongst the Assessors we find " Nicholas Tuttersoll gent* 
in lands xx»."*^ 

Nothing further transpires with reference to Tettersell 
until 1667, when we find the following letter : — 

« June 6* (67) 
" Gentlemen 

In answers to yours of this day 

" For what Cap Tattershall hath formerly done well I have bin tender 
toward him in this last businesse, otherwise a messenger had gone for 
him, but I wrote him a letter wch I believe hath frighted him pretty well. 

"lam 
" Your afif friend & humble servant 

" W. COVENTBYB."*! 

« For The Principall Officers & 

" Commissioners of his Majesties Navy 
at ye Navy Office." 

The nature of Tettersell's offence then does not appear, 
but according to one account " he was dismissed for some 
misconduct in an engagement."*^ It is quite evident 
from the extracts already quoted from the State Papers 
that Tettersell was not merely an honorary ofl&cer in the 
navy, but occupied a substantial position. 

Francis Mansell, of Ovin^dean, who had bargained 
with Tettersell for the King's escape, was appointed 
" Customer Inward " in the port of Southampton, from 
which he received £60 a year. He petitioned the King 

*' The records of the College have been kindly searohed for the matter by G. E. 
Cokayne, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Lancaster Herald. 
«« Lay Subsidy, 16Chas. II., 191.409 Sassez. 
" " State Papers, Domestic, Charles II.,'* Vol. OOIII., No. 95. 
" " Gent's Mag.,'' Vol. XXX (1766), p. 60. 



96 OAFTAIN NICHOLAS TETTEBSELL AND 

about June, 1661, for relief, stating that he " was forced 
to fly for life, being one of the instruments of His 
Majesty happy escape, and has spent more in solicitation 
than the 601 per annum he receives from his small office, 
&c." After this he was granted a pension of £200 
a year, and on Feb. 26th, 1661-2, petitioned** for leave to 
resign his place, " which through indisposition he was 
unable to fulfil." As Mansell's pension was £200 a year 
whilst Tettersell's was only £100, it would appear that 
the services of the former were considered by the King 
of more value than those of the latter. Mansell, how- 
ever, was very unfortunate, for about April, 1664, his 
pension had become £300 in arrear; and he then 
petitioned for relief from the privy seal dormant, and on 
April 11th there is a privy seal for £200 to him " as the 
King's Free gift."** About Feb., 1666-7 he petitions the 
King again " to permit him to enjoy his pension of £200 
a year stayed four years ago. Was outlawed and ruined, 
and was promised to be made eminent on the Restora- 
tion. Capt. Tattershall and others instrumental in the 
same service towards the safety of His Majesty's person 
have had a similar favour." 

Pepys gives in his " Diary " the following interesting 
note : — 

" Feb 20. 166f With the 'Chequer men, to the Leg, in King Street, 
and there had "wine for them ; and there was one in company with them ; 
that was the man^ that got the vessell to cany over the King from Bred- 
hemson, who hath a pension of £200 per annum, but ill paid, and the 
man is looking after getting of a prize ship to live by ; but the trouble 
is, that this poor man, who hath received no part of his money these four 
years, and is ready to starve almost, must yet pay to the Poll Bill for this 
pension. He told me several particulars of the King's coming thither, 
which was mighty pleasant, and shows how mean a thing the King is, 
how subject to fall, and how like other men he is in his afflictions." 

Lord Braybrooke*^ endeavours to identify " the man " 
with Tettersell, but this is an obvious blunder, as the 
amount of the latter' s annuity was £100. Mansell is 
evidently referred to. 

♦» « Gal, State Pap., Car. II., 1661-2," pp. 21 and 286. 

«* 15., 1668-4, p, 662. 

** ** Diary of Samuel Pepys," 3rd edition, London, 1848, Vol. XXX., p. 409. 



THE ESCAPE OP OHABLBS THE SECOND. 97 

There is a warrant on Feb* 22nd, 1666-7, continuing 
" his pension notwithstanding the recent order."*® 

There is no reason to think that Charles II. visited 
Ovingdean as stated in Mr. Harrison Ains worth's inter- 
esting novel, and it would have been a physical impossi- 
bility. 

In 1670 Tettersell lost his wife. The parish register of 
Brighton, as already stated, records her burial on May 6* 

During the same • year (1670) Tettersell was High 
Constable of Brighton, and seems to have been actively 
engaged in the prosecution of local Nonconformists. 
The late Mr. M. A. Lower says :*^ " Whether he did this 
of his own will or only ministerially there is no evidence 
to show." Mr. Lower, however, appears to have over- 
looked the fact that serious charges were brought 
against Tettersell at once, in printed pamphlets and by 
respectable persons. On Sunday, May 29th, 1670, some 
Baptists having met in a house in Brighton, Tettersell is 
said to have conceived the idea of prosecuting them, and 
kept them shut in the house while he sent to Lewes for 
a warrant to break open the door. When the warrant 
arrived the door was opened on demand, and no religious 
ceremony was going on, nor could any minister be 
found. The parties, however, were summoned to Lewes, 
and there being no evidence to justify a conviction they 
were asked to plead guilty, and fix their own fines. They 
refused, and were fined the full penalty, £20, amongst 
them Wm. Beard, the master of the house. The follow- 
ing is the account of how the fine was obtained : — 
" Tettersol breaks open locks to come at malt, being 
gotten to the heap filleth without all measure sixty of 
five bushel sacks which he hath sold to one of his gang 
for 12' per quarter."*® 

The subject has been discussed in angry terms by 
several local historians, so that further comment is not 
required. 

*« " Gal. State Pap., Car. II., 1666-7," p. 625. 

*7 « Sussex Worthies," p. 298. 

*« Crosby, "History of the English Baptists," Vol. II., pp. 247, 257. The same 
occnrrence appears to be referred to iu " Calamy's Nonconformist's Memorial,** 
Vol. III., p. 317, where the malt is said to have been worth 20s. a quarter. 

XXXII. O 



98 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TETTERSBLL AND 

It is Stated in " The Boscobel Tracts " that Tettersell 
brought his bark up the Thames, and moored it opposite 
Whitehall, " to renew the memory of the service it had 
performed;'* and another authority says that it was 
subsequently taken into the Eoyal navy and named the 
" Eoyal Escape." The writer has, however, been unable 
to discover the source of this statement ; but on Sept. 
4th, 1671, Tettersell was appointed Captain of the 
" Eoyal Escape," a fifth rate.*' 

The Brighton Court EoUs record on Aug. 23rd, 1670, 
a surrender by Henry Bradfold and Anna, his wife 
(daughter of Samuel Friend, deceased, brother of Edward 
Friend, formerly of Chichester, deceased), of a cottage 
and garden in the north part of North Street, adjoining 
the churchyard, and other property there, " to the use of 
Nicholas Tettersally Esquire^ Edmund Gunter, John 
Peirsey, and John Barton and their heirs upon the trust 
reposed in them of the rents and profits of the same for 
the use and enjoyment of the poor of the parish of 
Brighthelmeston." It does not appear whether these 
cottages were used for a poorhouse, or whether the rents 
only were applied. 

On Aug. 21st (1671) there is a surreoder by John 
Arnold and Johanna, his wife of " One messuage or tene- 
ment one stable one garden and one croft of land to the 
same belonging containing by estimation one rood called 
the Old Shipp &c in the Hempshares in Brighthelmeston 
to the use of Nicholas Tetarsall sen Esq." 

This was no doubt part, if not the original site, of the 
present " Old Ship Hotel." 

In the summer and autumn of 1672 it seems probable 
Tettersell was in failing health, for he petitioned that 
his son Nicholas might be continued Captain of the 
*' Escape " after his death, and on Aug. 29th, 1672, apatent 
was granted. On Oct. 29th Tettersell surrendered his 
copyhold property in the Manor of Atlingworth, viz. : 
a messuage and piece of land in *' the Middle Streete of 
Brighthelmeston between the Hempshares and the 
Middle Streete 236 ft long by 46 wide at one end & 

" Erredge "Hist, of Brighfchelmston," p. 131. 



THE ESCAPE OF CHARLES THE SECOND. 99 

39 ft at the other ; to the use of himself for life & then 
to the use of his son Nicholas." A few days later 
(Nov. 14th) Tettersell settled his freehold property on 
his daughter, as we find by 'an Indenture dated 14th 
Nov., 1672,^ and made between "Nicholas Tettersall 
of Brighthelmstone ia ye county of Sussex Esq of the 
one part and John Geering of the said place and County 
Joyner in ye other part " whereby " y® s*^. Nicholas Tet- 
tersall for and in consideration of the fatherly love and 
aflFection which hee beareth unto Susanna Geering wife 
of the said John Geering y^ naturall and only daughter 
of him y® s^ Nicholas " granted to the use of Susanna 
Geering her heirs and assigns for ever a cottage " in the 
Street called y® Hempshars of Brighton" now Ship 
Street, near the " Old Ship," and on the west side of 
the street. 

Tettersell affixes his mark, which can only be ex- 
plained by the fact that he was then very ill, as the 
signatures to letters preserved in the State Papers are 
in a bold and excellent handwriting. " Edw. Lowe " 
(probably the then Vicar^^) was one of the witnesses to 
the deed. 

Tettersell and his son were both admitted to the 
copyhold property in Atlingworth Manor at a Court on 
April 16th, 1673. This is the last event recorded in 
the life of the Captain, and he died on July 26th, 1674. 

The will of Captain Tettersell was as follows : — ^ 

In the name of God Amen this 26th day of July in the six 
and twentieth Yeare of the raigne of our Soveraigne Lord King 
Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England Scotland fifrance 
and Ireland Defender of the faith &c Anno "Dni 1674, I Nicholas 
Tetkrbolb Senior of Brighthelmstone in the County of Sussex 
Esquire being sick in body but of good and perfect Memory I blesse 
God, doe Make and Publish this my last will and Testament in 
Manner and forme following and doe with a free heart render up my 
soule into the hands of Almighty God hoping and Assuredly believing 
that through the Meritts of my Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ my 
Saviour I shall receive Pardon and forgivenes of all my Sinnes And 

»• The writer is indebted to Hy. Griffith, Esq., for the loan of a copy of this 
deed, the original of which is in the possession of Somers Clarke, Esq. 
« S. A. 0. XXIX., p. 206. 
^' A copy of this will was very kindly supplied by Mr. T. C. Noble; 



100 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TETTBB8BLL AND 

my body I comitt to the earth decently to be buryed in Christian 
buryall when it shall Please God to put and end to this temporall 
life. And as for my temporall goods which Qod hath in Mercy given 
me I would have them disposed of in Manner and forme following. 
And first I give and bequeath unto the poore People of Brighthelm- 
stone the sume of Forty Shillings of good and lawfuU Money of 
England to be distributed amongst them in tenn dayes after my 
decease. Item I give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Tetersole my 
wife one Peece of plate which is a Cupp to be delyvered to her by my 
executor after my decease. Item I give and bequeath unto my Sonn 
in law John Geering the one half of my plate and the other half of my 
lynnen to be equally devided to him after my decease. Item I give 
and bequeath unto him More the sume of Tenn Pounds by the yeare 
of lawfuU money of England to be issuing due and payable out of my 
yearly revenue granted mee by his Majesty over and above the sume 
of money and yearely rent which I have formerly settled tipon him as 
by the said conveyance at large appeareth. And to hold the said 
yearely rent of ten Pounds by the yeare unto the [«tc] my said sonn 
John Geering his heires and assignes for ever after my decease. Item 
I give and bequeath unto my said Sonn John Geering All that my 
Piece of fFreehold land w*^ all the appurtenances thereunto belonging 
adjoyning to that my Messuage called the Old Shipp situat lying and 
being in Hempsheire Streete in Brighthelmstone late Richard Gillama 
to have and to hold the said Peece of land with all the buildings and 
th appurtenances thereunto belonging unto my sonn John Geering his 
heires and assignes for ever of the Cheife Lord or Lordes of the flTee 
or ffees thereof by the rent and Services thereof due and of right 
accustomed. Item all the rest of my Goods Chattells and household 
Stuff and plate unbequeathed together with my Personall Estate my 
debts legacyes funerall expenses being Paid and discharged I give it 
unto my Sonn Nicholas Tetersole and doe Make him sole executor of 
this my last Will and testament revoking and making void all Wills 
Whatsoever formerly by mee made. In Witnes hereof I the said 
Nicholas Tetersole have hereunto sett my hand and scale the day 
and yeare first above written. 

Nicholas Tetersole his X Mark 
Sealed signed and acknowledged to be his last Will and testa- 
ment in the Presence of us Joh Mockford, Henry fforster, Richard 
Tidy, Nathaniell Buckell, 

The will was proved by the son, Nicholas Tettersell, 
on Oct. 30th 1674, in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury, 

It appears from the will that Tettersell must have been 
married twice at least, as his wife Susan died in 1670, and 
a wife Elizabeth is referred to in the will. There are 
several references in the Brighton Court Rolls to " Eli- 
zabeth Tettersell widow, relict of John Gun ter deceased," 
so that it is probable Tettersell married the widow. A 



THE ESCAPE OF CHARLES THE SECOND. 101 

branch of the Gunter family had been in Brighton from 
1624 (if not earlier), as there is a presentment on the 
death of John G-unter the elder in 1666, of his being 
admitted to a cottage in North Street in 1624, There is 
a surrender in 1658 by John Gunter the younger (son of 
the last mentioned) to the use of himself for life, his wife 
Elizabeth for life, and to the longest liver, and then to 
their heirs. It does not appear when John Gunter the 
younger died, but it was probably about 1669. He left 
three children, a son John (who must have died in the 
latter part of 1684), and two daughters, Susanna Bur- 
ton, wife of James Burton and Mary Freeland. There 
is a surrender in 1684 by " Elizabeth Tettersell widow, 
relict of John Gunter deceased and John Gunter son of 
the said Elizabeth," to secure an advance, while on Jan. 
4th, 1686, there is a sale of the same property by" Elizabeth 
Tettersell James Burton and Susanna his wife sister and 
heir of John Gunter deceased." Elizabeth Tettersell 
probably died late in 1692 or early in 1693, as her will 
(in the Lewes Registry) is dated Oct. 10th, 1692. and 
proved Feb. 7th, 1693. She gave one shilling to her 
daughter, Susanna Burton, and the residue of her estate 
to her daughter Mary Freeland. 

The circumstance of Tettersell's widow being already 
provided for by her first husband, no doubt accounts for 
the small provision Tettersell made for her. 

"The Old Shipp" was partly freehold and partly 
copyhold. On Jany. 26th, 1670, there is a surrender of 
copyhold part by John Arnold and Johanna his wife 
to " Nicholas Tettarsall," and on July 26th, 1674 (the 
day of his death), he surrendered this property to the. 
use of JohnGeering (his son-in-law) he paying Tetter- 
sell's wife Elizabeth £6 a year during her life. 

The connection of Captain Tettersell with this well- 
known hostelry is a matter of interest, but whether he 
kept the house as well as owned it does not appear. 

The son Nicholas died intestate, and there is a grant 
of administration in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury on Dec. 22nd, 1701, to "Susanna Tuttersall 
daughter of Nicholas Tuttersall of Brighthelmstone." 

Nicholas Tettersell (the son) appears to have had only 



102 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TBTTEESELL AND 

two children, viz., Nicholas, who died Oct. 25th, 1679 (as 
already stated), and Susanna, who afterwards married 
Dr. Peter White, Nicholas Tettersell (the son) died on 
Oct. 29th, 1701, and on Jan. 29th, 1671-2, at a Court held 
for Atlingworth Manor, his daughter Susannah was ad- 
mitted to the property in Middle Street. Susannah 
Tettersell must have married some time later in the year 
1 702, as we find by the parish register of All Saints 
Church, Lewes :^ 

Baptisms. — ** Francis daughter of Peter White MD** and Susanna 

bom March 27^^ 170|. bap. April 5*^ 
"Mary daughter of d« bom Sept 16*^ 1704 bap Sept 26**^." 

Susannah White was admitted to " the Old Shipp '* at 
a Court for Brighton Manor, on Feb. 8th, 1 714. She is 
said to have died about 1764. 

Colonel George Gunter (or Gounter) of Eacton, was 
as already mentioned, the chief agent in the King's 
escape. His pedigree is given by Dallaway,®^ and it shows 
that he married Katherine, daughter of Sir Lawrence 
Hyde, Knt., of Salisbury. From Colonel Gunter's nar- 
rative*^ it appears some assistance was aflForded by his 
kinsman Captain Thomas Gunter, 

The State Papers threw an interesting light on the 
Gunter family after the Restoration. Colonel Gunter had 
died in the meantime, and the first item we find is about 
] 662. •* The humble peticon of the aflBicted widdow of 
CoUonel Gunter of Sussex who assisted yo^ Ma**®" passage 
into France after the Battell of Worcester," for the 
nomination of a person qualified as an Irish Viscount or 
for some other provision. " Yo"" Matie haueinge often 
beene gratiously pleasd to promise a consideration of her 
condicon."^^ The object in obtaining this nomination 
was to get the fees, &c., attendant thereon, and there 
are many similar petitions in the State Papers of that 

*» Peter White was born Feb. 29th, 1671-2, and died about 1725. 

** The Bame register records ** Baptisms. Ann daughter of Dr. Benj. White and 
Dorothy July 12th, 1674, Barbara on Dec. Ist, 1676 (buried Feb. I7th, 1676-6). 
BuEiALS. Dr. White May 9th, 1718.'* This must be the father of Dr. Peter White. 

5* " History of the Western Division of the County of Sussex,'' Vol. II., Pt. 1, 

p. 175. 

*• Parry's " Coast of Sussex," p. 29 et, seq. 

*' ** State Papers, Domestic, Chas. II., 1661-2," Vol. LXVI., 126. 



THE ESCAPE OF OHABLES THE SECOND. 103 

date. It is doubtful whether any result was produced 
by the first petition, and there is another dated March 
26th, 1663, by Katherine widow to Colonel George 
Gounter, to the King for remedy for her own and her 
eight children's desperate condition. Her late husband's 
whole estate was engaged for £3,000 debt, chiefly con- 
tracted for the late King, and now on his death, the 
estate, worth £240 a-year will be extended, and his 
children exposed to the wide world. Endorsed on the 
petition is a reference to the Lord Chancellor and Lord 
Treasurer, acknowledging Col. Counter's services, "espe- 
cially in providing a ship for His Majesty's escape after 
the battle of Worcester."^ Shortly after there is another 
petition by the widow, stating that the creditors daily 
threaten to seize her lands for £5,000 debt and interest. 
Whether anything was done for the widow does not 
appear, but one of her sons, George, was placed on the 
foundation of Winchester School, as in 1663 there is a 
request by Lord Chief Justice Robt. Hyde,^ that the 
letter the King had promised to write to the warden of 
the New College and other electors of scholars from 
Winchester School, in favour of George, son of the late 
George Gunter, who conveyed His Majesty over to France 
after his escape from Worcester, and spent his estate for 
the late King, may be so drawn as to place him before 
other candidates, that he may be elected this year.^ 

The following interesting letter was then sent by the 
King : — 

" George Gounter recom\ Trusty & Wellbeloved Wee greet you 
to Winchester School ] well ! Wee are informed that George 
Gounter one of y* younger ~ sons of Coll Gounter deceased & a 
child of that foundation is very fit to be elected to y* University 
& because Wee must never forget ye many good & faithfall ser- 
vices pformed to Our Boyal Father & Ourselfe by y® s* Coll 
Gounter during y« late rebellion & particularly how happy and 
Instrument hee was of Our escape into France after Worcester 
fight. It is Our Boyall Pleasure that at your eleccon of Scollers 
from y! Schoole you place y® s* George Gounter soe forward 
upon y^ Bolls as hee may be secured of an admittance into 

M '< Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1663-4," pp. 87 and 497. 
^ This inflaenoe was owing to relationship, the widow being daughter of Law- 
rence Hyde. 



104 CAPTAIN NICHOLAS TBTTBESBLL, ETC. 

New Coll. Oxon within y* compasse of ye year, notwithstanding 
any other Our Lres that are or shall bee written on behalfe of any 
. other ; hauing a pticular desire to gratify this yonth & to giue him 
all y* aduantages in his studies w*'** he is capable of for y® regard 
Wee bear to his father's memory And &c. 
" Given y« 4"> of May 1664."60 

The letter seems to bear evident traces of Royal dic- 
tation. This is the last reference to Colonel George 
Gunter's family. The widow, Catherine Gunter, obtained 
a pension of £200 a year for 21 years.®^ George Gunter 
(the son before referred to), married Judith, daughter of 
Richard NichoU, of Norbiton Place, Surrey, 

About Jan., 1661, there is a petition by Thomas 
Gunter to the King for the Office of Prothonotary or 
Clerk of the Crown for North Wales, value about £100 
a year.^ This appointment was probably n£)t obtained, 
for there is a letter dated Nov. 28th, 1664, by the King 
to the Mayor and Burgesses of Devizes desiring them to 
appoint "Thomas Gunter Barrister att Law*' as Re- 
corder of that town, in the place of William Yorke de- 
ceased, **for the constant loyalty & sufferings of his 
person & family for Our Service, one of his neare Rela- 
cons hauing been heretofore under the good providence 
of God very eminently Instrumentall in Our owne escape 
after the Battle of Worcester."^ The " Calendars of State 
Papers" describe Thomas Gunter as nephew of Col. 
Gunter,** but the pedigrees in Dallaway do not show any 
one who can be thus identified. 

^ " State Papers, Domestic, Chas. II., 1644," Entry Book, No. 19, p. 10. 
•1 Clarendon's " Correspondence," Vol. I., p. 66, cit, in Lingard's ** History of 
England." 

fla "Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Chas. II., 1660-1," p. 495. 

M " State Papers, Domestic, Chas. II., 1666,'* Entry Book, No, 17, p. 20. 

^ «< Calendar of State Papers, Charles II., 1666," p. 298. 



ICKLESHAM CHURCH. 



Br THEODORE T. CHURTON*, Esq. 



IcKLESHAM does not occur in Domesday Book, unless 
the Revd. Arthur Hussey is right in identifying the name 
with Checeham, If this is correct, it is a remarkable 
proof of Norman influence in the neighbourhood that the 
purely Saxon name of Checeham should have been 
changed into its partly Norman equivalent of Icklesham 
— Ickels-ham, as it is still pronounced in the district. 
Bcclesbourne Glen, near Hastings, is a word of kindred 
formation. It has been hitherto taken for granted that 
the word is Ecclesia9-ham, " the place of the church,'* 
and this account of the name seems as probable as any^ 
and is corroborated by the early character of parts of the 
present church. It has also been suggested that the 
name may be connected with the German Igel, a hedge- 
hog. Icel, pronounced Eek-ayl, is the full Early English 
form for a hedgehog ; but it drops into 111 at an early 
date. It is possible that Icklesham may be named after 
the Icelings, a Mercian family — Icklingsham — Icklesham. 
There is an Icklingham in Suffolk. 

The derivation, however, must remain an open ques- 
tion, for it is difficult to say what is likely or the opposite 
in philology. 

The church is mentioned in the Taxation of Pope 
Nicholas the Fourth, which was made in 1291,^ and in 
the Nonas Roll, which was compiled about 1341, but 

1 Pope Nicholas IV. (to whose predecessors in the See of Borne the first- 
fmits And tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices had for a long time been paid) 
granted the tenths, in 1288, to Edward I. for six years, towards defraying the 
expenses of a cinsade; and that they might be collected to their fall value, 
the King caused a valuation roll to be drawn up, which was completed in 1291. 

XXXII. P 



106 lOELESHAM OHUBOH. 

very little is known as to its history. The ecclesiastical 
patronage was granted in 1226, by Nicholas Heringod 
and Sibilla his wife, to the Abbey of Battle, by the fol- 
lowing grant : — " Notum sit omnibus Christi fidelibus ad 
quos presens Bcriptum pervenerit, qd ego Nichs Haren- 
god et ego Sibilla de Ikelsham uxor ejusdem Nichi in- 
tuitu divine caritatis et pro salute animarum nostrarum, 
et successorum nostrorum dedimus et concessimus et hac 
presenti carta nra confirmavimus Deo et ecclie Sci 
Martini de Bello et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus 
Bccliam de Ikelsham cum omnibus fructibus ad earn 
pertinentibus cum omni jure," &c.^ This grant was 
afterwards confirmed by Sibilla during her widowhood, 
and by her son Radulphus at her death. The Abbot, re- 
serving to the Abbey the impropriation of the rectory, 
thereupon appointed a vicar, and the Bishop of Chichester 
ordained " qd vicarius percipiet omnes proventus alta- 
rios et minutas decimas, excepta medietate decimarum 
feni, et habebit domes et edificia juxta eccliam et totum 
illud mansum. Et exhibebit ministros ecclie honorifice 
et faciet in ea divina celebrari solempniter, sufficienter, 
et honorifice a duobus capellanis. Et sol vet persone 
tres marchas argenti annuatim, ad f estum nativitatis Dni 
decem solidos, ad pascha decem solidos, ad fm Johis 
Baptiste decem solidos, et ad fm Sci Michis decem 
solidos."^ Soon after, however, the Abbot of Battle re- 
linquished the right of presenting to the Vicarage in 
favour of the Bishop of the Diocese, 

The church is dedicated, like so many on the sea coast, 
to St. Nicholas. It consists of a nave with north and 
south aisles, a west porch, a chancel with north and 
south chapels, and a tower between the north aisle and 
north chapel. Mr. Sharpe (see Vol. VII. of the S. A. C.) 
mentions Icklesham Church amongst those which have 
the finest remains of the Norman Period, and also amongst 
the examples of the Transitional Period. He says of 
it : — " Icklesham Church has a nave with enriched capi- 
tals, which belongs to the latter part of this period " (the 
Norman) ; and again, " Of the same date with this 

^Hayley's MSS., 6,344. 



JCKLBSHAM OHUEOH, 107 

work '* (namely, Bishopstone Church ; he is giving ex- 
amples of the Transitional Period) "are the chancel and 
aisle arcades of Icklesham Church, the whole of which 
have been carefully treated in a restoration which has 
been recently carried out.** 

The peculiarities which would first be noticed by a 
stranger are the general plainness of the exterior com- 
pared with the interior, the long roof of the nave ex- 
tending over the side aisles, which have very low walls, 
the unusual position of the tower, and the great length 
and breadth of the three chancels in proportion to the 
rest of the church. But these peculiarities — with the 
exception of the position of the tower, which has a sort 
of parallel at Climping — are characteristics which Ickle- 
sham shares in common with many other Sussex 
churches. 

The tower, nave, and aisles are Norman, and are 
among the best instances of that style in East Sussex. 
The nave is divided from each aisle by three semi-circular 
recessed and chamfered arches resting on massive round 
pillars with enriched capitals. The carving of each of 
the capitals is different, and some are of unusual and 
curious design. The half-pillars eastward have been cut 
away, apparently to make room for images, as traces of 
iron hooks remain which might have supported large 
figures. Such images were frequently taken from their 
places in the church and carried in procession on the 
great festivals. One of the half-pillars thus cut away 
has been restored to its original shape. The west wall 
shows traces outside of an earlier and smaller church 
without aisles, the coign e stones of which are visible. 
This part of the west wall is built of large blocks of 
sandstone, and is quite different in construction from the 
rest of the church, which is built of local limestone. The 
bases of the nave pillars gradually diminish in height from 
west to east, perhaps for the sake of perspective effect, to 
give to the nave the appearance of greater length. 

In the south aisle there are three small round-headed 
windows of early date ; the round heads of these win- 
dows are externally formed of a single stone. The 



108 ICKLESHAM OHUROH. 

north aisle Las two square-headed Decorated windows of 
two lights. The rest of the windows in this part of the 
church are modern. 

Next to the Norman capitals of the nave pillars, per- 
haps the most interesting part of the church is the tower. 
The walls are of the usual thickness of Norman build- 
ings. A semi-circular arch, resting on responds or half- 
pillars with the common " scallop " capital, separates the 
tower from the north aisle ; on the west side the arch 
has a plain roll moulding, surmounted by the " nail- 
head " moulding. The tower roof is groined ; the ribs 
of the vaulting rest, on the east side, on clustered shafts 
with elegantly carved capitals, on which traces of blue 
colouring may still be seen. The central shafts on each 
side spring from the ground ; the others rest on a broad 
ledge or stringcourse which originally ran round the 
tower except on the west side, but it has been cut away, 
and part of one of the bases of the shafts supporting 
the groined roof recklessly chipped, so as to make room 
for the Early English arch leading from the tower into 
the north chancel — an instance of the ruthless want of 
reverence that was so often shown by the old builders for 
earlier work when additions or alterations were being 
carried out. The ribs of the vaulting spring on the west 
side from boldly carved corbels formed of grotesque 
heads of a martial type of countenance. 

The tower staircase is in the north-east angle. It is 
entered by a plain round-headed narrow Norman door- 
way, and there are traces of herring-bone masonry in the 
walls. 

The arch leading from the tower to the middle chancel 
has puzzled archaeologists ; it is semi-circular, perfectly 
plain, without any responds or imposts. It has been 
suggested that it once had an inner arch and responds, 
like the arch that leads from the tower into the north aisle. 
In its present condition it can hardly be as it was originally 
designed. There are Norman windows on the west as 
well as the north and east sides of the tower ; that to the 
west is closed, and would seem to show that the tower 
is older than the north aisle. The window to the east 



ICKLESHAM CHURCH. 109 

now opens into the north chancel. The tower is in three 
stages. The upper story, in which the bells are hung, 
has Norman windows consisting of two small arches sup- 
ported on a round shaft or balluster, and the whole in- 
cluded under a larger arch — an arrangement commonly 
found in the towers of churches in Normandy, as, for 
example, at Tainville, an engraving of which appears in 
Vol. IX. of the Collections. These windows, as well as 
the plain flat Norman buttresses on the north side of the 
tower, are in excellent preservation. In the middle 
story there are some corbels with rude carving. 

The north chancel is Transitional or Early English. It 
has been said that this part of the church is remarkably 
French in character. There is a fine blank arcade in the 
north wall, the arches of which are so irregular that they 
seem to have been built, as so much of the mediaBval 
church work seems to have been done, without measure- 
ment, the easternmost arch in particular being much 
broader than the rest. The last two eastward were 
probably used as sedilia. They bear faint traces of red 
colouring. Above this are three pointed lancet win- 
dows, the wide splays of which unite in a cluster of nar- 
row shafts supporting moulded hoodings over the win- 
dows. The general effect of these windows with the 
arcade below is very pleasing. The east window of this 
north chancel is a modern three-light lancet, in the Early 
English style, but a curious and very puzzling dripstone 
outside suggests a window of different, and perhaps later 
character. The little piscina is formed of a small Nor- 
man capital, probably taken from the tower. 

The south chancel is of later date — Early Decorated 
—and is separated from the middle chancel by three 
pointed recessed and chamfered arches, resting on octa- 
gonal columns. In the south wall of this chancel there is 
also an arcade of very much the same character as that 
in the north chancel. The shafts supporting the arches 
are in some cases detached from the stone- work behind, 
in others not, and the same freedom of design appears in 
the carving of the foliated capitals, which are all 
different ; in one of them the artist has exercised his in- 



110 ICELESHAM GHUBGH, 

genuity in altering a leaf into a dog's head — an evident 
after-thought. The three windows in the south wall of 
this chancel each consist of two lancet-shaped lights with 
a plain circle above, which, with the east window — 
which is of four lights, and in the same style — may per- 
haps be regarded as good instances of the later period of 
the transition into the Decorated style. They resemble 
the east window of Eaunds Church, Northamptonshire, 
but are much plainer, and without the cusps, which in 
that instance are let into the tracery in separate small 
pieces. They may be contrasted with the somewhat 
similar, but rather earlier windows in the south chancel 
of Rye Church. There is a crocketted piscina in the 
south wall. The arch leading from the south aisle into 
this chancel is a good plain specimen of Transitional 
Norman; it is round, and rests on responds having 
foliated capitals and the " foot ornament" at the angle of 
the plinth. This last is also found throughout the arcades. 
The middle chancel has been lengthened eastward be- 
yond the north and south chancels, and has two graceful 
windows (both alike) of the Geometrical or Early De- 
corated style north and south of the sacrarium. These 
windows are of two lights, with a cinquefoil above, and 
have elegant shafts and hoodings and labels. The east win- 
dow is modern, but a successful reproduction on a larger 
scale of the character of the old windows on each side. 
There is a plain aumbry and a priest's door (closed) in 
the north wall, and an ogee-headed piscina — divided by 
a shelf — south of the altar. The great chancel arch is 
pointed, and of good proportions. It rests on carved 
corbels of a somewhat uncommon design. There is in the 
north wall of this chancel an arched recess which is sup?- 
posed to have been used as an Easter sepulchre.^ 

8 « Within the north wall of the chancel, near the altar, a large arch, like 
that of a tomb, may often be perceived. "Within this, the holy aej^ulchre^ gene- 
rally a wooden and moveable stractnre, was set np at Easter, when certain 
rites commemorative of the bnrial and resnrrection of our Lord were anciently 
performed with g^eat solemnity, for on Good Friday the crucifix and host were 
here deposited, and watched the following day and nights ; and early on 
Easter morning they were removed from thence with great ceremony, and re- 
placed on the altar by the priest. In the accomits of churchwardens of the 
fifteenth and early part of the sixteenth century we meet with frequent notices 
of payments made for watching the sepulchre at Easter.*' — Bloxam's Goth, Arch, 



lOKLESHAM OHUEOH. Ill 

It may be as well to introduce here some account of 
the restoration of the church, which was carried on be- 
tween the years 1847 and 1862. The interior had been 
disfigured with whitewash, and the nave was seated with 
square pews — the large triple chancel being left clear, 
without seats. There is an engraving of the church as 
it was in 1812, by Moss — now rarely to be met with — 
which gives a good idea of the state of the interior at 
that time. No traces were found of any of the original 
benches or paving tiles, nor of any wall-paintings. On 
the north side of the nave, though not on the south side, 
were found traces of Norman clerestory windows ex- 
actly like those in the lowest stage of the tower. The 
nave was entered by a descending flight of six steps, 
through a round west porch, built in 1785. "The church 
porch,'' Horsfield says, " formerly stood on the northern 
side, about the middle of the north aisle, a drawing of 
which is preserved in the Burrell MSS." Many small 
elm trees were growing up inside the church. Fifteen 
of the windows — all that looked north and south — were 
blocked up. The roof was so rotten as to be dangerous. 
The work, which was superintended by Mr. S. S. Teulon, 
was carefully carried out, and though the prevailing taste 
on the subject of church restoration has greatly changed 
during the last thirty years, there is very little to regret 
except the unfortunate removal of the altar tomb in the 
south chancel, which is thus noticed by Horsfield : — " In 
the southern chancel is a raised altar tomb of polished 
Sussex marble, but now whitewashed. It is without 
effigy or inscription, but would seem to be the tomb of 
Henry Fynche, in 1493, who by his will, dated 19th 
Henry VII. (1493), directs his body to be buried in the 
chapel of St. Nicholas of Icklesham, and that 100 masses 
be said for his sou! and the souls of his ancestors, within 
a month next from his decease. He bequeaths to the 
reparations of the said chapel of St. Nicholas, and the 
building of an altar like to the altar in the church of 
Icklesham, xl. shillings, and to the repair of the said 
church xl. shillings, also to the mending of the ways 
between Clegge Cross and Icklesham xl. shillings." 



112 ICELESHAM GHUBOH. 

This tomb stood against the south wall under the piscina. 
Through some neglect the workmen were allowed to 
tamper with it, and, as it consisted of stones that were 
" broken and rotten as earth, and quite incapable of 
being used again," it was found impossible to replace it. 
" The tomb had evidently been opened previously, and 
contained nothing but sandy earth and local sandstone 
and ironstone, and broken pieces of slightly painted 
glass, evidently from the windows of the church. No 
bones whatever were found either above or below the 
present pavement.*' * 

The font is an almost exact copy of one at All Saints*, 
Leicester; the old one was mean and comparatively 
modern. 

The round west porch was rebuilt in an hexagonal 
form. 

The new tower doorway is in the Norman style ; its 
concave zigzag has a precedent in Waltham Abbey ; it 
replaces a plain low wooden framework which was only 
5ft. 5in. in height. 

The old reading pew and pulpifc and sound-board, all 
of oak, which were put up at the end of the last 
century, were converted into bookshelves for the Parish 
Lending Library, now kept in the south chancel. 

The altar table was designed by Sir G. Scott, and is 
of oak. It replaces a mean and small table, which now 
stands in the north chancel, that part of the church 
being used as a vestry. 

A list of the monumental inscriptions has been given 
in full by Mr. G. S. Butler, F.S.A., in Vol. XIV. of the 
S. A. 0. 

The tower contains four bells ; the inscriptions on 
Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are given in Vol. XVL; No. 2 has 
since been recast, and a smaller bell added, by Warner, 
in 1867. 

The oldest register begins in 1669, though the Bishop's 
transcripts begin as early as 1606, with a gap from 
1638 to 1667. I have not found much worthy of note 

* I am here quoting from notes taken at the time by mj father , the Bey, H. 
B. W. ChnrtoDy the present vioar. 



IGELESHAM GHUBOH. 113 

in these early transcripts ; it is curious, however, that 
about the year 1610 Eleanor and Anthony are among the 
commonest Christian names. 

In the Bishop's Eegistry at Lewes are preserved the 
accounts of two commissions, held respectively in 1686 
and 1724, to inquire into the state of the churches in the 
diocese. Icklesham occurs in both. The first, in 1686, 
reports as follows : — " The Church of Iclesham. The 
Three Chancels much out of repaire, especially y® pave- 
ments. Steeple & bells all out of order. A Oomunion 
Cloth, Books of Homilies, Articles, Canons, Table of 
degrees, and for strange preachers names. Vicaridge 
house, stable, and ffences about it so much out of 
repair that it will by the judgem* of workmen cost 63 
pounds to repaire y"? Eke Kegister book in unknowne 
hands." 

Things were rather better in 1724 ; for the Commis- 
sion of that year reports as follows : — "The Byshop of 
Chichester Patron M^ William Burrell of Christ College 
in Cambridge, the present Incumbent. The church is in 
good Repair ; the Bible and Common Prayer Book gaod 
a pewter fflagon a Silver Cup and Cover a table cloth for 
the Communion a Surplice good, a chest, poor Box, and 
three Bells. The North Chancell wants Paving, the 
Great and South Chancell in good Repair. The North 
Chancell repaired by the Parish, the other two the great 
one by the Parson and the other by Lady Winchelsea. 
A very poor house but in pretty good repair. About 
thirty families two of Anabaptists. . . . Divine 
Service and Sermon twice every Sunday by M^ Edward 
Dyson Curate. The Holy Sacrament Administred three 
times a year about twelve Communicants.'* 

In the oak chest are preserved the churchwarden's 
accounts, which date from the year 1712. They are 
regularly kept, entered in bound volumes, and the bills 
are also kept, tied up in yearly bundles. These records 
are interesting as shewing in detail the inner working of 
parochial life ; how national victories were announced 
on the church bells, and national disasters by the pro- 
clamation of a form of prayer ; how local self govern- 

XXXII. Q 



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114 IGKLESHAM OHUBOH. 

ment became gradually developed; how free was the 
consumption of ale, on the smallest possible provocation, 
at the parish's expense ; and a thousand other minutiaB, 
all of them possessing some point of interest. It is 
difficult to make a good selection ; the following are 
given without any attempt at classification : — 

1712 paid My Odiame for Cureing of Will: Toams foot 

1715 laid Widdow Hills in two hundred of batt ffaggets 

1716 Febr y* 8 p^ Widow Aman for spining of wooU 
1718 Ap y® 9 for a window tax book 
1720 Oct' y« 21 pd To Gooddy Goland for Washing 

up Gooddy Marteen Things - 

1723 July y** 18 for a paier Leaders and Bibb 

1724 Nov' 2 for Worsted and a Homebooke for 

Widdow Wickens Children . - - 

1727 8 yards of enkel for Mary Parfit 

1727 March 25 paid Gorge Marten was spent a Crown- 
ing the King - - - - 8 

1729 January y® 9 paid Will Burgis for a Neck of 

Muten for Wid Paris when she was sick - 10 

1729 March y« 80 payd MT Puckel for the grifen 

1780 Aprill 18 Paid Goodey Row for laying of Widow 

Parse forth and for watching and helping ther 

1781 June y* 16 gave 20 men very much abuse by the 

Turks ----- 

1782 For fatting Widdow Cloke's Hogg 
Paid for y« Stokes* .. - . - 

1788 January y« 7 to Goody Clooke for half a Hogg 

weighed 16 Stone & fower pound at one shilMng 

& ten pence p' Stone - - - - 

1788 Spent when we met M^ Jones - - - 

Nov' y« 8 p* for 8 Stone of Beefe John Winch - 

1784 Nov'y« 28 p* for 5 Ells of Dowllas for Sarah 

Harmer - - - - - 5 10 

1785 January y® 18 p* for a pint of wine & for eight 

pound of mutton for Good Row & Good Winch 
& Goody Sutors for their being with Goody in 
her fitts « - - - - 

1785 Apl y« 18 p* Cook for two ffox trap - 
y* 26 p? George Martin for 5 Badgers & foxes - 

1786 to Goody Burt a fowU & a Bottle Heartshom 

Dropps - - - - - 

1787 March the 6 p* to Goodman Champney and to 

Goodman hurt & Goody Sutors Standing for 
the Child David Sharvill a Vagrant - 
& for two Muggs of beer y® same 

* These Btocka stood, within living memory, in the churchyard. 



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lOKLESHAM OHUEOH. 115 

1738 Dec'. y« 26 p^ George Martjn for tow ffoxes 

Head 5 

gave him more for Incuridgment to Destroy 

Virmen _ - - - - 

April 20 p? W? ffitsall for John Stone's housel - 

1738 3 May p^ for A new payer of Shoues for Gorge 

Seuters - - - - - 

1739 23 April paid for Cureing Tho Seuter Eye ' - 

1740 May 13 p* for 6 dinners and for beere - 
March 30 p* for flanel for y® Travelers Child 

1740 August y? 25 P? MT J. Bowier for y® Prayers 

for y® ffast day - - - - 

1741 August 6 for three New mobes for mary purfield 
No^ y* 3 lent to a Soioumer - - - 

1741 Sept y® 12 p* for 64 Trets for y« Church 
Nov! y® 9 p? Dame Bull for nursing a Soiourner 

1742 May the 11 for Aworront & mitmas for Abraham 

ambelfurd - - - - -020 

October 18 paid for repairing of the sesions hous 

at Leuis - - - - - 02 18 1 

1744 feverey y® 29 paid Gudy Tayler for going to Win- 

' shelse for to give her Arthor Davy® - 00 01 6 

1744 March y® 26 paid Jacob Beker for to pound of 
flees wooll for to berey John Winch in 
May 1 Spent a maring of Mary Burges - 
Jun 1 paid doul is winder tax - - - 

1746 April 26 gave the Ringers for Reioycing when y® 
Rebels was beat^ - . - - 

1 746 Jun 20 P* for Master Whites Boys Indenters - 

1747 April 20 P^ M^ Gossom for a payr of Bodys a 

Hat and Strings for Eli« Stone - . - 4 10 

1749 April 25 p? the Expences a Drinking his Majetys 

Health this Day - - - - 1 03 

1749 June y® 15 p* George Marten that was Spent one 

Gesling Singers _ - - - 

1750 June y« 1 p* Abra™ Baker for Catching Mouls - 

21 p^ Ben Tree for Making dame Bartholo- 
mews Coffen - - - - - 
for a Years wager for John Britt 

1752 March y« 30 p^ Master Nash as p' Bill for Three 

Shirts - . - - . 

Aug^ y® 12 Bought for Dame Wilmershurst one 
Tin Kettle one paire of Belowes 

1753 FebT y® 6 p* Rob? Neefe for a payer of Stays for 

his Gierl - . - - - - 

July y® 13 p* a Hunderd Tax for Icklesham 

Parish . - - - - 

• Affidavit. 

^ This of course refers to the defeat of the Pretender at Calloden. 



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116 I0ELESHAM CHUBOR. 

1756 12 Jnly for 1^ lbs wool for J. Harrold & for 

laying him forth - - - - 

for his grave & neU & afterdayit 
18 p^ for Beere at his Burying - . - 

1757 21 June p« Jos: Tree for fetching Salt fish 
the same time Spent on Churchwardens &c add 

the Salt Fish to y? poor - - . 

9 July p^ for weaveing Slomans Sheets - 
5 Ap^ p^ W™ Glooke for mending Maiy Monks 

Clog's & pattens - - - - 1 1 

Disburstments 
24 March p^ Dame Conditch for Spinning 7 lb 

Wool & for oyle - - - - 6 

1760 4 May Gave Eliz: Bartholomew to buy a testament 1 

11 May p^ Dame Banks for doing for Dame 

Wilmshurst - - - - - 10 

1762 April 4^ P* Samuel Banester Agre* by the 

Parish for Laming them to sing - - 1 1 

1763 April 8*^ P? for Tucking up the Surplus - 6 

1764 Jan 27 paid Dame Burt for a Quarters Schooling 

for 10 children - - - - 1 

1764 March 27 Given Dame wimset when her boy run 

away - - - . . 3 

1766 June 12 p^ for a pair of Second Hand Buckskinn 

briches for W? Dungan - - - 3 6 

The Melisha Tax is 2^f in the pound 

1767 p^ for a Gallon of Brandy for Susana Seldens Leg 
p* for a Sixpenny Loaf for Poulteses 
charge for my Self for Going to Hasting for y® 

Doctor for Sue Selden - . - 

1773 14 Febry p* for thanksgiving for a young Prince 
1778 It was agreed to alow Will™ Morley One Pound 
eleven shillings and Six to teach the People of 
Icklesham to sing Psalms from this time to 
Easter Monday.^ 
Also it was agreed that Henry Librery is to have 
a Setevikett 
1789 26 Apl At a Vestry held in the Parrish Church 
of Icklesham in the County of Sussex, it is. 
Agreed & Ordered for the Churchwardens to 
have the Shingles taken off from the South Side 
of the Church & to have the same Roofe new 
Laide with Tiles in a Workmanlike manner 
• 1790 It was Agreed for M'. John Watts to Innoculate 
the Widow Griffin's Seven Children for the 
Small Pox at 10/6 each Child 

' Four old musio books remainy of abont this date, with Psalms and Anthems 
arranged for fonr parts. Most of the mnsio is in minor keys, and some of the 
words and mosio are very quaint. 



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lOKLESHAM OHUEOH. 117 

1802 Feb? 14. A Journey to Battle for draw* the 
Militia men and Expen. 7/6. 
17. A Journey for my man to Brede to deliver a 
notice to W°? Crouch to inform him that he was 
drawn to serve in the Militia 2/. 

This account of the founding of a school at the end of 
the last century may be interesting. At a vestry meet- 
ing held in 1793 :— 

" It is muterally concluded & agreed upon, & the Overseers are hereby 
directed, as soon as they conveniently can ; to have a Boom in the House 
lately Occupy'd as a Poor-House ; Bepaired & fited up proper to make 
use ofif for a School-Boom at the Expence of the Parish : And that the 
Sum of 16£ p Annum from Lady day next, be paid by even & equal 
Quarterly Payments, to a Proper Person for Instructing therein Twenty 
Poor Children ; to Learn their Books so as to Spell and Bead well ; 
and in Beligious Principles, Conformable to, and Agreeable with the 
Church of England : — The said Sum to be paid by the Overseers for the 
time being, out of the Money collected for the use of the Poor : — as it is 
the Opinion of this Meeting that the Money thus expended will prove to 
be equal, if not more future benefit to the Poor off, and the said Parish ; 
than by any other means the said Money cou'd be expended or Apply'd :— 
It is Ordered that the Scool Master do request, llie Parents of all the 
said Children that are by this means put under his care, from time to 
time to direct them, to attend Divine Service in the Parish Church every 
Sunday, & Prayer Days : — And that all the s^ boys set together in one 
Pew : & all the s? Girles in another ; which Pews or Seats are to be 
Appointed out by the Minister & Churchwardens : — Tho? Cooper 
Christopher Hoad & William Blackman are hereby Appointed Trustees, 
to Appoint a Proper Person to attend the s^ Schooll, & Instruct the 
Children ; & also to Nominate & appoint from time to time, without 
favour or Affection, Twenty Poor Children belonging to the said Parish : 
that may appear to them to be most in need of, being so Instruct'd. 
And the said Trustees • have hereby Power, provided the School Master 
sho*d not in their Opinions do his duty ; by Instructing the said Children 
as he ought ; at the end of any One Year expiring at Lady day ; to 
Discharge and turn him out : And appoint another to succeed in his 
Boom : 

'^ It is Bequested that all the said Trustees, or at least any two of 
them, do meet in the said Boom during Schooll Hours ; to hear the 
Children say their Books, and also the Church Catechism Once in every 
Calendar Month." 

Since writing the above, I have had an opportunity, 
through the kind permission of the Bishop, of examining 
the MSS. in the Cathedral Library at Chichester ; and 
though the references to Icklesham which I have dis- 



118 lOELESHAM GHUBOH. 

covered in these old documents are scanty and discon- 
nected, I give them with the context, as there is, I think, 
a general interest even in such partial glimpses as they 
give of the way in which a remote country parish was 
affected by the political and ecclesiastical tendencies of 
the time. 

The first mention I can find of Icklesham is in the 
Register of Bishop Praty, a.d. 1438-1445, in which the 
" Vicaria de Ikeleshm " is mentioned, with 64 other 
benefices, under the following heading : — " Noia bnficior' 
eccliasticor* taxat' et ad decima solvere cosuet' no appat' 
quor ver' valor anus infra suma xij marcar' existit seu 
annuatr ad suma xij marcar se extendit et non ultra in 
quibs ipor bnficior Eectores et Vicarij residentia faciut 
psonalem." 

The next notice is interesting, as it reveals the extent 
to which irregularity among the clergy prevailed fifty 
years before the Reformation. It occurs in the Register 
of Bishop Storey, who was most energetic in the 
administration of his diocese, and set himself at once to 
endeavour to reform abuses ; his diligence in this and at 
the same time the hopelessness of the attempt are 
abundantly shewn in the interesting enquiries and 
returns still preserved. At various centres Visitations 
were held, at which " each and every Curate and Priest 
within the diocese of Chichester'* was summoned to 
appear and exhibit his letters of orders. At the Visita- 
tion held (apparently in 1478) "in ecclia de Cukehm 
Lewen Arch.,"® the Vicar and " capellanus " of Icklesham 
appeared. The entry is as follows : — 

Dns Thomas Ffrench yicarius de Ikeleshm feet dno 
obiam [= obedientiam] et exhibuit [litteras ordinum] 
suffic' [= sufficienter], 

Dns mthe' [Mattheus ?] Sejgeford capell poch ibm no 
exhibuit. 

Judging from a large number of names which I have 
examined (without taking an accurate reckoning of all 
the Sussex clergy), of those cited to appear about one- 

* D. fol. 19. Bat where is Cokeham ? 



lOKLESHAM OHTJBOH. 119 

sixth seem to have been absent, and of the remainder 
rather more than half were unable to exhibit their letters 
of orders ; while some, as " Dominus Clemens capel- 
lanus parochialis de Holyngton," exhibited their letters 
of orders under a seal that was not recognised (sub 
sigillo ignoto).^^ 

In the same Eegister, when an order was issued in the 
year 1486 to the Bishop from the King to collect 
tenths," the " Vicaria de Ikeleshm " appears with 22 
other Sussex parishes, as being excused payment on the 
ground of impoverishment through inundations, fires, 
&c. : — " que p inunda®" aquar' incendia ruinas et alios 
fortuitos casus destruct' depaupat' et nimiu diminut' 
existunt." From the number of coast parishes in this 
list (all the Hastings Churches with " St Leonard juxta 
Hastyng " appear), it would seem that the poverty of 
these parishes at this time was chiefly due to incursions 
of the sea. Again, in 1496, Icklesham was excused half 
payment of the tenth for the same reason.^ Henry VII., 
it is well known, felt no scruple in enriching himself with 
subsidies levied on the pretence of some public need, 
though the wording of the next order for a subsidy, in 
1497, to which Icklesham (and Sussex generally) was 
called upon to contribute, is vague enough : it is levied 
" to the glory of God and for the protection and defence 
of the Church of England and of this our realm."^* In 
the list of parishes and the sums contributed for the first 
moiety we find : — 

Vicaria de Ikeleshm - - - Is' 

In 1513 the " Vic' de Ikelshm" again appears in the 
list of benefices excused payment of tenths because of 
" inundations," &c., an excuse which defends an increasing 
number of parishes year after year, the tenths having to 
be collected by certain days, the first in 1513, and one in 

10 In this list occnrs the name of " Joh' Grafton capeir paroch' de Bnlferith," 
who *' non exh.," which is interesting, as it shows that the rained Norman Church 
of Bnlverhythe, near St. Leonards, was in use as late as 1478. 

" 16., fol. 112. 

" lb., fol. 136. 

" 16., fol. 143. 



120 lOELESHAM OHUEOH. 

each of the three following years. Ickleshara pays, how- 
ever, in 1514, apparently. The order from Henry VIII. 
is characteristic ; he asks for four subsidies " de quibus- 
cumque beneficiis et possessionibus ecclesiasticis,*' which 
he says have been granted " ad tuitioem et def encione 
ecclie Anglicane et hui" incliti Eegni nri Anglie necnon 
ad sedand' et extirpand' hereses et schismata in univ'sali 
ecclia que his diebus plus solito pululant,*' and arerto be 
levied " sub mods formis oondicioibs exceptoibs infra- 
scripts et no alitor neq' alio modo." 

The names of churchwardens or "guardians" (gar- 
diani) are given in Bishop Sherborne's Eegister. At a 
Visitation held on Sept. 17th, 1521, in the Church of 
All Saints*, Hastings, the clergy of the Deanery of 
Hastings were cited to appear, and this entry occurs : — 

Abbas et conyentas (?) de bello ppetarij de Ikelshm 
no comp [= non comparuerunt]. 

Dns Johes Jutkns (?) vicari" ibm comp* et exhi* 



Jo Erie 
gardi Bir' Eoger 
cu daobs 



com. et jnrati pntant 
[= representant ?] yillam ut 
in reg® [= registroj de 
q® sup* 



In 1535 another subsidy is ordered by the King, 
calling himself " on earth the supreme head, under Christ, 
of the Church of England;" and Icklesham is thus 
mentioned in the list of parishes : — 

De vicaria de Ikelsbm - - - xxrj* ij* 

Passing on to the troublous times of Queen Mary, we 
find in Bishop Daye's register that Icklesham was only 
one case out of many where institutions were made to 
benefices ** vacant on account of the deprivation of the 
last incumbent.'* Bishop Daye's sympathies were anti- 
Protestant, and he had been consequently deposed 
from the see of Chichester in 1551, but was restored to 
his see on the death of Edward VI- He was evidently 
diligent in ridding his diocese of incumbents who em- 



ICKLESHAM OHUEOH. 121 

braced the Reformed faith. I give in this instance the 
form in which the institution is recorded : — 

** Vicesimo sexto die mensis Marcii ano dni millmo quingen® quinqna- 
gesimo quinto supradictus Ke*^^ pr [= reverendas pater] contulit dno 
M'ino [? MartiDO ?] Hinkeman yicariam ppetua eccle parochialis de 
Icleshm nr Cicestren' dioc' per deprivatonera ultimi incumbents ibidem 
nup Taca' et ad suam collatonem pleno jure spectantem ipmque vicar iu 
ppetuu in ead* cu suis juribus et ptincis [= pertinentibus] universis ad 
8ta dei evanglia primitus jurat" cano® instituit. et ipsius obia ca*^ recepta. 
Scriptu' que est Thome Lambe Gurato de Rje ad inducedm eundem.'*^^ 

I have found nothing of interest about Ickl^sham 
during the stormy years of the Commonwealth; there is 
no mention of the Vicar of Icklesham in Walker s 
" Sufferings of the Clergy/' or in Calamy s " Noncon- 
formist's Memorial/' [But see S. A. C, Vol. XXXI., 
p. 186, for a notice of Michael Suep, "Minister" of 
Icklesham in 1645.] 

On the accession of William of Orange, however, of 
the eleven non-juring clergy in Sussex the Vicar of 
Icklesham was one, apparently George Dawkins, M.A.,. 
who became vicar in 1686. 

The next Vicar but one, Thomas Bowers, was the son 
of a Shrewsbury baker. He was fellow of St. John's, 
Cambridge, and came to Icklesham from Hooe in 1708. 
In 1713 he was made Archdeacon of Canterbury, and in 
1722 he was promoted to the see of Chichester. His 
episcopacy only lasted for two years. 

Thomas Bowers was succeeded in 1722 by William 
Burrell, who seems to have held this living together 
with those of Brightling and Burwash. The next Vicar, 
Luke Trevigar, also was a pluralist. He held the living 
from 1 737 till his death in 1 772, and with it (for some 
time, at least) the vicarage of Westfield ; and he was also 
Rector of Herstmonceux when he died. 

Unfortunately I have not been able to discover in the 
Chichester library any returns which throw light on the 
state of the fabric of the church, though for many 
parishes the returns in Elizabeth's reign are full of 
interest. 

1* B., fol. 99. 
XXXII. B 



122 IGKLESHAM GHUBOH. 

I here subjoin the measurements of the various parts 
of Icklesham Church : — 

PT. IN. 

Nave 88 7 

North Aisle 88 6 

South Aisle 89 6 

Chancel 85 

North Chancel... 16 

6outh Chancel... 86 

8acrariam - 12 

Porch 10 

Belfry 11 6 





PT. 


IN. 


X 


20 


6 


X 


8 


7 


X 


7 


6 


X 


17 


6 


X 


18 


6 


X 


18 


7 


X 


17 





X 


10 





X 


10 


6 



EARLY WILLS AT LEWES. 



By F. W. T. ATTEEB, Lieut. R.E. 



The following table has been transcribed from Liber 1 
of Wills preserved at Lewes between the dates of 1641 
and 1549.^ The date of the first will in the book — that 
of Harry Kenrycke, of Horsted Keynes — is 26th April, 
1643 ; and that of the last — that of Richard NicoU, of 
Eye — 7th of May, 1648. All of the clerks who left 
wills are described as parish priest, vicar, curate, chap- 
lain, &c., of the parishes under which their names ap- 
pear, with the following exceptions : — John Answorth, 
who, however, desired to be buried in the churchyard of 
Ohayley ; Eobert Bracy (to be buried in Friston chancel), 
Thomas Harmar (to be buried in Salehurst church), 
George Morley and Eichard Ball (both to be buried in 
-the churchyard of Southover), and Mr. Grenegore, of 
Twyneham, whose will I could not find. Nothing can 
be discovered from the administrations, though they 
probably belonged to the parishes where they died. The 
earliest wills of the Archdeaconry of Lewes, however, 
are contained in book " la," of which a list of names of 
persons alphabetically arranged is given below. These 
date from 1528 to 1541, and were probably all proved in 
or about the latter year. 

A. Akherste, Thomas, Hellingly, 19ft. 

Aljs, John, Bedingham, 326. 

Akers, Peter 33a. 

£. Bachelor, Eobert, Guestling, 12. 

Banester John & Johane, Warbleton, 15ft. 

Balcome, Richard, Rothei*field, 18ft. 

a Broke, John, Willingdon, 20a. 
C. Chacye, Harry, Burwash, 4. 

Cabery, Christopher, Hastings, 13ft. 

^ By kind permission of Sir James Hannen. 



124 EAELT WILLS AT LEWES. 

Chatfeld, Stephen, Newtimber, 21. 

Golbrond, John, Hurstmonoeux, 86a. 
D. Dopp, John, Newick, 22a. 

Dumbrell, John 24b, 

F*. French, John 5. 

Forman, Thomas, Hastings, 9. 

Fymesse, John, Rotherfield, 19a. 

Frenche, John 25. 

Frankwell, Richard, Wartling, 36ft. j 

G. Gollyng nearly destroyed, la, 1 

Gallop, John, Westdean, 17. 

Goodwin, Thomas, Ripe, 29. 
H. Hart, the elder John, Hartfield, 6a. 

Hardyng, Richard, Salehurst, 15a. 

Harward, Thomas, Warbleton, 16. 

Hosemare, the elder William, Rotherfield, 17a. 

Hosemare Richard do., 30. ' 

I. J. Jeffry, William 22b. 

Jemys, John, Horsted Keynes, 27ft. i 

Jarred, Thomas, Salehurst, 80. 

Ive, Parnyll, Wo., Lewes, 38. 
K. Eenser, Edmund, Hailsham, 27a. 

Eryesall, John, Hailsham, 37ft. 
M. Markwyke, William, Westmeston, 8. 

Maynard, John, Rotherfield, 6ft. 

Marten, Edmund, Rye, 1 3ft. 

Mydmore EUys, Chiddingly, 23ft. 

Mychelgrowe Henry, 38ft. 
N. A'Neston Robert, Catsfield, 14ft, 
P. Peers, Edward, Warbleton, 8a. 

Palmer, George, HoUington, 8ft. 

Por Hellingly, 28. 

R. Rodocke John (partially destroyed), 1ft. 

Reder, Henry, Hailsham, 84. 
S. 8 , William, Hamsey, 5. 

Soytt, John, Playden, 10. 

Susan, Alice Wo., Berwick, 23a. 

Squyer, Henry, Lewes, 26. 

Snowe, Richard, Hailsham, 33a. 
T. Trewe, John, Dallington, '14a. 

Twysden, Thomas, 32a. 

Taylor, Joan Wo., Kingston, 37a. 
W. Wryght, Thomas, 18a. 

Wyllard, Robert, Hailsham, 27a. 

Walshe, Richard, Alfriston, 55. 

The earliest will in the Deanery of Battle is dated 
2nd March, 1531. These wills are indexed at the end of 
the book alphabetically, according to the Christian name 
of the deceased. 



] 



EARLY WILLS AT LEWES. 



125 



Incipit Tabula Alphabetica Testor Admiaistratiomqz 
oim in hoc Volumine Scriptorw. 



Albornk. 




fa 


Bedtngham. 




fo. 


T. Henrici fowke 


••« 


109 


T. Symonis Smert 


... 


134 


T. Johannis bocher 


* *« 


144 


T. Stephani Barber 


... 


136 


T. Johannis byrtynshaw 


. .« 


186 


Bexhill. 






Algistov« 






T. Ryehardi Showsmyth 


... 


39 


T. Willmi ay ell 


• •« 


49 


T. Johis Buckehold 


... 


40 


T. VVUli bans- 


. .« 


134 


T. Henrici Cheuerell 


... 


41 


Alfriston. 
T. Willmi Osborne 
T. Milonis batman 
T. Johis Johnson 
A. bor. Symonis Johnson 


••• 
. . ■ 
• • • 
• . • 


19 
22 
62 
68 


a** bor. Thome Woodnett 
T. Johis Mayman 
T. Roberti browne 
T. Roberti Tomkyn 
T. Rolandi Showsmyth 
T. Rici Prowle 


... 
... 
... 

••• 
• • • 
• . « 


78 
140 
151 
185 
193 
202 


Andrei Lbwbs. 






Blachyngtok. 






T. katerine parker 


. • • 


33 


a^ bor. Johis holy day clici 


• • . 


18 


Ardyngle, 
T. Thome abriggs 
ad®- honor, Gilbert! Ungle 

eis testo 
a**- bor. Edwardi Balcombe 


... 
cu 

••• 
••• 


154 

87 
162 


BODYHAH. 

a®- bor. Johis sayar 
T. Roberti piper 
T. Johis knolls 


... 

... 


82 
117 
130 


T. Milonis Nubye clici 


... 


177 


BOLNEY. 






A 






T. Willmi Longforth 


••• 


58 


Arltngton. 
T. Richardi Draper 


... 


48 


^7 

T. margarite longforth 
T. Johis Smyth 
T, Jone longforth 


... 
... 


90 
99 


T. Thome Downer 
T. Willmi Woodman 


• • • 
... 


98 
110 


•• . 


114 


T. Johis Comber 


... 


196 


Borne. 












T. Thome bams 


. • • 


4 


Balcombe. 






a** bor. Johis Turner 


• . • 


6 


T. Johis Rever 


... 


89 


a®- bor. Willmi russell 


• • . 


ibm. 


T, Georgii Coulpeper 


• •• 


157 


T. Roberti Roche 


•* • 


7 


Barwyk. 






T. Edwardi Mabbe 


• • . 


8 


T. Thome Cane 


• . • 


135 


T. Jacob! sage 


... 


10 


T. Johis Crypps 


... 


IGl 


T. Alicie fenell 


•• • 


20 


V A A 






T. symonis Mew 


• . • 


ibm. 


Bbgkelay. 






T. Roberti fenell 


• a. 


ibm. 


a^ bor. Edwardi sampson 


•• • 


41 


T. Johis lopdall 


« . • 


21 


a«- bor. Willi Smyth 


• • • 


75 


T. alicie petman 


« • . 


ibm. 


T. Henrici Pend 


• .• 


90 


T. oliue peper 


• •. 


29 


T. Wnimi Brnmhall 


• • • 


93 


T. philippi banaster 


• • • 


54 


T. Christoferi blakeman 


... 


128 


T. Johis stapulton 


■ • • 


ibm. 


T. agnets sampson 


... 


142 


T. Wiia Comber 


■ . . 


70 


a®' bor. agnets sampson 


... 


148 


T. Symonis howell 


.a. 


82 


a^ bor. Johis Edwards 


••• 


162 


T. Jone fenell vidue 


... 


87 


T. Willmi Ive 


. • • 


167 


T. Thome Ryche 


... 


90 


T. Allele ayay yidue 


• . • 


175 


T. Elisibeth Crunden 


• •• 


91 



126 



SABLT WILLS AT LEW£S. 



T. Boberti seall 
T. Nicolai lopdaU 
T. Johis lyverie 
T. Jeliane mew 
T. Willi houell 
T. Willi ferall 
T. Johis mew 
T. Roberti fenell 
T. Willmi Adams 
T. Agnet lopdell 
T. Thome Chester 

Brbadb. 
a®- bor. Rici barber 
T. Hoberti akers 
T. Willmi lucas 
T. Thome wyke 
T. bymonis baron 
T. Johis Michell 
T. Jacobi Iden 
T. petri Gerves 
T. Kici Reade 
T. Johis hant 
T. Eoberti chamber 
T. Joue Michell yidue 



fo. 
... 96 
... 101 
... 109 
... 126 
... 144 
... 151 
... 166 
... 170 
... 186 
... 203 
... ibm. 



21 

46 

69 

107 

117 

151 

159 

ibm. 

172 

173 

186 

187 



Bryohtlyng. 

a®- bor. Johis lover ... 19 

T. Edwardi lulham ... 144 

T. Johis Rogers ... 160 

Brighthelmiston. 

T, Rici brappole ... 49 

a^* bor. Johis Jacson ... 36 
a®- bor. alicii hun cum eius tes- 

tamento ... 53 
a^*' qaorundam legatornm Ro- 
berti huQ ... ibm. 
a^' quorundam legatornm 

Thome herd ... ibm. 

T. Siriaci owton ... 71 

T. Johis hardyng ... 93 

T. Roberti hayns ... 104 

T.Thome gone ... 119 

T. Willmi easton ... 145 

T. Johis miller ... 165 

T. Johis waterman ... 171 

a"- bor. Rici locke ... 198 

BURWASHB. 

T. Roberti Thetcher ... 8 

^, Thome denet ... 5 



fo. 

a^' bor. Jone hardyng ... 22 

T. stephani stanny north ... 26 

T. Georgii kyngslond ... 32 

a^ bor. Roberti bnckeland ... 46 

T. Rici Goodsoyle ... 78 

T. Thome grenegore ... 171 

T. christofori harry ... Ill 

T. Johis Jesper ... 182 

T. Thome Gortney ..-» ibm. 

BUSHOPSTON. 

T. Rici Jams ... 127 

Cattsfeld. 

a®- bor. Willmi yeldyng ... 48 

T. Edwardi birchett ... 50 

T. Rici Tyseherst ... 83 

T. Willmi burdor ... 112 

T. Agnets pusty ...*113 
* Should be 119. 

Chalvyngton. 

T. Jone wachen ... 76 

T. Rici andrew ... 92 

T. Edwardi lulham ... Ill 

T. Thome Scolay clici ... 200 

Chaylky. 
a®- bor. Johis answorth clici 

cum eius testo ... 90 

T. Roberti Gere ... 98 

a®- bor. Willmi Austen ... 185 

Ghetyngle. 

T. Willmi Gefferay ... 66 

T. Willmi Mills ... 115 

T. Johis Tone ... 195 

Clayton. 

T. Johis standen ... 145 

T. Rici standen ... 191 

Clements in Hastyng. 

aP' bor. Johis Nott ... 4 

ao- bor. Johis goodyn ... 87 

sP' bor. Johis Godfray ... 51 

T. Johis durrant ... 56 

T. Johis Thomas ... 62 

T. Johis pertrige ... 76 

T. Thome Watts ... 78 

T. Thome Kypps ... 80 

T. Thome frankewell ... 85 

T. Agnets morleis ... 97 



BARLI WILLS AT LEWES. 



127 



fo. 

T. Riciplumer ... 108 

T. Rici Jerman ... ibm. 

T. Willmiluff ... 115 

a®- bor. Johis Iden ... 118 

b9' bor. Johis wariner ... ibm. 

T. Johis White ... 119 

bP' bor. Willmi Jeyle ... 121 

ao- bor. henrici duke ... 129 

T. Johis Taylor ... 140 

T. Willmi marshall ... ibm. 

T, Eoberti deucke ... 151 

ao- bor. Willmi knott ... 161 

T. Henrici buckehold ... 163 

T. Roberti Imisforth ... 186 
a®- bor. Elizabeth Perker ... 190 



COWFOLD', 




T. Johis agate 


• • • jSO 


T. Thome ockenden 


... 114 


T. Johis gate 


... 181 



8 
16 
22 
37 

59 
161 

8 
71 



Crawley. 
T.- Nicolei Wordsworth 
T. Jone Coulpeper yidue 
a®' bor. Thome bridger 
T. Alicie harmon 

Crowherst. 
T. Richardi hartt 
T. fifrancissi Natlay 

CUGKEFELD. 

T. Johis fawkener 
T. Thome gaston 
a°- bor. Johis Comber cum 

eius testo ... 76 

T. Thome stanbrige ... 87 

T. stephani honesti ... 89 

T. agnet comber yidue ...ibm. 

T. Rici blaker ... 100 

T. Thome holcombe ... 110 

T. Johis michell ... 125 

T. Johis beche ... 153 

T. Jone beche yidue ... 172 

T. Johis bechelay ... 175 

T. Roberti whelar ... 178 

T. Johis alexander ... 183 

Dalyngton. 

bP' bor. Willmi trew ... 84 

T. Johis herd ... 178 

T. Rici Erie ... 179 



Denton. 
T. Thome George senioris ... 
T. Thome Georg junioris ... 
T. Thome ffrutter 

DlCHENYNQ. 

T. Georgii stere 

T. Nicolei whityng 

bP' bor. Walteri stere cum eius 

testo 
a®- bor. Willmi more cum eius 

testo 
T. Willmi trendle 

Eghynoham. 
T. Willmi saunder 
T Thome sawnder 
T. Willmi blake 
T. morgan i brode 
T. Johis ffowle 



»• 



ESTDEYNE. 

bP' bor. Rici broke 
T. Johis walcocke 

EwERST. 

T. Willmi saier 

T. petri bame 

T. Thome smyth 

T. margerie oxenbrige 

T. Edwardi Nicolas 

T. Johis cheseman 

T. Willmi Alyn 

T. Thome Tomsett 

T. Johis smyth alias harper 

T. Willmi lamport 

T. Thome pollyn 

Ffalher. 
T. Thome wood alias dyne ... 

Ffarkley (Fairlight). 
T. Georgii hoderhope 
T. Roberti mede 
bP' bor. Johis yirlow 
T. Roberti Tokyo 
T. henrici allard 



Ffyrles. 
T. Johis Colyn 
T. Johis Russell 
a*'- b.or. Johis ballard* 
T. Johis stert 



fo. 

80 

88 

146 

13 
120 

150 

182 
177 

100 
133 
170 
177 
197 

* 

73 

192 

11 

28 

60 

66 

93 

143 

147 

163 

166 

167 

198 

180 

63 
73 

77 
79 
82 



... 48 

... 66 
... 182 
... ibm. 



* Kelict Margery, son John. 



128 



EARLY WILLS AT LEWES. 



Ffletchyno. 
T. Thome adowns 
T. Joachym Godfray 
a°' boT. Joins ward 
T. Willmi Turke 
T. Willmi fichett 
T. Johis pope 
aP- bor. Thome broke 
T. Willmi Btertowte 
T. Richardi awcocke 
T. Thome Nonnan 

FpOKYNOTaW. 

T. petri frenche 
T. Johis osbome 
T. Margerie ffallat 
T. Johis ffrenche 
T. Willmi ffallat 
a®- bor. Johis worth 

Ffrant. 
T. Johis gylis 
T. Robert! pococke 
T. Walteri hall 
a®- bor. Willmi maynard 
T. Johis baker 
T. Johis grangeman 
T. Willmi fleche 
T. Jacoby bramlay 

Ffrestok. 
ad®- bor. Johis howell 
T. Robert! bracy clici 

Gestlyno. 
T. Katherine poglas 

Grbnestbd. 
T. Thome drew 
T. Elizabeth aline 
T. Johis homewood 
T. Robert! Cole 
T. Thome plawe 
T. Willmi page 
T. Johis payne 
T. Willmi browne 
T. Rici awood 
T. Willmi godman 
T. Rici ede 
T. Thome eberden 

GULFORTH. 

ad**- bor. Robert! ewen 
T. Johis awood 
ado- bor. henrici hope 



fo. 
... 15 
... 16 

r. r DO 

... 70 

... 80 

,.. 129 

... 146 

... 157 

,.. 158 

... 184 

• V. «5o 

... 70 
... 75 
... 86 
... 164 

... 9o 

... 46 

... 83 

... \)Z 

... 112 

... 125 

... 164 

... 187 

... 6 
••• 86 

... 141 

... 1 

... 12 

... 14 

... 23 

... 40 

... 74 

... 131 

... 140 

... 165 

... 176 

... ibm. 

... 200 



••• 



77 
129 
161 



Hamsat. 
ad®' bor. Willmi breche 
T. Johis valear 

Hanoultok. 
ado- |x)T. Thome baker 



fo. 

84 

189 

118 



Hartfeld. 
ad*- bor. Johis Richardson 

cum eins testamento ... 88 

T. Johis fray ... 138 

T. Willmi fray ... 178 

Heltkolee. 

T. Thome akherst ... 84 
ado- |3Q Thome pellam * cum 

eius testo ... 97 

T. Johis easton ... 104 

T. alanibodyll ... 161 

* Wife Alice, son Edmund, nude Sir 
Edmnnd Pellam, property in Gond« 
herst, Kent. 

Heightok. 

T. Willmi bolter ... 157 

Helsham. 

T. Johis onsty ... 4 

T. elionore Kenslay ... 6 

T. margarite rede ... 19 

ado- bor. Willmi rolf ... 23 

T. Nicola! Willard ... 29 

ado- bor, Willmi woodman ,,. gg 

ado- bor. Willmi topcels ,.. 94 

T. Johis Cobbe ... 121 

T. Johis Thomas ... 184 

Hbthfeld. 

ado- bor. Johis banner ... 86 

ado- bor. Johis pencost ... 40 

T. Thome wood ... 59 

ao- bor. Thome oxhenbrige f . . . 72 

T. Johis delecard ... 76 

T. Willmi eynge ... 84 

T. Willmi Crowche ... 121 

T. Jone Reder yidue .., 128 

T. Johis Stolyan ... 149 

T. Nicolai pencost ... 182 

ado- bor. Johis Willard ... 190 

T. Willmi shepard ... ibm. 

T. Thome pellyng ... 200 

T, Johis ellyat ... 202 

f To Eatberine relict. 



EABIiT WILLS AT LEWES. 



129 



\ ' 



Henfeld. 


fo.- 






fo. 


T. Robert! furaer 


.. 16 


T. Antonie burdell 


... 


86 


T. Jacobi hill 


.. 23 


ad**- bor. Walteri Comber 


• • • 


ibrn. 


T. Johis estowte 


.. 27 


T. marci senocke 


• • • 


92 


T. Johis flusher 


.. 69 


T. Johis Trepe 


••• 


93 


tidP' bor. Johis longford 


.. 80 


T. Nicolay kerchew 


... 


99 


T. Roberti ward 


.. 81 


T. Johis Noris 


••• 


146 


T. Richardi Canon 


.. 121 


T. Rogerigodman 


... 


ibm. 


T. Thome staly 


.. 172 


ado- bor. Agnets plumerden 


... 


164 


• Herstperpoynt. 
T. Georgii trendyll 


.. 99 


T. Thome plumerden 
T. Willmi deane 


... 
... 


169 
179 


tidP' bor. Thome Crowcher cum 


HOTHLEB. 






eius testo 


.. 105 


T. Isabella Ince 


••• 


191 


T. Johis Norton 


.. 116 


T T 






T. Roberti Whitepayne 
T. Johis Chatfeld 


.. 152 
.. 158 


HOVA. 

T. Johis bursbye 


... 


33 


T. stephani person 
1 T. Willmilachemer 


.. 165 
.. 180 


T. Elizabeth Tayler 
ad*'* bor. Willmi Gay 


... 
• • . 


75 
85 


P. Thome wycham 


.. 190 


T. Juliane prowte 
T. Johis prowte 


... 
... 


98 
106 


Herstmonsex. 




T. Rici Coleer 


... 


152 


T. Willmi longlay 


.. 17 


T. Thome Tayler 


... 


156 


T. Roberti fuller 


.. 21 


T 






T. Johis houwvue 


.. 42 


Iden. 






1 •' 

1 &d9' bor, Johis dogley 


.. 72 


T. Jone graye vidue 


... 


67 




T. petronille nott 


... 


123 


Hoc. 




T. Johis shervold 


... 


135 


T. Johis clerke 


.. 13 


T. Stephani fissenden 


••. 


183 


T. Thome crowche 


.. 26 


T. Jacobi fletcher 


... 


199 


T. W ilimi Crowche 


.. 110 








T. andrei Jams 
' T. Rici crowche 


.. 113 
.. 124 


Jevyngton. 
T. Willmi Godwyn 


... 


21 


'. T. andrei venner 


.. 159 


Ifeld. 






/ B.d9' bor. Willmi Kneller 


.. 164 


^k JV MM mm M^ m 

T. Rici clerke 


... 


106 


/ B.d9' bor. Edmundi barnet cui 


tn 


T. henrici lasheford 


... 


124 


eius testo 


.. 185 








T. Rici clerke alias holiar . 


.. 188 


Iford. 






ad**- bor. Jone Neston 


.. 190 


T. Thome pecham 


... 


2 






T. Johis thatcher 


... 


109 


HOLYNGTON. 




T. Johis Russell 


... 


110 


T. Nicolay Gratwyke 


.. 49 


Johis Lewes. 






HORSTED PaRVA. 




T. Thome barre 


. • . 


12 


T. Thome Delve 


.. 52 


ad*'- bor. Johis shulder 


... 


121 


HORSTEDKAYNS. 

T. henrice kenriche 


.. 1 


ad°- bor. Johis hudson 
T. Symonis Ive 


... 


164 
197 


ado- bor. Willmi Godman . 


.. 23 


Kymer. 






T. Willmi hunt 


.. 86 


T. Johis virgo 


. . • 


62 


T. Willmi Mills 


.. 68 


ad®- bor. Thome Natelye 


... 


85 


T. Rici Turner 


.. 85 


T. Willmi calchild 


... 


124 


?;xxTr. 




S 







130 



SABLY WILLS AT LEWES. 



Kyhgbtok jttxta Lewes, fo. 

T. Rici Morerrs ... 57 
ad®- bor. Johis delve cum enis 

tesio ... 63 

T. Johis pycombe ... 162 

Lawghton. 

ad**' bor. perseyelli dibbs cum 

enis testo ... 48 

LiTLYNGTON. 

T. Thome Crowbecke ... 78 

T. Willmi Chamber ... 96 

T. Rici Chamber ... 169 

LULLYNGTON. 

T. Willmi marley clici ... 189 

Marebfeld. 

ad®* bor. Johis yeman ... 22 

T. Johis hobson ... 131 

T. Thome Tayler ... 141 

T. Thome herd ... 181 

V T. Rici kydder j unions'^ ... 113 

Michaels Lewes. 

T. Thome hunter ... 33 

ad° bor. Thome Janeson ... 61 

T. xpofori Kneller ... 114 

T. Rici morgayn ... 155 

T. Rici Walker ... 179 

Mundefbld (Mountfibld). 

T. Johis medherst ... 17 

ad®- bor. Rici Kencham ... 40 

ad®- bor. agnets Reve ... 72 

T. Alicie Iden vidue ... 79 

T. Jone hunt ... 82 

T. Johis Iden ... ibm. 

T. Roberti Kencham ... 94 

T. Thome Iden ... 194 

Nenfeld. 

ad®- bor. Willmi hepson ... 6 

T. Georgii aneston ... 62 

T. stephani Jerves ... 83 

T. Rici Cowper ... 139 

ad®- bor. michaelis bell ... 170 

T. Johis CroJBforthe ... 180 

T. Rici Jerves ... 184 

T. Elizabeth aneston ... 190 

T. Johis y ... 41 



fo. 

T. Willmi pers ... 60 

T. Jacoby drore clici ... 86 

T. Willmi peper ... 119 

NORTHYHAM. 

T. Johis sharvall ... 41 

T. Rici squier ... 61 

T. Johis holman ... 112 

T. Willmi hope ... 118 

T. Johis syslye ... 166 

T. Thome white ... 181 

Nova Shoreham. 

T. Johis Tomson clici ... 85 

T. Johis marten y ... 147 

T. Rici chatfeld"^ ... 160 
ad®- bor. Edwardi dubbyng ... 162 

Omnium Sanctorum Lewes. 

T. Thome Kayforthe ... 12 

T. Jone bolter ... 42 

ad®- bor. Johis cannon alias 

ballard ... 43 

T. Johis aylard ... 63 

T. Thome stable ... 65 

ad®- bor. Johis wood ... 182 

T. Roberti bramfeld ... 201 

Omnium Sanctorum in Hastynq, 

ad®- bor. Nicolei medway ... 53 

T. Johis baker ... 73 
ad®- bor. Johis shawe cum eius 

testo ... 120 

T. Rici standen ... 123 

T. marci hakett ... ibm. 

ad®- bor. Rici hodson ... 129 

T. henrici sparow ... 134 

T. Johis hardowne ... 142 

T. Roberti avery ... 144 

T. Thome waiter ... 154 

T. Johis haddon ... 159 

a®- bor. Rici penvoche cum 

eius testo ... 179 

T. Willmi penvogyll ... 187 

T. margarite downer ... 194 

Old Priory (St. Michaels, 

Hastings). 

T. Thome Wallar ... 50 

T. JoneWallar ... 154 

Ore. 

T. Wilhni clerke ... 110 



BABLT WILLS AT LEWES. 



131 



Pbdynghoo. fo. 

T. Rici Rickewater ... 85 

T. Thome Thomas ... 79 

T.Willmiyong ... 119 

Pesembrshe. 

T. Willmigate ... 136 

ad®- bor. Thome barely ... 170 

Pbtt. 

T. Rici Cheseman ... 32 

T. Elzabeth fyrlan ... 106 

T. Thome bakeholder ... 149 

Petgham. 

T. Thome gowre ... 38 

T. Nicolei bony face ... 1 32 

Pevensay. 

ad®- bor. Johis Willard ... 4 

T. Edwardi whetelay ... 195 

Playdbn. 

T. Thome osbome ... 2 

T. Johis suryng ... 22 

T. Rici Willard ... 69 

ad®- bor. Willmi harry ... 75 

T. Willmi edersold ... 83 

T. Willmi Tele ... 87 

T. Thome brykenell ... 120 

T. Willmi heden ... 128 

PONYNGS. 

T. Roberti boniface ... 20 

PORTSLADB. 

T. Willmi hunter ... 12 

T. adam averye ... 99 

T. Rogeri Duke ... ibm. 

Preston. 

T. Roberti chapman ... 33 

T. Johis hudson clici ... 89 

T. Johis Rycketon ... 147 

T. Johis Kempe ... 154 

ado. bor. Wilhni Nott clici ... 180 

RODMBLL. 

T. Willmi ade ... 19 

T. Willmi Thomas ... 43 

T. Symonis Reams ... 73 

T. Thome Coppard ... ibm. 

T. Rici Thomas ... 98 

T. Rici Coppard ... 162 



Kypb. 

T.Thome walls clici ... 199 

T. Johis holibon ... 201 

Rya. 

T. Stephani Tayler ... 6 

ad®- bor. Johis cocam ... 6 

T. Willmi marshaU ... 23 

T Johis swan .. ibm. 

T. Rici butler ... 25 

T. Ricinashe ... ibm. 

T. Rici gye ... 25 

ad®- bor. Gilberti cory^ ... 43 

ado- bor. Willmi herd ... ibm. 
ado- bor. elizabeth sampson ... ibm. 

T. mariane Coke ... ibm. 

T. Roberti bame ... 44 

T. Johis NicoU ... ibm. 

T. Thome willans ... ibm. 

T. willmi mede ... ibm. 

T. morgani byssett ... 46 

ad®- bor. Johis grene ... 49 

T. galfridi michell ... 50 

T. Rici Inglett ... 59 

T. Johis Tokye ... 60 

ad®- bor. Johis Irishe ... 61 

T. Roberti marten ... 72 

T. Rogeri okeman ... 75 

T. Goorgii mercer ... 77 
ad®- bor. Thome marshall ... ibm. 

T. Jacoby Dye ... 85 

T. Johis faneteitt ... 87 

T. Thome Coke ... ibm. 

T. Thome pender ... 91 

T. adam swan ... 92 

T. Roberti martayn ... 94 

T. Johis lyndsay ... ibm. 
ado- bor. Roberti butteri alias 

Wright cum eius testo ... 96 

T. Rici garard ... 97 

T. Johis bett ... 102 

T. Johis fletcher ... ibm. 
ado- bor. Roberti blakesse cum 

eius testo ... 104 

T. Joneashe ... 107 

T. Thome hayne ... 109 

T. alexandri shalford ... 138 

T. Willmi wellar ... 145 

T. henrici white ... 148 

T. Roberti benett ... 155 

ado* bor. Willmi trynell ... ibm. 



132 



EABLT WILLS AT LEWES. 



ado- bor. Johis Tajler 

T. Willmi Jonson 

ado- bor. Willmi traunter 

ad®' bor. Willmi pmitesse 

T. Johis potter 

T. Robert! bacbelar 

T. heline beyll 

AdP' bor. Thome dadman 

ado- bor. Cutberti arturs 

T. Willmi perker 

T. Willmi Rods * 

T. Rici NicoU 

ROTHERFBLD. 

T. Roberti wood 
T. Jone stone vidue 
T. Thome Wild 
T. Thome Collyn 
T. Edwardi viltnes 
T. Willmi hosemer 
T. Johis Coo 
T. Roberti farmer 
T. Johis longley 
T. Jone Wild 

Balbhurst. 
T. Rici hoode 
ado- bor. Willmi goodsere 
ado- bor. Thome wenell 
T. Thome banner clici 
T. Johis hoode 
T. Willmi hunt 
T. Johis leche 
T. Thome hope 
T. Vincentii petter 
ado- bor. xpofori symon 
ado- bor. Rici hoode 

Sedlisgombe. 
T. bartholomei water 
ado- bor. Johis Thometon 
T. Nicolei mores 
T. Rici frebody 
ado- bo^ -TrtViia Darbye 



fo. 
... ibm. 
... 161 
... ibm. 
... ibm. 

aaa 168 

... 169 

..a 172 
a. a 176 

... ibm. 
... 178 
... 185 
... 204 



27 

48 

92 

97 

105 

119 

135 

149 

150 

202 



30 
36 
46 
108 
122 
123 
142 
144 
174 
180 
198 

14 

18 

111 

118 

180 



A. 



T. 

T 

7 



57 
129 
133 
138 



Selmiston. 
T. Willmi blaker 
T. Willmi marten clici 



fo. 

53 

151 



Sefford. 
T. Stephani Turlay 
T. Willmi best 


... 64 
... 201 


Shermanburt. 
T. Thome vogayne 


... 105 


Slaghham. 
ado- bor. Johis ashefold 
T. Johis gardener 
T. Edwardi awsten 
ado- bor. Willmi hamlyns 


... 46 

... 00 
... oo 

... 148 



Sowtheese. 
Ado- bor. Thome Ryckeward 
cum eius testo 



52 



SOWTUOUBR. 




T. Thome chamber 


... 24 


T. Roberti saxpes 


... 35 


T. Johis drey 


... 87 


T. henrici baker 


... 43 


T. Georgii morley clici 


... 46 


T. Rici ball clici 


... 47 


T. Rici ffamecombe 


... 143 


SOWTHWYKB. 




ado- bor. alicii bavis 


... 18 


T. Willmi balyngdon 


... oO 


T. henrici browne 


... 141 


Strbte. 




T. Thome pyckenall 


... UO 


T. Jacobi Joyner 


... 101 


T. Johis pyckenall 

TRLT^ISnOMBB. 


... 156 



T. Johis Gregory 
T. Thome lynder 
T. Johis Gylis 

Ttseherst. 
T. Thome Standen 
T. Jone morebrede 
T. Willmi baldocke 
T. agnets Alyn 
T. agnets Jorden 
T. Willmi hunt 
T. Stephani amery 



62 
108 
180 

9 

10 
18 
51 

ibm. 

ibm. 
67 



EABLT WILLS AT LEWES. 



133 



fo. 
ad<>- bor. Roberti bogill ... 68 
ad®- bor. Johis spylstye ... 72 
ad®- bor. Thome hunt ... 77 

T. alicie yonge vidue ... 81 

ad®- bor. andrei aljn & Johis 
alyn ••• 

ad®- bor. Willmi Cowper ... ibm. 
T. Roberti Whatman ... 83 

T. Rici baker ... 95 

T. Johis yalett alias gasken ... 116 



82 



T. Johis Vincent 


... 137 


ad®- bor. Willmi ward 


... 148 


T. Willmi payne 


... 160 


ad®- bor, margarete hunt 


... 161 


T. Thome pertrige 


... 165 


T. Johis pertrige 


... 168 


T. Johis Randall 


... 191 


TORRYNG. 




ad®- bor. Thome adams 


... 4 



TWYKEHAM. 

T. Johis pykcombe 
T, Willmi grenegore clici (?) 
ad®- bor. Johis payne cum eius 
testo ... 

T. Rici Staplegh 

Waldron. 
T. Thome bassocke 
ad®- bor. Willmi gylis 
T. Rici browne 
T. Thome boddell 
T. Willmi morse 
ad®- bor. Nicolei modell 
T. Johis bodyll 
T. lawrentii Roger 
T. Isabelle woodman 
T. Thome bassocke 

Warbilton. 
ad®- bor. Roberti oleuer 
T. Johis afyld 
T. Johis browne 
T. Rici Jorden 
ad®- bor. Radulphi glover 
T. Willmi levett 
T. Rici browne 
T. Thome blower 
T. Rici styler 
T. Roger i Turner 



•«. 



10 



86 
91 

10 

21 

50 

71 

90 

148 

171 

189 

194 

202 

4 

7 

16 

26 

73 

74 

128 

114 

174 

196 



' Wartltng. 

T. Rici hothorupe 
T. Thome bulke 
T. Johis weneham 
ad®- bor. Willmi Colbrand 
T. Willmi frankewell 
T. Rici Colbrand 



fo. 
106 
138 
176 
ibm, 
194 
198 



Whatltnotobt. 
T. Jone benet vidue ... 16 

T. Jone byshop ... 92 

T. Johis eggyngworth alias 
Gybbon ... 133 



Westham. 
T. Jacobi alman 
T, Nicolei Rowe 
T. Rici blaker 
T. Johis hart 
T. Johis yong 
T. Thome Russell 

Wbstpbld. 
T, Rici fayreman 
T. margerie Wreke 
T. Johis Colyns 
T. Johis perocke 
T. Georgii weke 
T. Willmi banks 
T. Johis preston 
ad®- bor, Johis frynd 
T. agnet hary vidue 
T. dionesie a wyke 
ad®- margarete awyke 
T. Thome awyke 
T, Johis awyke 

Westdetnb. 
T. Johis braye 

Westmyston. 
T. Thome more 
T. luciane marten 
T. Dorathe more 
T. Willmi smyth 
T. Willmi holynggale 
T. Symonismore 
T. Rici pakyn 

Westowtb. 
T. Willmi Inkersale 



19 

29 

ibm. 

72 

156 

165 



. 2 

. 13 
. 24 
. 81 
. 84 
. 93 
. 94 
. ibm. 
. 147 
. 166 
. 182 
. 183 
. 171 

. 95 



2 
5 
13 
19 
22 
31 
177 

89 



134 



EABLY WILLS AT LEWES. 



Webthothle. fo. 

T. Thome dungate ... 115 

T. Johis browne ... 143 

Udtmer. 

T. philippi bacheler ... 132 

T. Johishunt ... 174 

ad®- bora Edwardi gelye ... 189 



Wyllyngdon. 




T. briani Bolandson 


... «5 


T. Thome thetcher 


• • • 00 


ad®- bor. Rici Wrjght 


cTirn 


eins testo 


... 103 


T. Willmi Tuckenes 


... 141 


T. Johis putland 


... 157 


T. Nicoley more 


... 176 


T. Rici howell 


... 196 



Wylmyngton. 

T. Johis holbem ... 117 

WiVILSPELD. 

T. Willmi ScherifF ... 39 

T. WiUmi Shulder ... 42 

T. Johis at more ... 47 

T. Rici atree .... 58 

WiTHYHAM. 

T. Stephani Colyn ... 37 

ado- bor. Rici vynall ... 89 

T. Thome alfray ... 48 

ad®- bor. Jacoby ewrege ... 61 

T. Thome akent ... 100 



T, Rogeri hatcher 

Wynohelse. 
T. Thome bry are 
T. Rici Golden 
T, Thome holden 
T. Johis white 
T. Thome Edwards clici 
ad®- bor. Johis brayne 
T. Trystram Coskar 
ad®- bor. Johis mamisell cum 

eius testo 
T. Thome smyth 
T. Willmi hode 
ad®- bor. Willmi Jonson 
T. Rici balden 



Woodmancote. 
T. Willmi herd 
T. Rici amold 
ad®- bor. Johis patchyng 

WORTHB. 

T. Thome snmn^r 
T. Rici Smyth 
T. Willmi cacheford 
T. Thome perker 
T. Thome venner 

WOTTON. 

T. Johis Tayler 



FFINIS HUIUS TABULB. 



fo. 

116 
6 

24 
56 
60 
64 
73 
132 

181 
184 
188 
190 
203 

36 

41 

121 



... 127 
... ibma 

.a. 131 

...158 
... 173 



29 



A. 

1. Thomas Adams of Terryng Admon. 

2. John Afyld of Warbilton^ 2*?* April 1543 ; wife Anne, sons John, 

Thomas, Robert, Richard, daughters Jone, & Agnes, Exors sons 
John and Thomas. Overseer. Son-in-law Clement Seviar. 
8. Elizabeth Alyne wydow of Estgrinsted 20*? June 1542a 

4. Thomas Adowns of Fletchyng last day of April 1543. 

5. Wylliam Ade of Radmyll. 22?^ July 1534— to Thomas A. s. of 

Richard A. — to Alyce A. da. of the said Ric. — to Thomas Ade 
my son — Julyan my wyff — Jone Acton da of Thomas Acton. 
,6. Margaret a Rede the wydow lately of * John a Rede of Haylsham 
28*^ June 1542. 

7. James Alman of Westham 17^ March 1542. 

8. John Agate of Okynden in the parish of Cowfold thelder 13?** May 

1541. 

' S. A. C. III., 114. 



V 



7 

I BAELY WILLS AT LEWES. 135 

9. Thomas Acrowche of Hoo. 8^ April 1543. 

10. Symon Amore of Westmyston 18*.** June 1543 to Alis my d — 
Jone my d — Jone.my wyflF — Uncles John and William 
Amore, — my Systers Jone, Agnes and Margaret. (V. More.) 

11. Kichard Arnold of Woodmancote \2^ Oct 1543. 

12. Richard Atree of Wivelsfield 15^ Jan^ 1544. Son John, das 
Jone, Eleanor and Agas, John Shery Gierke, Archedekyn of 
LeT^es Uncle to my said children —John A, of Lockestrode. 

13. John at More of Wivelsfield. 1«' March 1542. Wife Benet, sons 
Walter and Thomas, daor Margaret. (Y. also More.) 

B. 

1. Thomas Bams of Estbome 6^ April 1543. 

2. Thomas Bryers of S\ Thomas the Apostle in Winchelsea 259* 
April 1 543. 

8. Thomas Bassoke of Waldren 22°<* January 1542. 

4. Thomas Barre of S* John's Lewes 209* July 1542. 

5. John Browne of Warbilton 20*> July 1542. 

6. Jone Bennet of Wattlyngton 289* December 1542. 

7. William Baldoke of T^seherst husbandman 179* March 1530. 

8. Alice Bavis of Sowthwyke. Admon. 

9. Robert Bonyface of Ponjrngs 49* Jan 1542. 

10. Richard Barbar of Brede. Admon. 

11. Mylys Batman of Alfriston. 15^> May 1543. 

12. Thomas Brydger of Crawley Admon. • 

13. Richard Butler of Rye 18*** March 1541. 

14. Peter Bame of Euerst. 1542. 

15. Richard Blaber of Westham 22°<» April 1543. 

16. John Bursbe of Houa 19*»* April 36 Hen 8 

17. William Berde of Woodmancote 59* May 1543. 

18. John Buckehold of Bexhill 14*J* Dec 1541. 

C. 

1. John Cocam of Rye. Admon. 

2. John Gierke of Hoo 159* May 1543. 

3. Jane Colepeper late wiflf of Thomas Culpeper of Crawley Esquier— 
to be buried in the church of Crawley — to my youngest son John 
Fenner — "to my second dowghter Alice Fenner xx^ sterling 
w9* xx" John Fenner grandfather to the said Alice gave to 
her be his last will" — to my youngest dowghter Elizabeth 
Fenner — ^to my da. Churcher — to my eldest son's son— eldest 
son John Fenner exor. & residuary legatee. (No date. About 
1543.) 

4. Robert Cole of Estgrenested 22*J* March 1542. 
6. Thomas Chamber of Sowthouer next Lewes 139* November 1540 — 

to Jone my da — to my nevewe John Culpeper — my wyflf Ann— 
to my son William C : wife Anne exix. 

6. Richard Colden of Winchelsea 1'* June 1543. 

7. John Colyns of Westfeld 29*.»* March 1542. 



\ 



136 EARLT WILLS AT LEWES. 

8. Richard Cheseman of Pett 22"* Nov. 1543. 

9. Robert Chapman of Preston 6^ April 35 Hen '8. 

10. Stephyn Colyn of Wythyham 12«» Aug 1541. 

11. George Conlpeper of balcombe gentyhna. 30^^ Jan 1542 lands 

called Neelands in Balcombe wife Alice, son William. 

12. John Cripps of Barwycke 23*? Ap\ 1647 wife Jone, sons John and 

William danrs Maryon and Ursula. 

D. 

1. Thomas Drewe of Estgrenestede 21^* February 1542. 

2. Thomas Donet of Burwashe 22»<* December 1542.^ 

3. John Drey of Southover !■* July 1642. 

E. 

1. John Estowte of Henfield 10^^ December 1542. 

F. 

1. Richard Fayreman of Westfeld I"* December 1542. 

2. John Fawkener of Cookefeld 20^^ May 1543. son John F ; to 

John F son of John F : to wiff of Henry Kymore — ^wyff of 
Wylliam Blaker — to Idene (7) my dowghter — Stephen F. my 
son — exors. John Hasylden & Thomas Fawkefter. Gerard F. is 
a witness. 

3. Robert Fumer of Henfield 1533. 

4. Alice Fenell of Estborne 15V* December 1542. 

5. Robert Fenell the yonger of Estborne 14^ Jan 1542. 

6. Robert Fuller of Herstmonsex 26^ Feb. 1542 : wife Margery, 

daurs Elizabeth and Margery. Richard F. Supervisor. 

7. Peter French of Folkington 20^ April 1543. 

G. 

1. William Grenehill 13*^ March 1542 now pson of the Church of 

Twynham, to be buried in the church of Twynham, mentions the 
various kinds of masses to be said for his soul, — ^to Sir Myles 
now pson of Newtyber — ^to Peter G — to Jone G — to Agnes 
daur to John Barker — vicar of Bolney — to John Welche to say a 
trentall — Thomas Kymse now pson of Slowgham residuary 
legatee and executor. 

2. Joachym Godfray of Flecchyng 29**I March 1541. 

3. Wylliam Godwyn of Jevington 7^ June 1543. 

4. Wylliam Gylis of Waldron. Admon. 

5. Administration of goods of William Godman of Horsted Kayns 

granted to Roger Godman. 

6. Richard Gye of Rye 24*> Aprill 1543. 
'7 ' ' -^-Is of Frant 15*.»» July 1539. 

« GiveninS.A. cm., 114. 






EAELY WILLS AT LEWES. 137 

8. Thomas Gowre of Weyghtdene in Peccham (Withdean in Patcham) 

8*?* July 1542. 

9. Nicholas Gratwyk of Hollington wife Agnes, son James, da Jone. 
10, Roger Godman of Horsted Kaynes, tanner, sister Joan Awood, 

residuary legatee & exor Robert Awood, 

H. 

1. William Hepson of Nenfeld, Admon. 

2. John Howell of Freston. Admon. 

8. William Hunter of Portslade 4«» March 1542. 

4. John Homewood of Estgrenested 15^ May 1543. 

6. John Holyday of Blachyngton. Admon circa 1544. 

6. Wylliam Holyngale of Westmyston 25*?* January '^ 1542, sons 

Edward and Nicholas, daurs Alis, Margaret Annes, Tomysyn, 
Janes, Betteres, son Richard & wife Jone residuary legatees & 
exors. 

7. John Hardyng of Burwash. Admon. 

8. James Hyll of Henfield "yoman'' 20«J Oct. 1530. 

9. Richard Hode of Saleherst 5^»» Feb. 1543. 

10. Thomas Hunter of S^ Michaels Lewes last day of March 1554. 

11. Wylliam Hunt of Horstede Kaynes 18V» Feb. 1543. 

12. Alice Harmon of Crawley 13^** March 1543. 

• 

J. 
1. Richard Jorden of Warbilton "yoman" 3'.* December 1542. 

K. 

1. Harry Kenrigck of Horsted Kaynes 80?* April 1542. 

2. Elenor Kensley of Haylsham wydow 10^^ Nov. 1542. 

3. Thomas Kayforth of All Saints, Lewes, 7«* Feb 1542. 

4. George Kyngsland of Burwash 15*.^ July 1542. 

L. 

1, William Longeley of Hirstmounsex husbandman 28?* March 

1543. 

2. John Louer of Bryghtlyng. Admon. 

8. John Lopdellof Estborne 10?* January 1542. 

M. 

1. Thomas More of Westmeston 1'.^ Nov. 1540, body to be buried in 

the church — to Jone my wyff — to John my youngest son (a 
minor) my house at Lewes : to daughters Dorathe, Margaret, 
Annes and Jone, — to brothers Wylliam & John, — Symon my 
son — mentions Jone Cadwell. 

2. Luciane Marten widow of Westmyston 18?* May 1543. 
8. Edward Mabbe of Estborne 11^^ March 1541. 

XXXII. T 



138 BABLT WILLS AT LEWESw 

4. Jone Morbred widow of William Morbred of Tyseheret 6^?* April 

84 Henry VIII. 

5. Dorathe More of Westmyston, to be bnried in the church — to Annes 

A More my cosyn Wylliam Amore's daur — ^uncles William and 
John Amore — to my 3 sisters Jone, Annes & Margaret — ^brothers 
Thomas and Symon dated 11^^ May 1548. 

6. John Medherst of Monfeld 2^<» Feb. 1542. 

7. Symon Mew of Estbom 5*** October 1543. 

8. William Marshall of Rye 24**» May 1543. wife Annes, 4 children, 

sons John and Robert and da. Jane, all under age seemingly. 

9. John Michell of Brede. 5 sisters, brothers Robert & Symon. 

10. Jone Michell of Brede widow to Symon MichelPs children of 

Lewes ; several other names but no Michell. 

11. John Michell the elder of Cuckfield. Wife Margaret, Edmund 

Michell my son & heir, his (E. M's) daurs Margaret, Cirell, 
Elizabeth & Blanch, — Thomas M. my son — Henry M. my son — 
Njrnian M. my son, — William M — Ric M. my son — son John 
— brother Thomas M — son John Apsley,* 

12. William More of Ditchling wife Margaret. 

N. 

1. John Nott of S? Clements in Hastyngs Admon. 

2. Richard Nashe of Rye baker, last day of December 1542. 

O. 

1, Thomas Osborne of Playden 5**i July 1541. 

2. John Onsty of Haylsham 27*^ February 1542. 
8. Robert & Elizabeth Oleuer of Warbilton Admon. 

4. William Osborne of Alfryston, draper, 23*:^ Apl 1543. 

5. Margery Oxenbridge of Ewhurst widow-gentilwoman, Thomas 

Cheney gent my brother and M^ Thomas Darell Esquier, exors 
& residuary legatees. 

P. 

1. Thomas Pechham of Iford 5^ November 1542. 

2. John Pykcombe of Twynham 13*** February 1542. 

3. Alice Petman of Estbom 27*?» October 1542. 

4. Olive Peper of Estbom widow 16*.** February 1540. 

5. Katheryn Parker wydow, late the wyff of M^ John Parkar of Lewes 

(S^ Andrews) V} Jan. 1543. 

6. Thomas Pykenatt of Strett 13*** March 1543. 

7. Thomas Plawe of Estgrenested last day of May 1542. 

* Joane Michell (1st Oct. 1669 pr. 1580) of Cookfield widow, late the wife of 
Edmd Michell Esquier, to be bu in church of 0. near my late husband, — son 
Thomas & his wife — son John M — son Edmund M — son Richard M — da Morley w. 
of Anthony Morley gent — da A-Tree the w. of John A-Tree (of Theobalds in 
Wivelsfield)^-da Monke w. of John Monke — John M the son of my son Thomas 
M. — son John M sole exor — my bro-in-law Mr. John Apsley Esquier, Mr Richard 
Shelley Esquier & Mr Richard Belhingham Esquier overseers. 



BAEIiY WILLS AT LEWES. 139 

R. 

1. Bryant Rolandson of Wyllyngdon 27^ June 1542. 

2. William Russell of Estborne Admon. 

3. Robert Roche of Northour in Somersetshire 30^ Oct 1543. 

„ „ (property in Estborne). 

4. Admon of goods of William Relflf granted to Agnes his relict. 

5. Nycholes Row of Westham 20*?^ June 1543. 

6. Richard Rickewater of Pedynghoo, last day of May 1542. 

S. 

1. Thomas Standen of Tysherst yoman. 10^ Dec 1542. wife Jone,— 

unto an honest prest callyd Richard Atkynson — Nicholas & 
Alexander the sons of John Wyvenden, — *to the selyng or 
gyldyng of the middle roflF over the body of the said church at 
Tysherst x marks ' * to the purchasyng of a fayre to be kept at 
Tysherst grene or Strett v. marks.' * to the castyng of the bell 
y^ is brokyn vj* viij^ ' * my cosyn John Stephyns ' * to Margery 
Coppard the dowghter of Peter Stephyn & Margaret my syster/ 
* to my godson Thomas Stephyns son of the said John Stephyns ' 
to mending of highways, parish churches of Hawkherst and 
Sandherst. wife Jone residuary legatee and sole executrix. 

2. James Sayge of Estbom 2?<* Nov. 1542. 

3. William Sayer of Ewerst 20«» March 1542. 

4. George Stere of Dechenyng 13*** Sept 1542. 

5. William Smyth of Westmyston 10?* May 1542. 

6. John Suryng of Pleyden 24*?* Sept 1543. 

7. John Swan of Rye 15*.** January 1542. 

8. Stephyn Stannynorth of Burwashe 13*^ Mar. 1543. 

9. Robert Saxpes of ^Southouer 22^^ June 1543. 

10. William' Shereffe of Wyvylsfeld 21!* Aug. 1541. 

11. Richard Shosmyth of Bexhyll 29*** March 1542. 

12. Richard Staplegh of Hixted in Twyneham last of October 1546. — 

to be bu in church — wife deceased — son John Staplegh— cosin 
John Staplegh — other names Caryll, Covert, Bellingham. 

T. 

1. Robert Thetchare of Burwashe 23^.* November 1542 : to be buried 

in the Church of S? Bartholomew (Bartylmew) in Burwassh. 
The residue of all my goods — I bequeth * unto Agnes my wyff 
who I make and orden my sole executrix to bestow in warks of 
marcy for my soil and all christe soils at her descrescyon ' — to 
Agnes my wyiBf my farm called Holtun and lands thereto belong- 
yng * caullyd Rackeley ' -in Burwash, reversion to George flfrowed 
her son with reversion to John Bellyngham the son of John 
Delves dowghter. 

2. Stephan Taylor of the towne of Rye. 16*.** Dec. 32 Hen 8. 
John Turner of Estborne. Admon. 

3. John Thorneton of Sedlescum Admon. 

4. John Taylor of Wotton 30*.** March 1541. 



\ 



140 BABLY WILLS AT LEWES. 

U. 
1. John Usbom of ffokyngton 27*^ March 1544. 

W. 

1. Administration of the goods of John Willard late of Pevensey 

granted to Agnes Stevyn his relict about 1542. 

2. Margery Wreke late the wiflF of John Wreke of Westfeld 21!* 

April 1543. 

3. Bartolmew Water of Sedlescombe 29V* April 1543. Long will, 

4. Kobert Wood of Rotherfeld 16*^ Sept 1541. 

6. Nycholes Willard of Helsham 26^.^ June 1543— wyff Elizabeth— 
daurs Elizabeth and Margaret — son Nycholas W. — to Jane- 
Alice — & Margaret das of Robert W — ^to Edward the s of 
John W. 

Y. 

1. John Yeman of Maresfield Admon« 



A RETURN 

OF THE MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOR THE 

COUNTY AND BOROUGHS OF SUSSEX. 



By ALAN H. STENNING, Esq. 



(^Continued from Vol. XXXI. JS.A.C., p. 122.) 

1 Hen. VL (1422). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 9 November, 1422. 



DATB 07 RETURN. 

Johannes Pelham, miles' 

Thomas Lenkenore, \ 15 Oct., 1422. Sussex County., 
miles 



tiles") 

" 1 



Willielmus Wamecamp' 
Johannes Hille 

Willielmus Varnhurst 
Johannes Exton' 

Willielmus Fenyngham 
Johannes Alfrey 

Henricus Boteler 
Johannes Grenehurst 

Willielmus Vaggere 
Andreas Mauffay 

Willielmus Bruton' 
WiUielmus Chyngford' 



Eicardus Huntyngdon' 
Willielmus Courthope 

Willielmus Thirlewale 
Johannes Shelle 

Eogerus atte Gate 
Johannes Tamworthe 



No date given* Arundel Borough, 

do. Chichester City. 

do. East Grinstead Borough, 

do. Horsham Borough, 

do. Lewes Borough, 

do. Midhurst Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 
do. 

do.' 

do. 



Hastings. 

Eye. 

Winchelsea. 



142 



MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOR SUSSEX. 



2 Hen. VI. (1423). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 20 October, 1423 . 

DATB or xiruAir. 



Eicardns Ponjnges 
miles, filius Ko- 
berti Ponynges, mi- 
litis 

Henricus Hnsee miles 

Thomas Pursell' 
Thomas Dusse 

Heiiricus Grenelef 
Galfridus Hebbe 

Johannes Wowere 
Johannes Dyne 

Stephanus Payn 
Willielmus Stoute 

Willielmus Wodefold' 
Andreas Mafay 

Robertus Mosehole 
Johannes Grygge 

Ricardus Dammere 
Willielmus Langlegh' 



Ricardus Huntyngdon' 
Johannes Parker 

Willielmus ThirlewalP 
Johannes Marchaunt 

Willielmus Worthe 
Willielmus Morfote 



14 Oct., 1423. Sussex County. 



No date given. Anmdel Borough, 
do. Chichester City. 



do. 



do. 



East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 



do. Lewes Borough. 



do. 



Midhurst Borough. 



do. Shoreham Borough. 



CiNQUB Ports. 
do. 

do. 

do. 



Hastings. 
Rye. 



Winchelsea. 



3 Hen. VI. (1425). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 30 April, 1425. 

Henricus Husee, chiya- ^ ""^^ ^' ^^"^*^' 

ler f 

Thomas Leukenore, ( ^® *^"-' ^^^^* ^"^^^^ bounty. 

chivaler ) 

day fnmfJZ^ ''*°™ " Thursi^y, 28 March. The 28 March fell on a Wedne^ 



MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOR SUSSEX. 



143 



]Alanus C]hambre f 
[Thomas Dusjse f 

|Willielmus] Ludef 
[Johannes] Smolyn' f 

1 

t 



Willielmus Fagger 
Johannes Gosselyn' 

[Johannes Sewjalef 
Westlond't 



.smarkf 
....as t 



Eicardus Huntyngdon' 
Johannes Parker 

Thomas Longe 
Willielmus Thirlewale 

Thomas Yonge 
Alexander Benle 



DATS OF BBTUBN. 

No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 
do, 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Cinque Ports. 
do. 

do. 

do. 



Chichester City. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 



Shoreham Borough. 



t Names doubtfal. See former returns. 



Hastings. 

Eye. 

Winchelsea. 

X Names torn off. 



4 Hen. VI. (1425-6). 
Summoned to meet at Leicester, 18 February, 1425-6. 



Eobertus Lyle 
Vincencius Fynche 

Thomas Dusse 
Johannes Pedlyn 

Johannes Smolyn 
Willielmus Lude 

Johannes Wowere 
Georgius Eyr 

Eogerus Donstall' 
Johannes Bisshe 

Willielmus Penbrugge 
Willielmus Feret 



DATS Olf RETURN. 

31 Jan., 1425-6. Sussex County. 
No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Chichester City. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 



144 



MEMBERS OF FABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



Walterus Lucas 
Johannes Sewale 

Ricardus Roger 
Adam Feret 



} 



DATE OT RETURN. 

No date given. Midhurst Borough. 



do. 



Shoreham Borough. 



Cinque Forts. 



} 

Thomas Thondyr, junior | 
Alexander Benley j 



Willielmus Courthope 
Ricardus Huntyngdon' 

Willielmus Kele 
Thomas Pope 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Hastings. 

Rye. 

Winchelsea. 



6 Hen. VI. (1427). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 13 October, 1427. 



Johannes Pelham, 

chivaler 
Willielmus Ryman, 

armiger 

Thomas Dusse 
Willielmus Barbour 

Johannes Hilly 
Willielmus Lede 

Johannes Mason' 
Ricardus FouU' 

Henricus Boteler 
Stephanus Payn 

Johannes Godeman' 
Rogerus Forster 

Docatus Playnesburgh' 
Willielmus Chyngford' 

Johannes Wrythere 
Johannes Waleys 



DATE OF RETURN. 



12 Sept., U27.» Sussex County. 



No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Chichester City. 

East Grinstead Borough, 



do. 


Horsham Borough. 


do. 


Lewes Borough. 


do. 


Midhurst Borough. 



Shoreham Borough. 






* In the return — ^Thnrsday, 12 September, 6 Hen. YI. 12th September fell on 
Friday in that year. 



HEMBEBS OF PABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



145 



Cinque Ports. 

DATE OF SBIUBN. 

Ricardus Hunthyngdon' ) vr j ^ • tt x- 

Johannes Edward' j ^^ ^""^^ g^^«°- Hastings. 



Willielmus Thirlewale 
Willielmus Broughton 

Rogerus Gate 
Johannes Tamworth' 



I 
} 



do. 



do. 



Rye. 
Winchelsea. 



8 Hen. VI. (1429). 

Summoned in the first instance to meet at Westmins- 
ter, 13 October, 1429. The day changed to 22 Sep- 
tember, 1429, at Westminster. 



Rogerus Fenys, chiva- 

ler 
Willielmus Sy den eye, 

junior, armiger 

Ricardus Smyth' 
Willielmus Barbour 

Johannes Hilly 
Thomas Baron' 

Thomas Berdeveld' 
Ricardus Foghell' 

Stephanus Payn 
Rogerus Dunstall 

Thomas Whyte 
Johannes Qosselyn' 

Michael Maunser 
Willielmus Chyngford' 

Willielmus Snellyng' 
Willielmus Yongge 



DATE OF RETURN. 

8 Sept., U29. 



Sussex County. 



} 



Ricardus Huntyngton' 
Thomas Carpenter 

Willielmus Thirlewale 
Willielmus Broghton' 

Willielmus Alard' 
Willielmus Morefot 

XXXII. 



No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

CiNQUK Ports. 
do, 

do. 
do. 



Chichester City. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 



Shoreham Borough. 



Hastings. 
Rye. 

Winchelsea. 



W 



146 



HEMBBBS OF PABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



9 Hen. VI. (1430-1). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 12 January, 1430-1 . 



Willielmns Byman 
Adam Iwode 

Willielmus Caw 
Thomas Dusse 

Willielmus Hore 
Johannes Hylly 

Johannes Huddle 
Jacobus Janyn 

Bogerus Donstalle 
Petrus Hent 

Johannes Rodys 
Bicardus Brasyer 

Thomas Westlond' 
David Wolf 

Adam Feret 
Jonannes Furby 



Willielmus Gourthope 
' Thomas Carpenter 

Willielmus Thirlewale 
Willielmus Broughton' 

Thomas Thonder 
Godardus Fulham 



DATS OF KETUBN. 

28 Dec. 1480. Sussex County. 
No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 

ClKQUB FOBTS, 

do. 

do. 
do. 



Chichester City. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 



Shoreham Borough. 



Hastings. 

Bye. 
Winchelsea. 



10 Hen. VL (1432). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 12 May. 



DATS OT SETUBN. 



WiUielmus Byan, armi- 

T P'' T J • V 17 April, 1432. Sussex County. 

Johannes Ledes, armi- y 

ger 

Thomas Dusse )xtjx« a jit> t. 

Alanns atte Chambro | No date given. Arundel Borough. 

Willielmus Brereton' 1 
Nicholaus Foole j 



do. 



Chichester City. 



UEMBSBS OF FABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



147 



Jacobus Janyn' 
Johannes Hudde 

Stephanas Payn' 
Willielmus Stowte 



DATE OT RBTUBK. 



[ No date given. East Qrinstead Borough. 

} 



Thomas Whyte \ 

Willielmus Penbregge j 

Willielmus Fenyngham 
David Woir 

Bicardus Jay 
Bicardus Daunvere 



do. 

« 

do. 

do. 

J do. 

GiKQUB Ports. 



} 



Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



Johannes Parker 1 

WiUielmus Goldyn' j 

Willielmus Broughton' 
Stephanus March' 

Willielmus Morefot "j^ 
Godardus Pulham r 



1 



do. 
do. 
do. 



Hastings. 

Rye. 

Winchelsea. 



11 Hen. VI. (1433). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 8 July, 1433. 

DATS OF BETUSN. 

Willielmus Seynt John') ^^_ ,,««„ ^ 

Willielmus Sideney j ^^ J^^®> ^^^^' ^^ssex County. 

Bicardus Smyth' 7 -vt j 

Willielmus atte Halle C ^^ ^**® ^v®°- Arundel Borough. 

Johannes Tolyte 1 j n 

Johannes Frampton' j ^^' Chichester City. . 

Jacobus Janyn' | 

Thomas Bussell' \ 

Bogerus Dunstall' | 

Petrus Hent j 

Johannes Bodys ") 

Willielmus Penbrygge \ 

Johannes Fyst ") 

WiUielmus Westlond' j 

Thomas Hille •) 

Johannes Ham j 



do. 

do. 

do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 



East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough, 

Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 
No returns found. 



148 



MBMBEBS OP PARLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



14 Hen. VL (1435). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 10 October, 1435. 

DATI or BETUBN. 

Walterus Urry 1 -, a ' 

Johannes Bartelot' C ^ °®P**» ^^^^- Sussex County. 

Willielmus Fenyngham") 

Johannes Cobbehay j -^o date given. Arundel Borough. 



Johannes Hully 
Nicholaus Pole 

Kobertus Davers 
Johannes Page 

Stephanus Payn' 
Rogerus Dunstall* 

Thomas Whyte 
Johannes Wody 

Michael Maunser 
Johannes atte Wode 
junior 

Bicardus Jay 
Johannes Furby 



Johannes Parker 
Johannes Tamworth* 

Thomas Longe 
Stephanus Beber 

Thomas Thundyr 
Willielmus Pope 



} 
} 
} 
} 

} 

Cinque Ports. 
J do. 

} • do. 

I do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 



Chichester Borough. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 

Midhurst Borough. 

Shoreham Borough. 



Hastings. 

Rye. 

Winchelsea. 



15 Hen. VI. (1486-7). 

Summoned to meet at Cambridge, and afterwards at 
Westmmster, 21 January, 1436-7. 



Edmundus Mylle 
Johannes Denyssh 

Thomas Dusse 
Johannes Ferrour 

Ricardus Hayne 
Henricus Wyndovyr 






DATE OP BETUBN. 

20 Dec, 1436. Sussex County. 
No date given. Arundel Borough, 

do. Chichester City. 



MEMBEBS OF FABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



149 



DATB OF SBTUBN. 



Willielmus Fenynghaml xtj. . t^x^.xjt* i 

Johannes Wogher / ^^ ^^^ ^^^°- ^^s* Gnnstead Borough. 



Henricus Welljs 
Johannes Purjer 

Willielmus Thwaytes 
Johannes Hanmere 



} 
1 



Johannes Wode, junior*) 
Petrus Stubbe j 

Bicardus Jaj 
Johannes Kempe 



} 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 



Willielmus Goldyn' 
Thomas Carpynter 

Thomas Longe, senior 
Thomas Longe, junior 

Willielmus Alard ") 

Eicardus Lundeneys J 



} 

} 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Hastings. 

Eye. 

Winchelsea, 



20 Hen. VL (1441-2). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 25 January, 1441-2. 



Eogerus Fenys, miles 
Edmundus Mylle 

Eogerus Legh' 
Egidius Gunter 

Humfridus Heuster 
Nicholaus Pole 

Eicardus Dalby 
Willielmus Eedeston' 

Jacobus Janyn' 
Thomas Berwyk' 

Edwardus Mylle 
Egidius Wodefold' 

Johannes Wode 
Johannes Eowlonde' 

Eicardus Jay 
Thomas Qrevet 



DATE OF KBTUBN. 



[ 11 Jan., 1441-2. Sussex County. 
> No date given. Arundel Borough. 

} 
} 

} 
} 
} 



do. 


Chichester City. 


do. 


East Orinstead Borough. 


do. 


Horsham Borough. 


do. 


Lewes Borough. 


do. 


Midhurst Borough. 


do. 


Shoreham Borough. 



150 



MEMBBES OP PARLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



Cinque Ports. 

DATX or KBTUBN- 

Johannes Parker, junior ") 

Johannes Carpenter t No date given. Hastings, 
junior ) 

Johannes Sutton' \ a -n 

Johannes Chitecroft' j ^^' ^J^' 

Johannes Godefray ") , 

Thomas Sylton' j ^^• 



Winchelsea. 



25 Hen. VL (1446-7). 

Summoned to meet at Cambridge, and by fresh writs 
at Bury St. Edmunds, 10 February, 1446-7. 



Thomas Hoo, armiger 

notabilis 
Johannes Knottesford, 

armiger notabilis 

Willielmus Emele 
Johannes deEwry 

Johannes Balman' 
Willielmus Bernard' 

Johannes Alfray 
RadulphuB, A. Legh' 

Walterus Styler 
Johannes Iham 

Bobertus Wodefold' 
Thomas Best 

Thomas Gynnour 
Thomas Molyneux 

Johannes Veske 
Johannes Weston 



DATE OF BETUBN. 



Johannes Stoghton' 
Johannes Cobey 

Thomas Pope 
Thomas Stoghton' 

Willielmus Alard 
Thomas Sylton' 



7 Feb., 1446-7. Sussex County. 



No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Cinque Ports. 
do. 

do. 
do. 



Chichester City. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



Hastings. 
Rye. 



Winchelsea. 



MEMBEBS OF PABLIAMBNT FOB SUSSEX. 



151 



27 Hen. VL (1448-9). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 12 February, 1448-9. 



Thomas Hoo, armiger 
Eobertns Badmyld' 
armiger 

Thomas Byllyngeham 
Willielmus Halle 

Johannes Hilly 
Johannes Balman' 

Johannes Blakeney 
Johannes Stokke 

Thomas del Bowe 
Willielmus Boas 

Egidius Wodesfold 
Willielmus Godeman' 

Thomas Bartelot 
Thomas Ursewyke 

Willielmus Bedston' 
Johannes Bekwith' 



DATE 07 BBTUBN. 

30 Jany., 1448-9. Sussex County. 



1 

> No date given. Arundel Borough. 

} 
} 
} 
} 

3 



Johannes Gray 
Thomas Vestynden' 

Bobertus Unwyn* 
Thomas Stoghton' 

Johannes Godfrey 
Godardus Pulham 



do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

I do. 

Cinque Ports. 
do. 



Chichester City. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



1 
} 



do. 
do. 



Hastings. 
Bye. 

Winchelsea. 



28 Hen. VL (1449). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 6 November, 1449. 



Johannes Lewkenore, 

armiger 
Johannes Wode 

Thomas Esshyng^ 
Johannes Crowcher 

Johannes Fust 
Bobertus Seman' 



DATS OV BETUBN. 

9 Oct., 1449. Sussex County. 



] 

> No date given. Arundel Borough. 
f do, Chichester City. 



162 



MEMBERS OP PABLTAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



Hugo Huls 
Johannes Blakeney 

Eicardus Danvers 
Willielmus Geney 

Johannes Southwell, 

armiger 
Willielmus Delve 

Thomas Belyngham 
Johannes Stokke 

"Willielmus Bury 
Johannes Gloucestre 



} 
I 

1 



DATE 0? EETUEN. 


► date given. 


East Grinstead Bor( 


do. 


Horsham Borough. 


do. 


Lewes Borough. 


do. 


Midhurst Borough. 


do. 


Shoreham Borough. 


IE Ports. 




do. 


Hastings 


do. 


Bye. 


do. 


Winchelsea. 



Johannes Clyve ") 

Johannes Westboume f 

Adam Lyvelode 1 

Eobertus Berde f 

Johannes Greneford' 7 

Thomas Sylton' C 



29 Hen. VL (1450). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 6 November, 1450. 

DATE OF RETUBN. 

8 Oct., 1450. Sussex County. 



Eobertus Ponynges, 

anniger 
Thomas Ovedale, or 

Uvedale, armiger 

Thomas Akton* 
Eobertus Trott' 

Johannes Hilly 
Humfridus Heuster 

Johannes Alffray 
Johannes Westbourae 

Stephanua Comber 
Willielmus Duke 

Johannes Southwell' 
Johannes Bekwith' 

Laurencius Leventhorp' 
Eicardus Eodenale 

Thomas Gynnour 
Edwardus Eaf 



No date given. Arundel Borough, 
do. Chichester City. 

East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



HEMBEES OF PABLIAMEKT FOB SUSSEX. 



153 



Johannes Cobbey 
Alanus Honywode 

Robertas Onewyn' 
Thomas Stokton' 

Johannes Coppyldyk 
Bicardus Hakeley 



CiNQUK Ports. 

DATE OT BETUSN. 

No date given. Hastings. 



1 
} 
1 



do. 
do. 



Rye. 

Winchelsea. 



31 Hen. VI. (1452-3). 
Summoned to meet at Reading, 6 March, 1452-3. 



DATE OF BETUSN. 



tger l1£L } 22 Feb., U52-3. Snssez County. 



Reginald US Moordon' 
Thomas Hert 

Nicholaus Morley 
Bicardus Leukenore 



} 
} 



26 
20 
26 

20 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Johannes Hylly 
Ricardus Myldewe 

Ricardus Strykland ") 

Johannes Alfray f 

Johannes Leventhorp' ") 

Willielmus Goureley i 

Johannes Parker 1 1 -kit 

Johannes Suthwell' | ^ ^*^-> ^^• 

Johannes BaldeTvyn' ) j.- t^ , 

Hugo Hulse j 21 Feb., do. 



27 do. 



Edwardus Raife 
Willielmus Say 

Thomas Bourne 
Johannes Joskyn 



1 
} 



28 
25 



do. 
do. 



Arundel Borough, 
Bramber Borough. 

Chichester City. 

East Grinstead 
Borough. 

Horsham Borough. 
Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 
Steyning Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 



Johannes'!'/.!!'.!!!'/.!!!'.!} No date given. Hastings. 

> do. Rye. 

} 



Robertus Onwyn 
Ricardus Ryppys 

Thomas Sylton' 
Johannes Convers 



do. 
§ Betnni torn. 



Winchelsea. 



XXXII. 



X 



154 



MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



38 Hen. VI. (1459). 
Summoned to meet at Coventry, 20 November, 1459. 



No returns found. 

Thomas Belynegham 
Johannes Apsle 

Michael FairewelP 
Bicardus Stargra^e 

Ricardus Mildewe 
Eadalphus Bugg 

Johannes AlA*a7 
Bobertus Bednesse 

Johannes Lewkenore, 

armiger 
Bicardus Lewkenore, 

armiger 

Bicardus Fairegoo 
Thomas Sherman' 

Hugo Mill' 
Bicardus Awger* 



DATE OF ABTUBN. 



Sussex County. 
V 14 Nov., 1459. Arundel Borough. 

> No date given. Bramber Borough. 
I 17 Nov., 1459.t Chichester City. 

> No date given. East Grinstead Borough. 



} 
} 



do. 

do. 
do. 



Horsham Borough. 

Lewes Borough. 
Shoreham Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 

No returns found. 

t Date of Election 16 November. 

39 Hen. VI. (1460). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 7 October, 1460. 

DATE OF BETUBN. 

28 Aug., 1460. Sussex County. 



Bartholomeus Bolne 
Thomas Tawke, armiger 

Thomas Combes 
Thomas Bowes 



Willielmus Ernie 
Willielmus Huse 

Humfridus Heuster* 
Willielmus Jacobbe 

Thomas Chaloner 
Bicardus Alfray 

Johannes Harowe 
Johannes Worsop' 



28 do. 
23 do. 



Arundel Borough. 

Bramber Borough. 
22 Sept. ' Chichester City. 
No date given. East Grinstead Borough. 
28 Aug., 1460. Horsham Borough. 



UEUBEBS OF FABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



155 



Johannes Bekwyth' 
Thomas Best' 

Johannes Beauley 
Willielmus Hiberden' 

Bicardus Spert § 
Nicholaus Morley 

Robertus Gayton' 
Oliverus Johnson 



DATE OF BETURN. 



> 28 Aug., 1460. Lewes Borough. 

> 28 do. Midhurst Borough. 
y 28 do. Shoreham Borough. 

>- No date given. Steyning Borough. 

Cinque Ports. 

No returns found. 

§ Thomas Gkiger in a Schedale for this oonnty. 

7 Edw. IV. (1467). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 3 June, 1467. 

Johannes Fenys, miles'! date op eetuen. 
Johannes Goryng gen-v 30 April, 1467. Sussex County, 
tilman ) 

Thomas Stydolf )xtjx. a ji-o t. 

Reginaldus Morton i ^^ ^^^^ fi^iven. Arundel Borough. 

Rogerus Townesend 
Johannes Wodye 

Johannes Stanney 
Willielmus Style 

Nicholaus Morley 
Ricardus Alfray 

Thomas Hoo, armiger 
Stephanus Comber 

Thomas Leukenore, ar- 
miger 
Johannes Sherman 

Johannes Wode ") 

Willielmus Pestell j 

Ricardus Leukenore, 

armiger 
Willielmus Brandon, 

armiger 

Johannes Tymperley, 

junior 
Ricardus Stertgrave 

Cinque Ports. 
No returns found. 



] 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 



Bramber Borough. 
Chichester City. 
East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 

Lewes Borough. 

Midhurst Borough. 



do. Shoreham Borough. 



■] 



do. 



Steyning Borough. 



156 



MEMBEBS OF PABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



12 Edw. IV. (1472). 

Summoned to meet at Westminster, 6 October, 1472. 
Dissolved 14 March, 1474-5. 



DATE OV RETURN. 

Johannes Wode, senior, ') 

armiger . > 10 Sept., 1472. Sussex County. 

Johannes Apsle, armi- \ 

ger J 

Thomas Stydolf 7 xt j x • 

Thomas Troys j No date given. 

Laurencius Lenthorp, ^ 



Arundel Borough. 



armiger 
Johannes Tymperley, 
junior, armiger 

Johannes Stanney 
Robertus More 

Eicardus Lewkenore, 

armiger 
Robertus Forster. 

Thomas Hoo, armiger 
Johannes Fust 



Cristoforus Fumes, ar- 
miger 5" 21 
Willielmus Cook 

Willielmus Druell 
Willielmus Merston, J- 29 
armiger 

Petrus Veske 
Ricardus Famfold 

Willielmus Shorter 



1 

I 
} 



29 Sept., 1472. Bramber Borough. 



25 do. Chichester City. 



18 do. East Grinstead Borough. 



22 do. Horsham Borough. 



do. Lewes Borough. 



do. Midhurst Borough. 



14 do. Shoreham Borough. 



Willielmus Shorter ) xt j • o . 

Henricus Carpenter j ■^^ ^*^® ^^®°- Steynmg Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 



Ricardus Higham 
Thomas Rede 

Ricardus Wynde 
Johannes Tregons 

Robertus Basele 
Ricardus Davy 



} 
} 
} 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Hastings. 

Rye. 



Winchelsea. 



HEMBEB3 OF PABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



157 



17 Edw. IV. (1477-8). 

Summoned to meet at Westminster, 16 January, 
1477-8. 



Johannes Fenys, miles 
Johannes Dudle, armi- 
ger 

Henricus Sanford 
Thomas Alwyn 

Christopherus Fumeys 
Thomas Gayer 

Johannes Stanney 
Willielmus Jacobbe 

Bicardus Leukenore, 

senior, armiger 
Ricardus Alfray 

Thomas Hoo 
Thomas Stydolff 

Willielmus Cooke 
Johannes Baker 

Willielmus Pestell, ar- 
miger 
Johannes Codynton 

Petrus Vesk armiger 
Johannes Cookeson 

Johannes Apsle, armiger 
Ricardus Famfeld, ar- 
miger 



D4TX OF sBTuaer. 



Thomas Markham^ 

armiger 
Johannes Honywode 

Johannes Yonge 
Johannes Eston, senior 

Johannes Copildike 
Henricus Fysshe 



24 Dec, 1477. Sussex County. 



No date given. Arundel Borough. 



do. 



do. 



Bramber Borough. 
Chichester City. 



31 Dec, 1477. East Grinstead Borough. 



20 do. Horsham Borough. 

26 do. Lewes Borough. 



No date given. Midhurst Borough. 



do. 



do. 



Shoreham Borough. 



Steyning Borough. 



Cinque Ports. 



do. 



do. 
do. 



Hastings. 

Rye. 

Winchelsea. 



From 22 Edw. IV. (1482-3) to 14 Hen. VIII. (1523) 
inclusive, no returns have been found. 



168 



MEMBEBS OF PABLIAMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



21 Hen. VIII. (1529). 

Summoned to meet at London, 3 November, 1529 ; 
dissolved 4 April, 1536. 



Johannes Gaige, miles 
Ricardus Shirley, miles 

Eicardus Sakevyle 
Thomas Prestall 

• 

Henricus See 
Willielmus Roper 

Robertus Bowyer 
Robertus Trygges 

Willielmus Rutter 
Edwardus Godewyn 

Alveredus Berwyk 
Henricus Husee 

Edwardus Bray, miles 
Johannes Batemore 

Georgius Gyflforde 
Johannes Bassett 

Johannes Covert 
Johannes Michell 

Thomas Shurley 
Johannes Morreys 



> Sussex County. 

> Arundel Borough. 

> Bramber Borough. 

> Chichester City. 

1 
} 

( Lewes Borough. 

} 

( Shoreham Borough. 



East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 



Midhurst Borough. 



Steyning Borough. 



(Tho)mas Shosewell 

Nicholaus Sutton 
Johannes Fletcher 

Thomas Ensing 
Georgius Lowys 



CiNQXTB POBTS. 

Calveleyt 



y 7 Hastings.^ 
I ? Rye4 
> Winchelsea. 



The above names are supplied from a list found amongst the State 
Papers. 

t ^' Mortnns '' against his name. % Name of place torn ofiP. 

33 Hen. VIH. (1541-2). 

Summoned to meet at Westminster, 16 January, 
1541-2 ; dissolved 28 March, 1644. 



} 



DATE OT BKTUSlf. 

... Dec, 1541. Sussex County. 



MEMBEBS OF PABLIAMENT IfOR SUSSEX. 



159 



Johannes Clere, miles 
Ricardus Wa 

Wjllyam Ernley 



John Sakevyle 



DATE OT BBTUKN. 



Bramber Borough. 



} 

\ 2 Jan., 1541-2. Chichester City. 

> (East Grinstead) Borough. 



Nicholas Derinir ") ^ ^ ,...« . t* 

John Bume, gent. j ^ J«° Midhurst Borough, 

Johannes Bovryer balli- 
vus domini Regis Honor 



Steyning Borough. 



Johannes Franke 
(Robertus) Bis 

Johannes Belle 
Phillippus 



■■] 

I 20 Dec, 1541. ( ) Borough, 

CiNQUB Ports. 
( ••• Jan., 1541-2. Hastings. 

^ Winchelsea. 



1 Edw. VI. (1547). 

Summoned to meet at Westminster, 4 November, 
1547 J dissolved 16 April, 1562. 



DATE or RBTUKN. 



30 Sept., 1547. Sussex County, 



. 1 Oct. 



»' 



Arundel Borough. 



Sir VTilliam Goryng, 

knyght 
John Pawlmer, or 

Palmer, esquyer 

Nicholaus Pelham, 

armiger 
Thomas Carpenter, 

generosus 

Sir VTilliam Sharington, 

knyght 
John Fylde 

Ricardus Sakvyle, 

Eo*S'Boyer, gene- \ ^° ^"^ «^^«°- Chichester City, 
rosus 

Jasperus Culpeper 

Johannes Sakvyle, ju- {. do. East Grinstead Borough, 

nior 



12 Oct. 



9f 



Bramher Borough. 



-1 



160 



MBMBBES OF PABLIAMBNT FOB SUSSEX. 



Androwe Baynton 
John Vaughan 

Waltenis Mjldmaye, 



DATE OP BBTURN. 

( 14 Oct., 1547. Horsham Borough. 



miles C 10 

5, miles J 



Anthonius Cooke 

Edmundus Foorde, 

armiger 
Willielmus Wightman, } ^^ >' 

generosus 

"William Fewyllames, 

or Fitzwilliams J. 10 

Anthony Bourcher 

Bobertus Eudstone^ 

generosus i iq 

Henricus Fauxe, gene- f " 

rosus 



,f „ Lewes Borough. 



» 



„ Midhurst Borough. 



ff Shoreham Borough. 



„ Steyning Borough. 



CiNQUB Ports. 
No returns found. 



7 Edw. VL (1552-3). 

Summoned to meet at Westminster, 1 March. 1552-3 
Dissolved 31 March, 1553. 



* 



DATE OP RETURN. 



I 9 Feb., 15523. Sussex County. 



Ji 



Thomas Palmer, armiger") 
Thomas Morley, armiger j ^^ 

George Rithe, gentilman^ 
Laurence Owen, of Lon- C 20 „ 
don, gentilman j 

Thomas Stoughton ") 

Thomas Carpenter I " 

Robertus Oxenbrege, 

miles J- 18 „ 

Georgius Darrell, gent 

Sir Henry Hussey, 

knight 
Edward Lewkenour, es- 

quyer 



>» 



yy 



9) 



Arundel Borough. 
Bramber Borough. 



Chichester City. 



„ *(East Grinstead) Borough. 



V 



Horsham Borough. 



* Betoms defaced. 



IIEHBEBS OF PABLIAMENT FOB SdSSEX. 



161 



} 17 „ 



DATB OP SETUEN. 

John Sowthcott, gentyl-N 

Thomas Gravesend, gen- ( 25 Feb., 1552-3. Lewes Borough. 

tylman 

Johannes Fetzwilliam 

Willielmus Denton t *• » »> 

Master John Fowler, one^ 
of the Kinges Majes- 
ties Pryvye Chamber [• 6 „ 

Master Thomas Harvje, 
esquyer 

Sir Richarde Blunt, ^ 

knight, gent of the f #/ . 

Previe Chamber C ^'"^ " 

William Cordell, esq. -^ 

* Betnms defaced. 



}9 



*(Midhurst) Borough. 



New Shoreham Borough. 



Bteyning Borough. 



CiNQUB Ports. 
No returns found. 

1 Mary (1553). 

Summoned to meet at Westminster, 5 October, 1553. 
Dissolved 5 December, 1553. 



1 



28 



99 



99 



► 1 Oct., 



W 



9} 



Arundel Borough. 



DATS OT SETUEN. 

Johannes Carryll, armi- ^ 

T P'* m V. ^ • f 21 Sept., 1553. Sussex County. 
Johannes Cobert, armi-V ^ ' '^ 

ger ' 

Thomas Paulmer, 

knight 
Thomas Gawde, gent 

The Right WorshipfuF 

Sir Jhon Baker, 

knight 
Thomas Tymperley, es- 

quier 

Thomas Stoughton 7 io g 
Thomas Carpender J ^^ '^^P**' 

Thomas Stradlinge, 

knight . 25 

John Story e, Doctor of' 

the Lawe 

XXXII. 



Bramber Borough. 



99 



99 



Chichester City. 



East Grinstead Borough. 



162 MEMBERS OP PARLIAMENT FOR SUSSEX. 

DATE Of RETURN. 

Antony Hussey, esquyer") 

John Michell, esquyer i ^^ Sept., 1553. Horsham Borough. 

Sir Henrye Hussey,') 

knyght C 20 „ „ Lewes Borough. 

George Darell, gent ) 

Thomas Lovell, gent ^ 

William , es-[ 21 „ „ Midhurst Borough. 

quyer* ) 

Thomas Roper, esquier "^ 

Thomas Elderington, C 1 Oct., „ Shoreham Borough, 
esquier j 

John Southcoote, gent *) 

David Lewes, Doctor of C 26 Sept., „ Steyning Borough, 
the Lawe J 

* Retnm defaced. 

CiNQUB Ports. 
No returns found. 

1 Mary (1554). 

Summoned to meet at Oxford and (by fresh Writs) at 
Westminster, 2 April, 1554. 

DATE OF RETURN. 

Eobertus Oxenbridge,^ 

miles C 8 Mar., 1553-4. Sussex County. 

Thomas Palmer, miles j 

•Thomas Holcroft, miles *) 

•Thomas Stradling, miles j ^^ ^*^® S^"^^^- Arundel Borough. 

♦Henricus Palmer, miles') 

•Johannes Storye, gene- 1 do. Bramber Borough, 

rosus 3 

Thomas Stoughton ") 

Thomas Carpender j ^^ ^*r-> 1553-4. Chichester City, 



•Ricardus ^Whalley, ar-^ 

j 



miger 



•Anthonius Stapleton, [ ^^ ^**® 8^^^®^- East Grinstead Borough. 

armiger ' J 

♦Ricardus Baker, armiger") 
♦Johannes Baker, armi- t do. Horsham Borough. 

ger ) 

Robert Gage, gent 1 nr 

George Darell, gent j ^^ ^^^-^ 1553-4. Lewes Borough. 

♦Michael Wentworth ) 

•Willielmus Denton j ^^ ^^^^ g^^^n. Midhurst Borough. 

* Names supplied from the Crown Office List in the absence of Original Eetums. 



HEMBEBS OF PABLUMENT FOB SUSSEX. 



163 



DATE 07 BBTU&N. 



Leonard West, esquyer 7 ^^ ,, ,tt. xt ^i i -r^ 

William Modye, gent j ^7 Mar., 1554. New blioreham Borough. 

♦Gilbertus Gerarde, ge- \ 

•EdwIX Stradlingi N° ^"*^ Siven. Steyning Borough, 
generosus } 



•Johannes Frank 
•Johannes Isted 

•Johannes Holmes 
*Ricardus Fletcher 

•Ciriak Petyt 
•Josephus Beverley 



Cinque Ports. 

J No date given. Hastings, 

^ do.. Rye. 

> do. Winchelsea, 



* Names supplied from the Grown OfiELce List in the absence of Original Betnms. 

1 & 2 Philip and Mary (1554). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 12 November, 1554. 



DATE OY SBTU&N. 

Johannes Cobert, armi-^ 

T P^ A 1, I. r 18 Oct., 1554. 

Johannes Asheburne- V ' 

ham, armiger -^ 

John Burnet 1 

Richard Bowyer j ^ ^^^'^ " 

Thomas Elderton, es-") 

quyer f 6 „ „ 
Baker, esquyerf J 

John Digons \ 

Walter Reynon j ^^ ^^^^-f »» 

William Tooke, esquier ") 
John Purvey, esquier i 

John Stempe ") 

John Morley \ 

Thomas Harvie, esquyer") 

William Denton, es- > 

quyer ) 

Symon Lowe, of the' 

Cytye of London, gent 
William Modye, of 

Houghton, in the 

Countye of Sussex, gent 



5 Nov., 
4 



i> 



8 Oct., 



» 



y> 



}f 



Sussex County. 



Arundel Borough. 



Br amber Borough. 

Chichester City. 
Horsham Borough. 

Lewes Borough. 
Midhurst Borough. 



27 



» 



}> 



Shoreham (New) Borough. 



t Betnm defaced. 



164 



HEKBEBS OF PAELIAMBNT FOB SUSSEX. 



Cinque Ports. 



Thomas Rede 
Johannes Payton 

Johannes Hohnes 
Thomas Smythe 

Williehnns Egliston 
Johannes Cheyne 



} 



t 

} t 



Hastings. 

[Eye].t 
Winchelsea. 



t Betnms defaced. 



2 & 3 PhUip and Mary (1655). 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 21 October, 1555. 



» 



)> 



DATE OP EETUEW. 

Robertas Oxenbredge,1 

Johannes Carrell, armi^ ( ^^ ^^*-' ^^^^• 
ger J 

^Henrye Pagett, knyght") 
William Dansell, [ 17 Sept., 
knyght J 

Sir Thomas Knevet, knt | ^ 
Thomas Baker, gent J ^ ^<^-» 

Richard Knight 1 i o 

Robert Bowier ) ^^ " 

William Bemers, esquier) 

John Wiseman, esquierj ^^ >» 

Roberte Colsell, gent *> 
William Huggen, gent ) ^ 

William Devenysshs,*) 

gent ^ 10 

Thomas Gravesend j 

William Denton, es-1 

quyer I oyi o * 

Henry H%hes, gentfl- [ ^^ ^®P*-' » 
man J 

Fraunces Shorley, es-1 

Thomas Huggen, es- [ ^ ^^^'^ 
quyre J 

Robert Byng,f ") 

— ,t gent J — »» 



» 



if 



99 



99 



» 



Sussex Comity. 



Arundel Borough. 

Bramber Borough. 
Chichester City. 

East Grinstead Borough. 
Horsham Borough. 

Lewes Borough. 



Midhurst Borough. 



99 



J> 



New Shoreham Borough. 



Steyning Borough. 



t Betnms defaced. 



MEMBEBS OF PABLIAMBNT FOB SUSSEX. 165 



Cinque Ports. 




Thomas Rodes 1 1 5 O t 
Rogerus Manwoode ) ^"^ ^^ ** 


1555. 


Hastings. 


Johannes Holmes ^ 






Reginaldus Moone, ar-> 15 „ 


>9 


Rye. 


miger j 






Thomas Smythe ") 






Johannes Pay ton, ar-S 15 „ 


t> 


Winchelsea. 


miger j 







4 & 5 Philip and Mary. 
Summoned to meet at Westminster, 20 January, 1557-8. 

DATE OP SBTURN. 



Nicholaas Pelham, miles'^ 

Robertas Oxenbridge, v 6 Jan., 1557-8. Sussex County, 
miles J 

•Edwardus Stradling "^ 

•David Stradling, gene- > No date given. Arundel Borough, 
rosus 3 

•Henricus Wynne, gene-"| 

*xT-^i.^^^ TTT r do. Bramber Borough. 

•Nicholaus Wynne, gene- ^ 

rosus J 

Petrus Tolpat ^ 

Lawrencius Ardrone, or> 15 Jan., 1557-8. Chichester City. 
Ardeme j 

Thomas Sakevyle, es-") 

quyer > 18 „ „ East Grinstead Borough, 

Thomas Parker, esquyer) 

Thomas Famham, ar-"^ 

miger, loco Thome ^-flO „ „ do. 

Sakvill, armigeri ) 

*Johannes Blanerhasset,1 

armiger J 

♦Johannes Gage, esquier 

♦WiJlielmus Peterson, J- do. Lewes Borough, 

generosus 



'I 



• Names supplied from Crown Office List in the absence, &c., of Original Be- 

tnms. 
t Sic in orig. 



166 



MEMBEBS OF PABLIAKENT FOB SUSSEX. 



DATB OT KETUKN. 

Thomas Harvye, armiger'^ 
•Willielmus Denton, ge-> No date given. Midhnrst Borough, 
nerosus ) 

•Anthonius Hussey, ar-") 

miger v do. Shoreham Borough. 

*Ricardus Baker, annigerj 

•Ricardus Onslowe, armi-^ 

•RobTrtus ColshiU, armi- '- ^^' ^^^""^ ^'''^''''^^' 

ger 



CiNQUB Ports. 



•Thomas Brett, generosus") 

•Henricus Tennent, ge-> 

nerosus J 

•Thomas Fletcher, gene-1 
rosus I 

•Thomas Cheyne, gene- [ 
rosus J 

•Georgius Howard, miles') 

•Johannes Fowler, ar- > 

miger j 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Hastings. 



Rye. 



Winchelsea. 



* Names supplied from Crown Office List in the abaence, &c., of Original Betums. 



{To be continued.') 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE 
TUMULUS, AND ROMANO-BRITISH CEMETERY, 

SEAFORD, SUSSEX. 



By JOHN EDWAED PEICB, P.S.A., M.E.S.L. 



The valuable series of papers published by the Sussex 
ArchaBologioal Society already contain several communica- 
tions relative to the early history of Seaford. Those 
contributed by the late Mr. M. A. Lower, F.S.A., and 
other local antiquaries, have brought together so 
valuable a collection of materials bearing on the past 
history of the locality not to be found in the County 
histories or other topographical works, that it is de- 
sirable for information which has been since obtained, 
or may be yet forthcoming to be also preserved among 
the records of the Society, in order to illustrate as 
far as may be possible, work begun, and render 
the " Memorials of Seaford '' ^ still more authentic 
and complete. The association of Seaford with the 
Eoman occupation of Britain has been amply proved 
on more than one occasion. It is on record that when 
repairing the chancel of the old church at Sutton* 
pottery was found beneath the foundations of the walls 
of a character similar to that discovered in the graves at 
Hardham, near Pulborough, and that in the course of 
excavations beneath the tower of the church of Bast 
Blatchington^ urns of coarse earthenware were discovered 
containing burnt bones and charcoal, an indication that 
this early Christian church was erected on a site once 
dedicated to the rites of Pagan sepulture. Accidental 
discoveries of sepulchral urns were also made in the year 
1826, and to these we have presently to refer; but it 
does not appear that until some six or seven years ago 
any organised examination was ever undertaken either 

^ See '' Memorials of Seaford," by the late Mr. A. Lower, F.S.A., S. A. C, 
Vol. VII. 

* See S. A. C, Vol. XV>, p. 248. Note by T. E. Tamer, Esq. Also Vol XIII., 
p. 809. 

' Note by the Bey. B. N. Dennis. 



168 OK EXCAVATIONS IN THE OAMF, THE TUMULUS, AND 

of the well-known camp upon the heights or of the 
equally interesting burials on the downs adjoining. 
About this time a report was circulated that a portion of 
the cliff upon which the camp is situated was to be blown 
up preparatory to the formation of a breakwater. The 
report has, however, happily proved to be but partially 
correct, as the excavations requisite for the construction 
of the sea wall now in course of formation, though 
injuring the picturesque aspect of the cliff, do not at 
present interfere with the well-known outlines of the en- 
trenchments; but it is impossible to say how far such 
will remain preserved if further land has to be removed, 
or hereafter utilised for building purposes. The report 
referred to was brought to the notice of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, and it was 
decided that the Exploration Committee appointed by the 
Institute for the year 1876 should direct its attention to 
the site in question. A generous permission to excavate 
was accorded by Mrs. Harison, of Sutton Place, and the 
Rev. John Harison, then Vicar of Bishopstone ; arrange- 
ments made, and the work commenced, our President, 
Major-General Pitt Rivers, F.R.S., F.S.A., and Mr. Park 
Harrison, M.A., directing their attention more especially 
to the camp, and Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A., F.G.S., 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, F.S.A., and myself to excavations 
on the site of the ancient cemetery. The result of the 
combined work has been published in the Journal of the 
Institute* in separate communications ; but they are here 
associated, and in so connecting them I have endeavoured 
to adhere to the original distinctions in authorship as far 
as I have found it possible. 

In a paper on the hill forts of Sussex, published in 
Vol. XLII. of the " Archaeologia," General Pitt Rivers, 
then Col. A. Lane Fox, made some allusion to the Camp 
at Seaford. The comparatively few flint flakes found on 
the surface in its neighbourhood, the more or less 
rectangular outline, the presence of Roman remains in 

* See "Ezcavations in the Camp and Tumnlns at Seaford, Sussex/' by Col. A. 
Lane Fox, F.B.S., and ** Notes on the Bomano-British Cemetery at Seaford, Sussex/' 
by F. G. Hilton Price, F.G.S., and John E. Price, F.S.A., " Journal Anthropological 
Institute," Vol. VI., pp. 287-809, also Vol. X., p. 130. I am indebted to the 
Council of the Institute for the loan of the accompanying illustrations. 



EOMANO-BEITISfl OEMETEEY, SBAFORD, SUSSEX. 169 

its vicinity, and the existence of a mound in the interior, 
occupying a position near the principal entrance as if 
connected in some way with the defence of it, led him to 
view the local assignation of a Roman origin to the 
works with more favour than he had done any of the 
traditions which have commonly attributed the camps 
of the neighbourhood to that people. This view, how- 
ever, was modified, to a great extent, by information 
derived from Mr. John Evans, F.R.S., F.S.A., who had 
spent some weeks at Seaford in 1867, and who con- 
sequently had opportunities for carefully examining the 
work, and had found a scraper and some flint flakes within 
the camp. Accordingly, when excavations commenced, 
the President directed his attention to an examination 
of other superficial evidences of design in the arrange- 
ment of the camp by which the fortifications of the 
Britons may so invariably be distinguished from those of 
other races, and especially the Romans. 

The destruction (writes the General) of probably at 
least one-half of this camp, by the erosion of the cliff 
by the sea, creates a difficulty in this case which is not 
commonly met with, and gives to the camp, as it is now 
seen, an angular shape, which led me formerly to think 
it possible that the two faces of the rampart now re- 
maining might originally have been two of the sides of a 
Roman parallelogram. But upon further examination, 
and comparison with other British encampments which I 
have lately had the opportunity of seeing, I am able to 
trace the design of a British engineer in that very 
peculiarity of this work which had originally led me to 
doubt it, and to form a very fair conjecture as to the 
shape of the other portion of the hill which has now 
been washed away by the sea. The most characteristic 
feature of a British earthwork, as I have shown in my 
former paper, to which I have referred, consists in its 
conforming to the outline of the hill, the rampart follow- 
ing the tactical line of defence — that is to say, that in 
selecting the line for the rampart they went down the 
side of the hill far enough to see to the bottom, and thus 
to leave no dead ground outside where an enemy could 

XXXII. z 



170 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

conceal himself. But when the hill was so large that to 
occupy the whole of it in this way would entail the con- 
struction of a much larger fortress than they had the 
means of defending, it was customary to select a suitable 
spot at which the natural line of defence on the hill-side 
might be abandoned, and turning the rampart suddenly 
at right-angles, to carry it straight across the hill top, 
until it met the line of defence on the other side. The 
spot selected for this purpose was usually one in which 
the ground on the top of the hill could be commanded 
for a sufficient distance on the outside of the camp ; and 
as the point of the angle was necessarily the weakest 
point, on account of the diverging fire from the two faces, 
it was usual to make the rampart higher at this point. 

The camp at Puttenham, in Surrey, usually attributed 
to the Romans, but in reality British, is an example of 
this system of defence. Here the north and south sides 
of the camp follow the line of defence of the hilL The 
west side, being very steep, required no defence ; but the 
east side, on which the ridge of the hill continues for 
some distance, is cut across, by the rampart turning at 
right-angles, until it reaches the slope on the other side, 
and the rampart at the angles is of unusual height. At 
Seaford, the north face conforms to the line of the hill, 
as seen by the contour lines on the 26-inch map (Sheets 
LXXIX., 9 ; LXXIX., 13), until it reaches a point to the 
eastward where the rampart can be drawn across the top 
of the hill with a sufficient command on the outside. 
The rampart at and near the salient angle also rises con- 
siderably higher than on the faces ; and the eastern face 
without doubt was continued southward until it met the 
slope which, in all probability, swept round that part of , 

the camp which has been washed away by the sea. But | 

there is another peculiarity in this camp which, upon a ' 

cursory view of it, might lead to the assumption that it 
was not British. The northern face of the camp con- 
forms, as I have said, to the defensive line of the hill. 
It does so generally, but there are few places in which, 
standing on the rampart as it now exists, there is a con- 
siderable amount of dead ground oxx the outside. The 
hill dips down, and the slope is lost to view j but the 



EOMANO-BEITISH CEMETERY, SBAFOED, SUSSEX. 171 

spectator from the rampart is unable to see to what 
extent this dead ground descends below the line of vision, 
or how much cover it might afford to an advancing 
enemy. In order to determine this, with the assistance 
of Mr. Harrison, I took a careful section of the hill upon 
one of the two lines marked A B and C D upon the map. 
Fig. 1, that is, towards the north and north-west, and 
having checked this with the contours on the 25-inch 
Ordnance map, the result is given in the two sections, 
Figs. 4 and 5. 

Drawing a straight line on these sections from a point 
5 feet above the lowest part of the dead ground upwards 
at a tangent to the brow of the hill (see " line of vision," 
Figs. 4 and 5), I find that in both cases this line cuts the 
rampart at 10 feet above the present crest. In order, 
therefore, that a man upon the rampart should be enabled 
to see an enemy approaching to attack by the hollows 
which I have termed dead ground^ it would be necessary 
that his feet should be about 5 feet higher than the 
present crest of the rampart. Now, the excavation of a 
portion of the ditch of which I am about to give an 
account, and which is represented in the section. Fig. 3, 
showed that the ditch has silted up to the extent of 
7 feet. If we take 5 feet of this and put it upon the 
rampart, it will place the defender of the rampart in a 
position to see the whole of the ground outside the camp 
sufficiently to prevent an enemy from concealing himself 
within range of his weapons ; and when we consider the 
curved trajectory which an arrow forms (and arrows were 
used by the defenders of this place, as I shall afterwards 
show), it is obvious that the assailants must have been 
exposed to fire from head to foot from the defenders of 
the rampart. I see no reason to doubt, but, on the con- 
trary, every reason to be sure, that the rampart was 
originally at least 5 feet higher than it is now j and from 
this we learn how well the principles of British castra- 
metation are carried out in this work — how carefully the 
defenders economised their interior space, drawing their 
rampart just far enough down the hill to obtain a com- 
mand of view, but not one yard farther than was neces- 
sary for that purpose. And I trust also this further 



172 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

point may appear to be demonstrated by what I have 
said, viz, the importance of taking accurate measure- 
ments of these entrenchments, for without a section it 
could not in this case have been shown by the mere view 
from the rampart how well this camp does actually fulfil 
the conditions of a British earthwork. The few hasty 
scratches with which it is too commonly the custom to 
delineate entrenchments of this nature utterly fail to 
bring out the points which are sometimes of primary im- 
portance in determining their antiquity and uses. 

We next turned our attention to the mound in the 
interior of the camp, the position of which, commanding 
the principal entrance to the camp, had led me to conjec- 
ture that if it were not a tumulus, it might possibly be 
connected in some way with the defence of the gate- 
way. The section. Fig. 1, shows the position of this 
mound, the centre of which was 64 feet behind the crest 
of the north face of the rampart, and about the same 
distance to the south-west of the opening in the rampart. 
The centre line, through which the section runs in a 
direction nearly north and south, was not taken through 
the highest part of the mound, but passed through a 
slight depression on the top of it, the ground rising 
slightly to the east and west, so as to give it the appear- 
ance of having been either a twin barrow, or of having 
been already opened in the centre. I determined, 
therefore, to cut a trench of suflSicient width to embrace 
both centres, should such be found. A trench 18 feet 
in width (Fig. 2) was accordingly commenced on the 
south side, digging down until the solid ground was 
attained at 2 feet beneath the surface. This was deter- 
mined by the hardness and different colour of the soil, 
as the tumulus here is not situated upon the chalk, but 
upon a patch of tertiary formation overlying the chalk in 
several places on the northern slope of the hill. About 
a foot and a half of mould with very few stones was 
found covering the barrow throughout the part ex- 
cavated; then mould interspersed with numerous flint 
stones, and, at a depth of 3 feet 6 inches beneath the 
top, the natural soil, consisting of hard clay of a lighter 
reddish colour without stones, as shown in the section 



EOMANO-BBITISH CEMETERT, SEAPOED, SUSSEX. 



173 



(Fig. 1). An examination of the edge of the cliff shows 
that this clay deposit extends to a depth of 10 to 15 feet 
in some places above the chalk. 

Digging on northwards towards the centre, we found 
a fragment of British pottery and a large flint scraper, 
3^ inches in length, 2 feet beneath the top at A, and 
another small fragment of the same pottery at the same 
depth, 3 feet to the north of the last. Digging down 
to the clay floor, two holes were found in it (B and 0, 
Figs. 1 and 2), one about 3 feet to the N.E. of the 
centre, and another 8 feet to the S.W. Both were a foot 
in diameter, and the same in depth. These holes, it ap- 
peared from their contents, had been formed for the 
purpose of depositing objects belonging to the deceased 
which might be of use to him in the future state. The 
contents of the first hole consisted, firstly, of a chipped 
celt 4^ inches in length and 2 in width, without any 
trace of grinding. This was found at 3 feet 2 inches 
beneath the top of the tumulus, just over the hole ; for 
although the hole had not been discovered at the- time it 
was found, the clay floor not having been reached at the 
time, yet when it is considered that the hole must have 
been dug from the surface of the ground, it is evident 
that the chipped celt must have been within the area of 
the hole, the lower portion of which only, viz., that part 
which penetrated the clay floor, was apparent to us. The 
fact of this having been an intentional deposit, and not 
an object dropped accidentally in the earth of the 
tumulus, was shown by its being surrounded by a patch 
of soft mould. The workmen had drawn my attention 
to this mould, and, having scraped it away with a trowel, 
I found the celt in the middle of the deposit. Scraping 
away the earth deeper down, the hole was discovered 
beneath (B, Figs. 1 and 2,), and the following objects 
then turned up in succession — viz., a few fragments 
of British pottery, some charcoal, and a quantity of 
flint flakes; a flint chipped to an edge all round, 
about 2^ inches in circumference, of the kind which at 
Cissbury were supposed to be throw-stones. This was 
at 3 feet 5 inches from the top ; five flint saws, finely 
serrated at the edge, and several more fragments of 



1 74 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

British pottery inucli decayed. Scraping deeper into the 
hole, a flint hammer-stone, 3 inches in diameter and 
much bruised by hammering, was found in the centre of 
it ; and at the bottom a polished flint celt, 5 inches long 
and 3 inches in width, which had been broken and re- 
chipped to form a new edge. One side of the celt only 
was ground, and the other side, as well as the edge, 
formed by chipping only, no attempt at grinding having 
been made in repairing the instrument for the ultimate 
purpose for which it was deposited in the grave. The 
celt in its original polished state had evidently been 
about twice its present size ; the edge had only been 
very imperfectly re-formed, and the side retouched by 
chipping. In the rubbish thrown up from near this spot 
another hammer-stone, about 3^ inches in diameter, was 
discovered by Mr. Harrison ; one side of this was much 
brtiised by hammering, and the remaining portion being 
in its natural state, showed that it was not formed out of 
a chalk flint, but consisted of a sea- worn pebble, as is so 
frequently found to be the case in this part of England, 
notwithstanding the great factory of chalk flints at 
Cissbury hard by. A fragment of another polished celt, 
consisting of 3 inches of the small end, was also turned 
up in the mould from near this spot. The colour of this 
fragment was white, and quite different from the others.* 
One foot to the north of this hole, upon the clay floor, 
3 feet 6 inches beneath the top surface, another large 
flake was found, struck from a polished celt, which, from 
its form and colour, was evidently a piece of the same 
celt that was found in the hole. This piece was 2 inches 
in length, and had clearly belonged to the lower and 
broader part of the celt. On it was seen the chipping of . 

another edge, and on the upper side of the piece the posi- I 

tion of the bulb of percussion, marked by a x in Fig. 2a, ' 

showed that it had been struck off after the piece from 
which it was flaked had already been detached from the 

* From long Gbseryation I am inclined to think that the degree of discoloration 
observable in flint depends not only on time and exposure, but also in a great 
measure, if not mainly, on the quality of the flint itself. At Cissbury we found 
that flints from the same formation varied in colour through their position and 
exposure. Here we find two flints deposited in the same spot and under similar 
conditions of exposure, yet varying greatly in the degree of discoloration. 



BOMANO-BBITISH OBMETBBY, SEAPOED, SUSSEX. 175 

original celt. By no possibility could this bulb of per- 
cussion have been formed by a blow delivered on the 
surface of the entire celt. The blow which caused it 
must have been delivered on a fractured surface, after 
the celt had already been split in half. So that we have 
here evidence of at least three or four distinct fractures 
having taken place at the time of the interment : firstly, 
the original polished celt was broken at the edge and re- 
chipped ; then the celt was subsequently broken in half 
near the middle, and finally, a large flake was knocked 
off one of the fractured portions, and the other piece had 
a new edge chipped upon it,. and all the pieces were then 
deposited together in the hole in the grave. 

For what purpose could this breaking up of an imple- 
ment over the grave of the deceased have been practised ? 
We are reminded of the superstitious rites of some tribes 
of North American Indians, who break or otherwise 
destroy all the weapons of the deceased warriors before 
placing them in the graves, under the supposition that it 
is the soul of the defunct weapon which accompanies 
that of the defunct warrior into the happy hunting 
grounds of the life to come. 

Another scraper and several fragments of pottery were 
found over the other hole (C), to the south-west of the 
centre ; and a scraper, with several flakes and pottery, 
further to the north-east, where a seam of burnt earth 
was followed for some distance, until it approached 
towards the edge of the tumulus on that side. 

Lastly, Mr. Harrison, in searching among the debris 
which had been thrown out of the tumulus, discovered a 
well-formed, barbed, flint arrow-head, 1^ inch in length, 
by 1 inch in width at the base. The barbs, of which one 
had been broken off, extended downwards to the line of 
the base of the tang. 

The foregoing are the contents of what has now been 
clearly shown to be a tumulus, and which, from the ab- 
sence of any object of metal, may, with great probability, 
be ascribed, if not to the neolithic age, at any rate to an 
age in which flint implements continued in use. The 
celts and the flint saws show, at least, that the ordinary 
tools of the period were of flint. A somewhat similar 



176 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE OAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

polished celt is figured in Horsfield's "History of Lewes," 
as haying been found in a barrow on Cliff e Hill; and the 
chipped celt is of such frequent occurrence in this part of 
England as to prove that, more frequently than other- 
wise, the grinding process was not resorted to in the 
manufacture of implements of this kind. The pottery 
discovered in the tumulus was all of the quality usually 
termed British, that is, of a soft, pasty texture, badly 
baked, red on one side and black on the other, and inter- 
spersed with large white grains, apparently of quartz. 

No trace of bones, burnt or otherwise, were discovered. 
No trace of a central grave beneath the clay floor was 
found, although the surface of it was picked over several 
times in search of one, and it is probable that the body 
of the deceased was deposited no lower than the clay 
floor, and that all vestige of it has disappeared. 

Whether the tumulus was the age of the camp, or not, 
it is of course impossible to determine with certainty ; 
but the probability is, I think, in favour of its being so. 
Nothing would be more natural than to bury a deceased 
chief in rear of his rampart, and close to the main en- 
trance ; whereas, if the camp had been constructed by a 
subsequent race of people, it is not unlikely that the tu- 
mulus might have been destroyed. I have reason to be- 
lieve that there are other tumuli in the vicinity, and, from 
the trace of flint chips observable on the surface, it ap- 
pears probable that the spot marked "Hawk's Brow" on 
the Ordnance 25-inch map would repay the trouble of ex- 
amining. 

We now determined to continue our inquiry into 
the age of the entrenchment, by examining the de- 
posits in the ditch. It may perhaps be remembered 
that in our investigations at Cissbury important evi- 
dence was brought to light, by observing the relative 
depths at which objects of different periods were 
discovered in the silting of the ditch of the entrench- 
ment ; that Romano-British pottery was found about 
half-way down in the silting, that is, about 2 feet from 
the surface, but not lower, and the only small fragment 
of pottery found at a lower depth was of British manu- 
facture. Oyster shells, that almost invariable acoom- 



BOMAKO-BBinSH OEMETEBT, SEAFOBD, SUSSBX. 177 

paniment of Roman remains, were found with the pottery 
of that age, but not lower. The ditch had silted up 
slowly, and the relics of the different periods were found 
at the various levels to which they had fallen, as the de- 
posits increased in thickness from time to time. 

We determined to make a similar examination of the 
ditch at Seaford, and for that purpose opened a trench 
20 feet in length by 17 in width upon the line shown 
in the section D (Fig. 5, the details of which are 
given in the section, Fig. 3), to the westward of the 
camp, about 30 yards from the edge of the olifE. 
The results may be briefly described as follows : 
The surface mould, which on the crest of the rampart 
was no thicker than 8 to 10 inches, increased gradually 
to 2 feet at the foot of the interior slope, where the 
washing from the hill behind, and the increased growth 
of grass, consequent on the moisture in the hollow, had 
caused it to increase more rapidly. In the ditch this de- 
posit of mould extended to a depth of 3 feet below the 
present surface, and it contained few stones, if any. In 
the upper portion of this mould, not lower than, one foot 
from the surface, one or two pieces of mediaaval pottery 
with gi'een glaze upon it was found, and a piece of an 
old-fashioned clay pipe, then Romano-British pottery 
began to appear, and the concave line which bounded 
the lower margin of the mould, at 3 feet beneath the 
top, was thickly strewed with Romano-British pottery 
throughout the 20 feet excavated. Below that, the de- 
posit consisted of chalk rubble, without any admixture 
of mould, as far as the original chalk bottom, which was 
7 feet beneath the surface, and in this chalk rubble not 
a fragment of pottery of any kind was found. One or 
two oysters were found in the mould, none below it. 
A few sea-shore pebbles, such as we found in the ditch 
at Cissbury, and which we supposed to have been used 
as sling-stones, were found in both deposits. These 
must have been imported, as they are not found in the 
tertiary deposits upon the hill. Quantities of limpets 
were found in the mould, but not lower, and they appear 
to have been used as food. A whelk-shell was found at 

XXXII. 2 A 



178 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

2 feet, with Helix hortensts and Helix nemoralis in con- 
siderable numbers. The ditch was three feet wide at 
the bottom, the escarp rose at an angle of 45°, and the 
counterscarp at a more abrupt angle near the bottom, 
but rounded ofE towards the top. 

With respect to the chalk rubble, no period can be as- 
signed for the accumulation of it. The 4 feet of it at 
the bottom of the ditch may have taken years to accumu- 
late, or may have been formed in a single day, but it is 
probable that as long as the place was in use as a for- 
tress the ditch would be kept open by throwing the rubble 
up again on to the rampart as it fell down. The absence 
of any relic in this rubble renders the evidence purely 
negative on this point. But it is evident that a time 
arrived when the accumulated rubble was allowed to re- 
main, and the grass began to grow upon it. At this 
time it was occupied by the Romans, or the Britons of 
the Roman era, and the shards of their broken pottery 
were thrown down upon the ditch. Since then the evi- 
dence is clear that the silting accumulated 3 feet up to 
the present time, and was formed partly, no doubt, by 
washing from the rampart, but chiefly by the increased 
growth of vegetation, which is still apparent in the moist 
hollow of the ditch. 

A cutting was also made through the rampart, but 
nothing was found except two flakes, the occurrence of 
which may have been accidental. A concave line of 
mould was seen in this section, which corresponds to 
some extent with the section of the rampart at Cissbury. 
The pottery in the ditch was of two kinds — black and 
brown — both, however, of better quality than that found 
in the tumulus, and of the same kind as that discovered 
in the cemeteiy at the foot of the hill to the north. 

The accurate account which Mr. F. G. H. Price and Mr. 
John E. Price give of their explorations in this cemetery 
renders it unnecessary that I should say much about it. 
I have, however, drawn a section of the part of the 
cemetery which was excavated by me during their ab- 
sence. In this section I have shown two large urns 
which, with some diflSculty, I was able to extract from 
the matrix without injury. One, a Roman vessel, wheel- 



1 




^1 



EOMANO-BBITISH OBMETBBT, SBAFOBD, SUSSBXr 179 

turned, about 9 in, in height, and elaborately ornamented 
with zigzag lines, was found 2 ft. 6 in. beneath the sur- 
face. The rim had been broken before interment, and 
re- mended by a piece of clay very rudely pressed on. 
The other, found at 3 ft. 6 in. from the surface, is of 
ruder workmanship, also wheel-turned, but made with 
less care than the former, and 1 foot high. Whilst ex- 
cavating this last we obtained very clear evidence that 
an older urn had been broken up in the process of de- 
positing it in the grave. A fragment of the rim of the 
older urn lay touching the side of the new urn, with the 
rim downwards. This piece was brought out attached 
to the new urn, and its position carefully examined be- 
fore detaching it from the position in which it lay. Both 
urns contained burnt bones, but the most careful search 
failed to detect anything else. Round about the urns, 
however, and at the same depth, numerous flint flakes 
and one scraper were discovered. The position of these 
in association with burials of the Roman or post-Roman 
age is worthy of attention, and confirms, in a most satis- 
factory manner, the similar discovery of flint flakes with 
Roman interments by Mr. Boyd Dawkins in the cemetery 
at Hardham, in Sussex. My own excavations in the pit 
at St. Peter's, near Broadstairs, and other places, also 
confirm me in the supposition that flint flakes, and per- 
haps scrapers also, may have continued to be employed, 
at least for funeral purposes, by the Britons as lately as 
the Roman age. Further excavation will be of interest, 
however, in determining whether this cemetery contains 
any relics of an age prior to the Roman to which the 
flint flakes may have belonged. The urns were covered 
with a stratum of clay, which, as there was no break in 
it, must have been artificially deposited over them.® 

I have only further to observe, in respect to the to- 
pography of the spot, that a line of embankment, v^ith a 

' It 18 worthy of note that Dr. Schliemann, in his desnription of the so-called 
tomb of Agamemnon discovered by him at Mycenee in November, 1876, and re- 
ported in the Times of the 22nd December, in that year, says that all the burnt 
bodies* with their gold ornaments and the obsidian flakes and bronze implements 
with which they were associated, were, for a reason anknovm to him, covered with 
a layer of clay 4 inches thick, and oyer that a layer of pebbles deposited snbse- 
quently to cremation. — ^A. L. F. 



180 ON EXOAVATIOKS IN THE OAHP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

ditcli on the west side, runs in a zigzag line northward from 
the Ham Bank, at the bottom of the hill, towards the di- 
rection of the camp on the hill, and in the ditch of this 
work nine Sarsen stones may be seen, which appear evi- 
dently to have been deposited here by hand in connection 
with this entrenchment. The position of the ditch of 
this work being towards the west, where an arm of the 
sea must formerly have rendered this inlet a secure har- 
bour for vessels of light draught, and the rectangular 
outline of the entrenchment, together with its position 
immediately to the south, and contiguous to what has 
evidently been the Eoman road, leads me to think that 
evidence of Roman occupation might probably result 
from the excavation of this work. The irruption of the 
sea a few months ago, consequent on the destruction of 
the shingle bank below Seaford, caused this ground to be 
flooded as far as the Ham Bank, completely destroying 
the house at Lion Place, and marking by its ravages the 
line of the valley which was formerly occupied by the sea. 

One point more remains to be touched upon, viz., the 
position of the ancient cultivated terrace which is shown 
in the 25-inch map, and in the section C D, PI. XV., 
Fig. 5, and which extends from the cliff inland for a 
distance of about a quarter of a mile on the slope to the 
westward of the camp. Similar terraces to these, 
formed by the cultivation of the hill-sides in very early 
times, are common throughout the South Downs, and 
are doubtless of great antiquity. It is worthy of remark 
that this strip of land is now held by the corporation of 
Seaford, by whom it was originally derived from 
the Church, and is known as the Church lands on the hill. 

The site of the burials, as at present excavated, is a 
plot of raised ground, locally known as the Little Bury, 
and which has long been pointed out by tradition 
as marking the position of a Eoman cemetery. It is 
so described upon the Ordnance map, and may be iden- 
tified as situate on Ham Bank, and defining, as it were, 
the boundary of an ancient trackway or road known as 
Green Street, which, starting from near the houses in 
Lion Place, may still be traced to the ancient property 
of Chyngton, or Chinting Manor, situate about a mile to 



BOMANO-BEITISH OBMETBRT, SBAFOED, SUSSEX. 181 

the east of Seaford. Almost facing the cemetery another 
path or roadway may be observed. This is at right- 
angles with Green Street, and runs in a direct line to 
Sutton Place or Manor/ the present residence of the 
Harison family. Crossing Green Street, this same path 
continues its course by the side of the cemetery, and is 
indicated by the dotted lines on the map as pursuing its 
course to one of the entrances of the great line of earth- 
works which exist on the summit of the hill. These 
earthworks are locally known as the Roman Camp.® They 
overlook the ancient channel of the River Ouse, and are 
situate but a short distance from the line of the Ermine 
Street, which, running from Pevensey and Chichester, 
continued its course through Surrey to the metropolis. 
Traditions connecting Seaford with the Roman occupa- 
tion of Britain long since led antiquaries to wild specu- 
lations as to its early history. An attempt was madia to 
identify it with the Castrum of Anderida, mentioned in 
the " Notitia " as being one of the nine fortresses which 
once served as a protection to the Littus Saxonicum, or 
Saxon shore. This view was ingeniously advocated by 
the late Mr. Charles Verrall, in a communication pul>- 
lished in Horsfield's " History of Sussex," Vol. I., p. 5; 
but of late years it has been universally admitted that 

7 Fonr manors formerly existed at Seaford, Wz., Seaford, Sutton Sandore, Sntton 
Fererell, and Chiuting, but they have ibecome extinct. That of Satton Sandore is 
of great antiquity. It is mentioned in the reign of King John as having belonged 
to William de Avrenches, who, when imprisoned as a rebel in the year 1216, had 
to purchase his release by the sale of this manor to the Abbey of Bobertsbridge. 
In the Nonce Betnrns for ** Sutton juxta Sefford, 1341," an inquisition was taken as 
to the value of the church. Some interesting indications of the site of this early 
building were pointed out to us by the Bey. Mr. Harison, in a field adjoining his 
residence. Chinting, now represented by a single house, was an ancient township 
within the jurisdiction of the port of Seaford. The manor belonged, in the reign 
of Henry III., to Gilbert de Aquila, Lord of Pevensey and founder of the Priory 
of Michelham. The house is now the residence of W. W. Turner, Esq. 

8 The " Camp " is said to enclose an area of nearly twelve acres. That at Castle 
Hill, Newhaven, is about half the size. Similar entrenchments can be traced at 
Birling €kkp. They enclose a high and also isolated portion of the cliff, the cir- 
cumference of which measures about three-quarters of a mile. These fortified 
positions were probably, as suggested by the Bev. Edward Turner, in writing on 
the military earthworks of the South Downs, constructed for the defence of the 
valleys of the tide-rivers, by the intervention of which the continuous line of the 
South Downs is occasionally broken. 

IH^OTB. ^In a map preserved in the British Museum relating to a survey of the 

Subsez Coast in the reign of Queen Elizabeth made by Sir Thomas Palmer and 
others, the site of the £>man Camp on Seaford Heights is described as " Burdyck 
Hill," and it shows two beacons thereon. It is also known as Castle Hill and 
Signal Station. 



182 ON EXOAYATIONS IN THE OAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

the wonderful remains still existing at Pevensey alone 
answer the requirements of the claim.® It has been also 
suggested that Seaford, if not Anderida, may be identical 
with the Mercredesburn of the Saxon Chronicle, where, 
in the year a.d. 485, a great battle is known to have taken 

{)lace between the South Saxons and the Britons. The 
ate Dr. Tabor, a physician of Lewes, argued for East- 
bourne as marking the site once defended by Ella, the 
Saxon chief ; but a very competent authority on such 
matters, viz., H. L. Long, Esq., in a letter addressed to 
the late Mr. M. A. Lower, contributed the following 
valuable suggestions, which we are induced to quote as 
being strongly in favour pf Seaford. " There is some- 
thing," writes Mr. Long, " in the name of Seaford which 
I have often considered likely to throw some light upon 
the movements of the Saxon forces on their first invasion 
of our island. After MWo, (a.d. 477) landed at Cymen- 
sora, which I am disposed to think was Shoreham, he 
continued fighting his way to the eastward until he had 
made himself master of the entire coast, by the capture 
and destruction of Andredesceaster, or Anderida, 
in the year a.d. 491 ; but in the interval, a.d. 485, 
a battle of some importance appears to have been fought 
with the Welsh {Beiges) at a place called Mercredesburn. 
This was a river, as the final syllable proves, as well as 
because the bank is mentioned.^® The only river of any 
size in the line of these military operations is your river 
at Lewes, which then disembogued at Seaford, and which 
is, of course, strategically, the exact place to expect to 
meet with such a conflict. Now, is not Seaford the 
Saxon translation of the British Mearcraedj as it is spelt 
in the Saxon Chronicle, but which, perhaps more correctly, 
would be Mer or Mor — Celtic for * sea ' — and Bhy or 

9 In reviewing this subject, in his ** Report on Excavations at Pevensey,*' 1858, 
Mr. Boach Smith proves that Anderida mnst be sought for between Ljmne and 
the river Adnr. In such a situation stands the Castmm at Pevensej, and there 
is no other camp or fortified place that could be substituted in place of it either 
in this limited track or thronghout the whole line of what was called the Saxon 
Shore. ** It must be understood," writes Mr. Smith, " that earthworks are quite 
out of the question. All the stations mentioned in the * Notitia' are, or have been, 
castra built with strong stone walls." 

10 The passage in the Saxon Chronicle reads:— "An. Cccclxzxv. This year 
^lla fought against the Welsh, near the band of Mercreadesburn." 



EOMANO-BRITTSH OEMBTEBY, SEAFOED, SUSSEX. 183 

Bkydy a * ford ? * There appears to be a superfluous c 
between the two words, and it requires a Welsh or 
Armoric scholar to decide whether its introduction is not 
necessary." That usually far-seeing antiquary, Gough, 
does not appear to have been in any way familiar with 
Seaford, for in his edition of ** Camden " he does not 
refer to its antiquities ; and, had he been acquainted with 
its numerous illustrations of Roman occupation, it is 
more than probable that, while not accepting Pevensey, 
he would have given the preference to Seaford rather 
than to Newenden, in Kent, when speculating on the site 
of the long-lost Anderida.^^ 

There is also documentary evidence of the existence of 
Seaford of a very early character. It is mentioned in 
the eighth century, among other places granted to the 
Abbey of St. Denis, near Paris. In the eleventh cen- 
tury it became the lordship of William de Warrenne, and 
in the year 1229 we hear of it as a "member," or 
" limb," of Hastings, one of the Cinque Ports. Edward 
the Confessor is said to have been the first monarch 
who bestowed the immunities and privileges enjoyed 
by the five ports, representatives, doubtless, of the 
ancient stations to which we have reference as being 
under the command of the Count of the Saxon shore. 

The first recorded discovery of Romano-British remains 
appears to have been that to which I have referred, viz. 
in the year 1825, when, quite accidentally, a large number 
of sepulchral urns were exhumed. Trenches were being 
cut for the purpose of disturbing the rabbits, who were 
gradually undermining the ground, and in the course of 
these operations the urns were discovered. The late Mr. 
William Harison, of Folkington, had no less than twenty 
of these vessels. A selection from them was engraved 
some years since, in one of the volumes of the Sussex 
ArchaBological Collections, and I am indebted to the 
Council of this Society for the loan of the woodcuts for 
the purpose of comparison with the objects recently 
found. Since that time several coins have been dis- 

" See "Memorialfl of Seaford," by the late Jilr. M. A. Lover. S. A. 0., 
VoLVIL 



164 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE OAUP, THE TUlfULUS, AND 

covered. They illustrate the reigns of Hadrian and 
Antoninus Pius, and as recently as the year 1354 a fine 
gold medal of Antonia, daughter of MJark Antony, was 
found, not in the cemetery, but in the shingle, below 
high-water mark. This, I believe, is now in the posses- 
sion of my friend, J. Mazfield Smith, Esq., of Lewes. 



In the ■ year 1 856 a Roman um was discovered at 
Cuckmere, in a heap of mould 
which had been dislodged from 
its position by a fall of a portion 
of the chalk cliff on the western 
side of the river. Traces also of 
this period were seen at the pond 
above -what was the head of the 
BBstuary, in the direction of 
Sutton. This was the site of a 
Eoman saltpan ; and quite re- 
cently it was stated by the late ' 
Mr. "W". H. Black, F.S.A., that 
in his survey of Eoman Britain __ 

he had been successful in trac- 
ing the stadia along the coast from Newhaven to this 



ft. 




it 




1 

I 



BOMANO-BBITISH CEMETERY, SBAFOBD, SUSSEX. 185 

town. With sucli evidence of Roman occupation, the 
existence of a cemetery is not surprising. The spot was 
doubtless selected from its position with regard to Green 
Street, its close proximity to the camp, and the soft 
nature of the ground, its situation being upon the top of 
a natural mound of light sand, forming part of an outlier 
of the lower tertiaries. At the southern extremity of 
the mound the sand is quarried for building material. 
Reposing upon these sands is about 3 feet of made earth, 
and the greater part of the whole area is now overgrown 
with furze bushes. 

The excavation of this site was commenced on the 
5th June, 1868. The jfirst trench cut was from east to 
west, it being a likely spot, as suggested by the Rev. 
John Harison, who informed us that it was near the 
site where the five urns were discovered in the year 1825. 
Three men were employed at this place for the greater 
part of a day (this section is marked No. 1 on the plan) 
without any success at all, although we cut down to the 
virgin soil. We next made a cutting, about 6 feet 
deep, at the spot marked 2, but there likewise without 
any favourable result. 

Our attention was next turned to the eastward portion 
of the cemetery (section 3), where we cut a trench 
about 5 feet deep, through about 3 feet of disturbed soil, 
which is filled with flints, stones, bits of pottery, flint 
flakes, &c. We soon became aware that we were on 
likely ground by the presence of small black patches in 
the sand, and which we found was caused by charcoal 
and ashes. A large piece of a broken urn was shortly 
discovered, with portions of another. Simultaneously 
with the opening of No. 3 trench, we commenced a trial 
cutting north and south at No. 4, particulars of which 
will be given further on. In section 3 a perfect urn 
of red ware was met with at a depth of 3 feet 6 
inches below the surface. Upon cleaning it, it fell to 
pieces, but was subsequently mended. It measures 32J 
inches round the widest part, 15 inches round the base, 
and is 11 inches high. This urn contained a secondary 
interment, and bears marks of being turned upon a lathe. 

xxxii. 2 B 



186 ON EZOAYATIONS IN THE OAlfP, THE TITHULUS, AND 

There is no ornamentation . A second um was discovered 
close to the first, and is the most ornamented one that we 
have yet met with. It is of dull red ware, rudely em- 
bellished with tooled markings, contained within deep 
concentric lines, and partly by bands caused by its being 
turned upon a lathe. It is 9^ inches high, 30 inches in 
circumference at the shoulder, and 14 inches round the 
base. It contained fragments of bones. 

A third um from tne same section we were not so 
fortunate in getting out entire, it being in a very frag- 
mentary condition, and consisting of pottery of a light 
red colour. It is ornamented with two irregular lines 
round the shoulder, worked with a tool into the form of 
half -hoops, resting upon concentric furrows. It is 8J 
inches high, 26f inches round the widest part at tbe 
shoulders, and 13^ inches at the base. It contained the 
usual amount of bones. 

A fourth um was still more fragmentary. It is of a 
brownish red ware, with deeply tooled furrows round the 
shoulder, in which part the pottery is much thicker than 
in the others. It bears marks of having roughly tooled 
ornamentation above the shoulders. Fragments of bones, 
&c., were found with it. 

On the 11th September tbe excavations were resumed 
with three labourers. A trench was cut from north to 
south to a depth of about 5 to 6 feet ; the upper surface 
of the ground was made earth. At the depth of 3 feet 
from the surface we found flint scrapers, flakes, and frag- 
ments of early pottery, which is of a very coarse de- 
scription of native work. At this depth a black seam 
occurred, which we cut into, and traced it out for about 
4 feet horizontally. It contained a large number of 
rough flints, pebbles, some of considerable size, frag- 
ments of pottery, bits of charcoal, &c. They all bore 
evidence of having been submitted to great heat ; much 
of the clay was red, and had the appearance of rotten 
roof tiles. As no bone ashes were distinguishable at this 
spot, we came to the conclusion that this was the place 
where the funeral pyre was erected. Among the flints 
we noticed two round flint balls. These may possibly 



EOM^O-BBITISH OBMBTEEY, SEAFOBD, SUSSEX. 187 

have been used as sling-stones. There were no indica- 
tions of bones, and this would be accounted for, pre- 
suming the spot to mark the site of a ustrinum. It was 
sometimes the practice of the Eomans to wrap the corpse 
in a sheet of incombustible material, so that, being un- 
consumed, the bones of the deceased would be all pre- 
served, and at the same time be prevented from mixing 
with the coals and ashes of the pyre.^^ Upon finding this 
blackness of the ground gradually assume its normal ap- 
pearance, we turned our attention to further opening out 
that portion of the cemetery where the urns were met 
with in June last. Having set one man to make a trench 
at No. 5, about 6 feet deep from east to west, two other 
men were employed to cut back the ground to meet him 
at No. 6. For matters of convenience we have numbered 
these sections. In No. 5, at a depth of 4 feet from the 
surface, many black patches of small extent were found 
in the sand. They were aU at the same level. These 
were evidently the ashes collected after cremation, as in 
some of them fragments of bones were observable. 
These may have been enclosed either in urns or in cloths 
which have perished, or by wooden coverings that 
have met with a similar fate. In one of these patches a 
bronze nail was found, and in others a flint flake. 

What did these interments point to ? Were they the 
remains of people whose relations were unable to find 
an urn in which the remains would be preserved ? or 
were the relics those only of slaves who had been sacri- 
ficed upon the funeral pyre of some great chief or person 
of authority, and whose remains were placed in an urn 
in close proximity, as a few feet further in towards No. 
3 urns more or less perfect were found ? The latter was 
a common practice, as is recorded by Mr. Llewellyn 
Jewitt in his " Grave Mounds and their Contents." On 
page 35 the following remarks will be met with : — " In 
instances where the ashes of the dead have been collected 
from the funeral pyre and laid in a skin or cloth before 
interment, the bone or bronze pins with which the 
* bundle * was fastened still remain, although, of course, 

1' See '* Inyeutoriam Sepnlchrale/* Fausett, p. 196. 



188 ON BX0AVATI0N8 IN THE OAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

the cloth itself has long since perished. In other in- 
stances small stones have been placed around, and upon 
the heap of buried bones before raising the mound over 
the remains. It is frequently found in barrows, where 
the interment has been by cremation, that there will be 
one or more deposits in cinerary urns, while in different 
parts of the mound, sometimes close by the urn, there 
will be small heaps of burnt bones without any urn. The 
probable solution of this is, that the simple heaps of bones 
were those of people who had been sacrificed at the death 
of the head of the family, and burnt around him." 

The bronze nail now found may therefore have been 
used in place of a pin to fasten together the ashes of the 
deceased in a sort of cloth or napkin. In the absence, 
however, of further illustrations, which we may get in 
future discoveries, this application of the nail is far from cer- 
tain. Nails were sometimes employed to fasten together 
boxes or coffers, to contain either personal ornaments for 
interment, or even for the charred remains of the indi- 
vidual. Bronze nails are less common than those of iron. 
Representatives of no less than five varieties are given 
by Mr. Eoach Smith, as occurring among the remains at 
Richborough.^* They are at times richly ornamented, and 
were probably used for decorative work. The bronze 
pins usually found in such interments as the present are 
generally without heads. Dr. Thurnam mentions such 
objects as having been observed by Sir Rich. Colt Hoare 
in no less than thirty instances, and, with the exception 
of five, all were from interments by cremation, and with 
which they were often the only objects. It was assumed 
by Sir Richard that they were for securing the bundle in 
which the remains were enveloped; but careful com- 
parison, says Dr. Thumam, leads to the conclusion that 
they were implements carried about by their owners 
which, from their small size, were peculiarly liable to be 
committed with the body to the grave or pyre, as the case 
might be.^* 

In cutting ** 6," near to the left-hand corner, between 
3 and 4 feet deep, we met with a large urn of thick, 

" See ** Riohborough, Beoulver, and Lyme," by C. B. Smith. 
'* <* ArchfiBologia/' Vol. XLIII., p. 465. 



EOMANO-BBITISH CEMETEET, SBAFOBD, SUSSEX. 189 

dark brown pottery. It was much cracked, and the 
shoulders were broken in by the pressure of the earth 
above. We were successful in getting it out well, but 
immediately we began to take out the contents, which 
were much caked in, the sides gave way in the line of 
the old cracks. This urn had been rudely repaired before 
being placed in the ground. It measured 15 inches 
round the base, and about 25 inches round the middle, 
and was perfectly plain, having no ornamentation. 

Besides the fragments of bones that were in the urn, 
there were three nails with large heads, and a fragment 
of metal, which might have been a coin, or a portion of 
a fibula,^® or some other ornament, and a flint flake. 

Within a few feet of the same spot another urn was 
found, a small one of red ware, thin, having a row of 
small, vertical, black painted lines upon it, probably 
round the shoulder. The urn was so rotten that it was 
all in fragments when discovered, but the whole contents 
were carefully picked out on the spot. In addition to 
the usual bones, it contained a bronze fibula, shaped 
like a bird's tail, attached to a round disc, which probably 
was intended to represent the body ; the pin was want- 
ing. This specimen affords a good instance of what the 
Saxons afterwards copied and elaborated.^® Two small 
flakes were among the ashes, and a piece of jet. 

Another urn, so much crushed that it wae impossible 
to do more than pick out the pieces, was found within a 
foot of the latter. It was of black pottery, thin, having 
two cojicentric lines or furrows round the widest part, 
with diagonal markings between. In addition to the 
ashes' and pieces of charcoal, it contained a pin of a 
fibula, a nail, a small lump of fused metal, probably the 
fibula or coins, and one small flint flake. 

Several other spots were met with at the No. 3 end of 
cuttings 5 and 6, where the sand was perfectly black 

" The fibnl89 were foand loose in the earth at the time of the diggings, and 
there was no evidenoe to show that thej had been in any nm. 

i< Thej strongly resemble certain bronze fibulas found some years ago in the 
Crimea. In some excavations at Kertch, Dr. Macpherson found several such 
objects, accompanied by human remains. There are many of them in the British 
Museum, and described and illustrated by Mr. Boaoh Smith in the fifth volume of 
his *' Collectanea Antiqua." 



190 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

from the ashes, but only a fragment of pottery was now 
and then met with in these patches, with a few small 
fragments of bone. In one of these black patches, a 
nail, a flint flake, and a corroded piece of bronze, were 
met with, which might have been the remains of a fibula ; 
also fragments of what appeared to be burnt slates were 
occasionally seen. 

The iron nails referred to are but of small size, 
but at times such objects have been found of con- 
siderable length. They have been thus observed in 
London, Colchester, York, and other places. In Mr. 
Roach Smith's " Collectanea Antiqua " (Vol. III.), he 
devotes an interesting chapter to the illustration of the 
subject. He refers also to such nails as have now been 
found, as having appeared among the remains of bodies, 
which have either been burnt and deposited loose in the 
graves, or enclosed in urns of clay or glass. He quotes 
an example from a walled Roman cemetery discovered 
by the late Mr. 0. Taylor Smythe, in Lockham Wood, 
near Maidstone, and excavated under the direction of 
that gentleman and Mr. Charles, of Chillington House. 
There was discovered a large number of vases, in one of 
which, of about the capacity of a gallon, was an iron nail 
in the midst of calcined human bones ; it was perfectly 
free from rust, 2 inches long, and precisely similar to 
those of the present day, Mr. Thos. Wright also found 
many long nails in a large barrow near Snodland. 

The presence of flint flakes or implements in the urns 
is a feature of considerable interest. Apart from in- 
stances of actual burial in the urns, they have appeared 
in large numbers among the charred remains, and were 
scattered about here and there, associated with broken 
pottery. Such conditions have been noticed by barrow- 
diggers in other parts of England. Dr. Thumam men- 
tions, among his Wiltshire researches, the presence of 
flint flakes and potsherds in considerable numbers, and 
usually in close proximity to the interments. They are 
traces, he writes, of a pagan custom, which is illustrated 
by the well-known line in Samlet^ of 

" Shards, flints, and pebbles/' 



BOMANO-BBITISH OEMETEBT, SEAFOBD, SUSSEX. 191 

Various explanations of this practice of burying flint 
implements with cinerary urns have been ^ven. Some 
attribute a symbolical meaning to both the potsherds and 
the flints ; others suppose the sharp flints to be the 
knives with which the survivors lacerated themselves in 
signs of grief. On the whole, perhaps it is probable that 
the object in view was to lay the ghosts of the dead, and 
restrain them from walking the earth, it being asserted 
that flints, and other stones from which fire might be 
extracted, were efficacious in confining the manes to their 
proper habitations.^'' 

At Alfriston, a village at no very great distance from 
Seaford, there existed a large barrow no less than 65 
yards long. It is referred to by Gough, who also 
describes certain smaller tumuli and their contents — ^in 
one case an urn of unbaked clay, rudely ornamented, and 
containing bones and ashes. This was placed beneath a 
pyramid of flints. 

On the 26th May, 1879, excavations were commenced 
between Nos. 6 and 5, working westwards towards No. 4, 
on one section, this fresh trench is numbered No. 8. 
This trench was cut to a depth of about 6 feet ; in some 
places where the hard, sandy rock was met with at a less 
depth we did not pierce below it ; thus in many parts we 
did not exceed a depth of 5 feet. At from 4 feet to 4 
feet 6 inches several black patches were observed in 
which fragments of burnt pottery, flints, pieces of charred 
bones, and bits of charcoal were found ; most of these 
patches contained one or more iron nails. Some of these 
black deposits were placed upon a quantity of stones and 
flints, all bearing marks of fire. As previously suggested, 
these black spots in the sand probably mark the place 
where interments have been made. After the body was 
burnt on the funeral pyre, the ashes were collected and 
placed in a cloth or in a napkin, and fastened together 
with the iron nails; these were doubtless instances 
of where the people cremated were of a poor class, 

17 Compare Donoe's <' Ulastrations of Shakspere," 1807, II., 224 ; " Aroh. 
Journal," XXII., p. 117 j "Arohasologia" (RoUeston), XLII., p. 428; "Aroh»ologia" 
(Thomam), Vol. XLIIL, p. 422. 



192 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE OAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

probably soldiers or slaves whose friends were not in a 
position to afford the expense or luxury of a funeral urn. 

The custom of entombing such vessels with the remains 
of the deceased was practised by other nations besides 
the Eomans ; for example, with certain Indian tribes, the 
Moldavians, Oaubees, etc., and modern history tells us of 
the custom among the Chinese and Peruvians.^® 

It often happened that in out-of-the-way settlements, 
that is to say, stations far removed from a city or town, 
that the Romans made use of domestic pottery for funeral 
use. Among sepulchral vessels found in a ustrinum at 
Littington, near Royston,^® was a small bottle of green 
glass ; it had contained the ashes of a child, but a frag- 
ment of bone had evidently been too large for the bottle, 
so a portion had been chipped off to allow of its insertion ; 
the broken piece had been afterwards replaced to close 
the aperture. If the vessel had originally been intended 
for the purpose, one sufficiently large would have been 
selected. At Colchester, in 1844, an amphora was dis- 
covered broken at the neck and handles. It contained a 
lachrymatory and lamp, a cinerary urn, and a coin of 
Faustina, with other objects, and the upper portion 
had been clearly reinstated by the depositors after the 
contents had been incased ; at times they were purposely 
broken for such use. Occasionally broken urns, perhaps 
second-hand ones, and mended urns, were used, as was 
proved at this very cemetery the last time we had the 
pleasure of describing the results of our digging. 

In this same trench a neolithic celt was found, 
fragments of pottery, red tiles, and bits of brick. A 
little further on, at a depth of 4 feet from the sur- 
face, a large patch of blackened earth, mixed with 
charcoal, flint flakes, and upwards of 90 iron nails and 
studs, mixed with fragments of charred bones, was met 
with. This is quite an exceptional case meeting with 
such a large quantity of nails in one interment ; it is a 
common occurrence to meet with two or three together, 

i» Vide Nicolo de Goti on the *' Habits of the Indian Tribes/' Belleforest's 
** Cosmography," Vol. II., Book III., oh. 29. 
»» " ArchsDologia," Vol. XXVI., p. 371. 



BOMANO-BBITISH OEMETEBT, SEAFOBD, SUSSEX* 193 

but in this find some were large and others quite 
small, apparently suggesting that the remains of the 
ashes after the burning were gathered together and 
deposited in a small wooden chest or box, ornamented 
with the small nails, the wood of which has long since 
decayed; no personal ornament or coins were found 
with it. 

Continuing this trench towards the old cutting, No. 4, 
we came upon the same black seam of earth, clay, flints, 
stones, and pottery mentioned in a former paper (see 
"Journal Anthropological Institute," Vol. VI., p. 306); 
this same seam was likewise met with upon the same 
horizon, i.e., at a depth of 4ft. Gin. from the surface, 
at the cutting marked No. 9 on the plan. This circum- 
stance proves that the place occupied by the funeral 
pyre was of considerable extent, and was probably the 
bustum or ustrinum of the settlement. Another round 
flint ball was found here. 

In this same cutting on the third day we continued 
excavating, and soon came upon some lumps of chalk 
rubble in the sand. As this was an unusual circum- 
stance, great care was observed in removing the earth ; 
in the midst of these pieces of chalk, a brownish black 
vase, 5^ inches high, of a superior texture of Upchurch 
pottery, was met with. It was ornamented with oblique 
markings, enclosed within incised concentric lines, and 
1^ inches from the rim is a raised band encircling the 
vase above the shoulders. Next to it, on the left, was a 
black patera, 7 inches in diameter, which was unfor- 
tunately very much broken, but sufficient was recovered 
to put together and show its size and shape. The patera, 
it will be seen, is of a coarser texture than the vase, 
which is really fine and of elegant shape ; with the excep- 
tion of the two flint flakes, nothing else was found near 
it. These vessels must have been placed in the position 
in which they were discovered as an accompaniment to 
an urn, which we failed to find ; but the ground imme- 
diately to the north of this was part of the trench cut in 
1825 by Mr. Harison, and the remainder of the interment 
was probably discovered at that time. 

XXXII. 2 



194 ON EXOAYATIOKS IN THB OAMP, THB TUMXTIiUS, AND 

Having now completed the section 6 to 4, it was filled 
in, and two men were detached to sink trial shafts at the 
spots marked 10 and 11 ; but nothing, with the exception 
of flint flakes and fragments of pottery, were met with, 
and these were in the top layer of earth. 

Another section was cut on the little mound to the 
south of the Little Bury, but nothing was discovered. 

On the 29th May, four men were occupied in cutting a 
trench 12 feet long and 5 feet deep by about 6 feet 
broad, north and south, at the place marked 12 on the 
plan ; as in 1825, a large number of urns and coins were 
met with in the old cutting, which was alongside of it— 
and which we hoped might be found as fruitful ; nothing 
was, however, met with, with the exception of one black 
patch, containing bone ashes, bits of charcoal, nails, and 
fragments of pottery ; in the soil thrown out flint flakes 
and bits of pottery were numerous. 

We likewise opened a supposed tumulus upon that 
portion of the Downs known as the Gore,^ just above 
Green Street, and to the east of the old cottage, and 
made some trenches near it j but, with the exception of 
fragments of Eoman pottery and flint flakes, we found 
nothing. 

What is the origin of the term " Gore " for this por- 
tion of the Downs ? Was it a triangular holding, and 
the name conferred upon it in Saxon times, or was it the 
site of a battle, and so named from the fact of much blood 
having been spilled there ? Halliwell gives the meaning 
of it as the lowest part in a tract of country, or a small, 
narrow, slip of ground. 

Quite late in the afternoon of the 29th May, whilst the 
men were engaged filling in the old trenches, we cast about 
for another suitable place to make an excavation, finding 
some raised ground a little north of that part of the 
Downs marked " The Burrows " on the map, which is 
situated 194 feet due west of the pond, and 114 feet 
south of the sand-hole. Observing a rabbit-hole in this 
raised ground, in the mouth of which a few fragments of 
pottery had been scratched out by rabbits, induced us to 

>o So described on a map of the Sutton estate, by Thomas Marohant, 1772, 
meaBurmg 20 acres 3 roods 6 perches, and belonging to Laoncelot Hacison, Ssq. 



BOMANO-BBITISH OEMETEBT, SEAFOBD, SUSSEX. 195 

dig out a few spadesful of earth ; by so doing, we were 
agreeably surprised by discovering an um of black 
pottery, through one side and bottom of which the 
rabbits had actually forced their way ; this contained 
fragments of charred human bones. It consisted of 
black pottery, and was 9 inches high j owing to its con- 
dition, we were precluded from taking any other measure- 
ments. Just below the rim was a narrow band of orna- 
mentation, consisting of oblique incised lines unevenly 
cut, apparently done with a blunt instrument j in parts 
other incised lines cut the fornjer, forming a sort of cross 
pattern. Between the shoulder and the base was a large 
incised trellis pattern. Close beside it was another of 
reddish brown ware, but too much broken to be of any 
use. The next day (30th May) jB.ve men were put upon 
this digging — the turf was removed, and we commenced 
making a long trench at a depth of 2 feet 4 inches ; about 
the centre of the elevation a fine urn was found (Fig. 7). 
It is composed of reddish brown pottery — 7 inches high 
by 29^ inches in the widest part, and 17 inches round 
the base. It was full of human bones, fragments of 
charcoal, and a flint flake. This urn is ornamented 
round the widest part with an incised trellis pattern, and 
upon the bottom is an incised cross. It is quite perfect. 
A little to the right of this, at only 1 foot from the 
surface, a small urn of black pottery was discovered, 
which fell to pieces on getting it out. This we repaired. 
It is 4J inches high by 22 inches in circumference in its 
widest part — 12 inches round the base. Beneath the 
rim are two deep concentric lines, between which it is 
ornamented by three lines slanting obliquely to the left, 
resting at the apex of the third line against three other 
lines slanting in a like manner towards the right. This 
urn contained a small quantity of fragments of charred 
bones very much decayed. 

Immediately behind this last-described urn, in a 
position due north and south, at a depth of 2^ feet from 
the surface, we found a portion of the rim of a Samian 
ware vessel ; the spades were now laid aside, and with a 
strong knife the earth was cut away in the place where 
this fragment was met with, and revealed a fine Samian 



196 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMTJLTJS, AND 

cup, measuring 5^ inohes in diameter, 2^ inches high, 
Tvith a rosette at the bottom. On developing the form 
before attempting to remove it from the ground, we 
found directly below it a rim of an urn projecting from the 
side of the trench ; following this down with the aid of 
the knife, we discovered that this Samian vessel formed 
a sort of lid to a large brownish red earthenware urn 
(Fig. 4). 

This um measures 12 inches high, 34 inches round the 
widest part, and 19 inches round the base; it is 
ornamented on the shoulder with a band 2 inches in 
width, between two deep incised lines, in which are 
cross markings representing trellis work; before this 
band is another, 1^ inches deep, just below the brim, 
ornamented with occasional lines. 

Before we could remove it from the earth the ground 
all around it had to be carefully cut away. On making 
room on the left-hand side close beside this um, a small 
drinking cup 4 inches high, of the pottery known as 
Durobrivian ware, was taken out quite perfect (Fig. 1) ; it 
is of a brown metallic glaze with eight indented or pinched- 
in compartments ; it is otherwise embellished with two 
concentric lines with stamped markings passing through 
the compartments. These stamped markings are such 
as would now be produced by pressing the milled edge of a 
half-crown round an earthenware vessel before it was fired. 

In making similar preparations far removing the 
earth on the right-hand side of the urn, a small 
globular-formed bottle (Fig. 3), without handle, of 
a coarse brown, thick pottery, which pottery is full of 
pieces of flint grains, was found quite close to the side 
of the urn ; directly behind it was a black patera (Fig. 2) 
6^ inches in diameter of Upchurch ware. Upon the 
removal of these small vessels, we were able to take out 
the urn, which was intact with the exception of a portion 
of the rim; it contained a large quantity of charred 
human bones and flint flakes. Owing to the Samian 
cup resting upon the top of it, no earth had fallen into 
it. This was evidently the interment of a person of 
some rank or importance, judging from the superiority 



BOMANO-BRITISH OBMETEBT, SBAFOED, SUSSEX. 197 

of the vessels found with it. The Samian cap has the 
initials " V. B.*' scratched upon the side. 

As this was an interesting' find, particularly so as all 
the pieces are perfect, we have given an illustration of 
the manner in which they were all placed in the grave. 

On the 31st May, with five men we continued the 
excavation in a direction due north and south ; it was a 
remarkable circumstance that in this particular spot all 
the urns were found lying in that position. 

At a depth of 1 foot 6 inches from the surface the 
fragments of an urn of Very fine yellowish red pottery 
were discovered ; there was not sufficient of it collected 
to repair, but the base of it measured 3^ inches in 
diameter. At the same level and in close proximity, 
the base of a coarse brownish urn was met with; this, 
too, had been too much crushed to do anything with ; it 
measured 16 inches round the base, and had a double 
cross or star incised upon the bottom of it. In close 
contact to this was another. No. 8, of reddish brown 
pottery, bearing marks of having been turned on the 
lathe; like the two former, the base only can be put 
together ; it was a low, open-mouthed vessel, measuring 
13 inches round the base, and does not bear any marks 
or ornamentation. 

At a depth of I foot 2 inches we came upon a red cup 
of Samian ware with a turn-over rim ; it bears indications 
of having been covered over with red glaze, portions of 
which still remain underneath (Figs. 8 and 9). This patera 
is not as fine as most Samian pieces, which makes us 
think it was of provincial manufacture, particularly as it 
is very unusual for Samian pottery to lose its lustrous 
glaze. Such ware has, however, been found before in 
Sussex, and sometimes of a superior character. Among 
sepulchral remains discovered at Densworth, in the 
parish of Funtington, and with examples of glass, were 
paterae of Samian pottery. Among the coins then found 
were some which gave a clue to the age of the deposits ; 
for instance, a brass of Hadrian, legible but in bad con- 
dition. The presence of such Samian vessels would, 
apart from numismatic evidence, at once connect these 



198 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE CAMP, THE TUMULUS, AND 

burials with the Roman period. This ware was in uni- 
versal use, and though the finer descriptions were doubt- 
less imported from manufactories on the Continent, there 
is much to favour the opinion that it was also fabricated 
in Britain. Of late years a mould for the production of 
one of the large embossed bowls has been found at York, 
bearing a strong resemblance ta similar objects dis- 
covered in the neighbourhood of the Rhine ; the deposits 
of such ware in the locality known as the Pan Rock, off 
the coast near Whitstable and Heme Bay, are also 
indications that potteries once existed there for the 
manufacture of this lustrous ware, akin to those so well 
known in connection with the black pottery at TJpchurch 
Marshes. The inside measure is 5^ inches in diameter ; 
in the widest part of the rim it measures 7-^ inches in 
diameter, and is 3 inches high. The outside beneath 
the turn-over rim tapers down to the foot, which is 2 
inches in diameter. 

Within a few feet of the latter we discovered a red 
patera of Samian ware, bearing a lustrous glaze ; it was 
unfortunately broken before removing it from the earth, 
but we have roughly mended it. It is 7^ inches in dia- 
meter and 2J inches high ; beneath it was a first brass 
of Faustina the younger, daughter of Pius, and wife of 
Marcus Aurelius. It was highly satisfactory finding this 
coin, as by so doing we have an approximate date for 
the interment, and can positively assert that it was not 
earlier than quite late in the second century, as Faustina 
flourished between 161 and 180 a.d. 

Immediately above these two Samian vessels was an 
urn of thin reddish brown pottery, which was unfor- 
tunately crushed in the ground, probably owing to its 
being so near the surface. 

Much of it was decomposed from the effects of the 
moisture. At two inches from the rim it was ornamented 
with a concentric furrow, beneath which are short vertical 
cuts, a quarter of an inch in length, made with a blunt 
tool ; 1^ inches below was another furrow and a 
similar line of markings. This urn had contained bones, 
as several fragments of charred bones were met with 



BOMANO-BBITISH OEIIETEBT, SEAFOBD, SUSSEX. 199 

mixed up with it, likewise a large flat flint flake, and an 
iron nail. 

We continued digging about this place for about a 
whole day, but as no further indications of an interment 
were visible, and supposing that we had worked out this 
spot, we caused the whole to be filled in. 

On the 2nd June we recommenced operations in the 
Little Bury, aTb the place marked No. 13 on the plan. 
We dug a trench east and west, and discovered several 
black patches in the sand similar to those found in 
trenches Nos. 6 and 8, containing burnt bones, burnt 
flints, potsherds, flint flakes, and a neolithic celt. 

Of the pottery but little need be said. It is rough in 
character, is probably of native, and perhaps of local 
manufacture. It resembles in every respect the earthen- 
ware that is usually met with in interments of this de- 
scription. The vessels are for the most part such as would 
be. in ordinary domestic use, and in the great variety 
that has been met with, we have an indication that 
the cemetery — the first almost of its kind that has been 
found in Sussex — may prove to be of far greater extent 
and interest than has been hitherto supposed, but much 
more remains to be done. In the work accomplished, 
both as regards the camp and the cemetery outside its 
ramparts, we have information sufficient for the present 
purpose. On the range of downs between the valleys of 
the Ouse and Cuckmere, there are many barrows, which 
have been partially examined from time to time. In 
these, instances of cremation and inhumation occur side 
by side, and the pottery discovered partakes of that 
mixed character known as British, Romano-British, or 
Roman pottery ; of indications of any earlier occupation 
than that illustrated by the rough, air-dried earthenware, 
technically known as British pottery, no records exist. 
Anything that can be conclusively styled " prehistoric " 
may be said to be conspicuous by its absence ; the people 
whose remains are from time to time disinterred upon the 
Sussex Downs are mostly those of an age little antece- 
dent to the Roman occupation. Indeed, the association 
that is continually met with in all such researches as the 



200 ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE OAMP, ETC., AT SBAFOBD. 

present points to a common resting place both for the 
native and colonising^ race ; together they lived, and to- 
gether they died ; the native tribes of the south coast of 
Britain, allied as they were to those of Gaul, must by 
degrees have become amalgamated with the Roman 
colonists. The traditional union of Pudens" the Roman 
with Claudia the British maiden is a forcible illustration 
of a position which can be readily understood. The in- 
scriptions likewise which record the ties of kindred and of 
individuals who, returning to Italy to die, yet left in- 
structions for their remains to be taken back to Britain 
to be interred with other members of their families, to 
whom the adopted land had become endeared ; so also is 
the discovery so often noted of Roman relics in Saxon 
graves. A line of separation between the conqueror and 
the conquered could not for long be maintained ; what is 
understood as the "conquest" of Britain by the legions of 
Claudius in the first century, should be viewed rather as 
an ** occupation" by an advancing and civilising race, one 
that brought with it stern discipline, but at the same time 
law and order, together with the practice of the arts and 
industrial manufactures, and enforced upon the natives an 
abiding sense of the advantages under which they were to 
live, and which, as time wore on, became appreciated and 
sustained. Such explorations as are here recorded, though 
they may contribute but little to science in its highest aims, 
have yet their value ; they afford us additional knowledge 
of the manners, the religion, the habits and customs of 
the various races and tribes who have flourished and died 
upon this island, and who each in their generation have 
left some distinctive features and characteristics which 
have influenced their successors, and the accumulation of 
which facts can but be of service both to the antiquary 
and historian. 

" Martial Epigram 618 (zi., lii.). 



RECENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGRAPHY (1864 TO 

' 1881). 



Bt FEEDEEICK EENEST SAWTEE, F.M.S. 



Sussex. {County generally.) 

The Domesday Book for the County of S., beinff that por- 
tion, &c., in 1873, which refers to tiie County of Sussex, by 
W. E. Baxter. Lewes, 1876. 

The Worthies of S,, &c., by M. A, Lower. Lewes, 1865. 

A Handbook for Travellers in Kent and S. With map. 

London, Murray, 3rd edit., 1868; 4th edit., 1877. 

Topographica Sussexiana, an attempt towards framing a list of 
the various publications relating to the County of S. 
Eepriuted from Vols. XV. to XVIII. S. A. C, by the late 
G. Slade Butler. [London, 1866.] 

Picturesque Examples of Old English Churches and Cottages 
from Sketches in S. and Adjoining Counties, by W. 
Young. Birmingham, 1869. 

A Four Days' Eamble in Surrey and West S., including a 
brief account of Blackdown and the " Highlands of Surrey,'' 
by J. E. Sheen. Lond. [1871]. 

Field Paths and Green Lanes, being country walks chiefly in 
Surrey and S., by Louis J. Jennings. Illustrated by J. W. 
Whymper. Lond., 1877. 

Bambles among the Hills in the Peak of Derbyshire and the 
South Downs, by L. J. Jennings. With illustrations. 

Lond., 1880. 

The Churches of S., by M. A. Lower. Illustrated by E. Nibbs. 

Brighton, 1872. 

A Guide to the Coast of S., by M. E. C. Walcott. 

London, 1871. 

XXXII. 2 D 



202 BEOBNT SUSSEX BIBLlOGEiiPHT (1864 TO 1881). 

S. Stories (3 vols.), by Mrs. E. G. O'Reilly. London, 1880. 

Handbook to the County of S., by 6. F. Chambers. 

Lond. 1877. 

The Official County Map and Guide to S. Lond. [1877]. 

Glimpses of our Ancestors in S., with sketches of f^. characters, 
&c., by Charles Fleet. Brighton, 1878. 

Beady Guide and Tourists Handbook for S. With notices of 
Brighton^ Hastings, Worthing, Eastbourne, and illustrations^ 

Lond., 1878. 

Observations on the " Water Supply " of some of our Ancient 
British Encampments, more particularly in Wiltshire and R., 
by Sir Geo. F. Duckett. Devizes, 1879. 

Tourists' Guide to the County of S., by Geo. F. Chambers. 

2nd edit., Lond., 1880. 

Picturesque S. — Drawings, by S. E. Slader. Without letterpretfs. 

Lond., 1 881 , m progress. 

Survey of the Coast of S. in 1587, &c., edited by M. A. Lower. 

Lewes, Baxter, 1870. 

A History of the Castles, Mansions, and Manors of Western S., 
by Dudley C. Elwes, F.S.A., assisted by Eev. Chas. J. Eobin- 
son, M.A. Lond., 1879. 

A Famble on the Coast of S. [in 1782], by Anthony Tlighmore. 
Edited by Chas. Hindley. Beprint^ Brighton, 1872. 

Cassell's Topo^aphical Studies. The County of S. : its His- 
tory, Antiquities, and Topography, with an itinerary for the 
Tourist. London. 

London and its Environs, includinpf Excursions to Brighton, the 
Isle of Wight, &c., by K. Bcedeker. Leipsic, 1881. 

A Compendious History of S., &c., by M. A. Lower, M.A. (2 
vols.) Lewes, 1870. 

Black's Guide to S. and its Watering Places. 

Edinburgh, 1878. 

Nooks and Corners of Old S. Choice Examples of S. Archaeo- 
logy, by Bev. P. de Putron, M.A. Lewes, 1875. 

A Sussex Idyll, by Clementina Black. London, 1877. 

Historical Notices of the Pelham Family, by M. A. Lower 
(privately printed). 1873. 

Ward and Lock's Eeady Guide to S. London, 1878. 

Stemmata Shirleiana {privately printed). 

Westminster, Nichols and Son, 1878. 

Chichester Diocesan Kalendar, 1873-1874. Brighton. 

Ditto. London, 1877, Ac. 



BECTENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGRAPHY (1864 TO 1881). 203 

Diocesan Histories. The South Saxon Diocese. Selsey— 
Chichester, by Rev. W. K. W. Stephens. 

Lond. 8. P. O.K., 1881. 

Sussex Cricket : Past and Present. By an Old S. Cricketer. 
Eeprinted with additions from S. A. C. LeweSy 1879. 

Sussex. {Folk-Lore and Dialect) 

Polk Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the 
Borders, By William Henderson. Lond,, 1877. 

S. Polk and S. Ways, by Eev. J. C. Egerton, M.A. 

See Leisure Hour, 1881. 

West S. Polk Lore, by Mrs. Proc. Folk Lore Society. 

A Dictionary of the S. Dialect, &c., by Eev. W. D. Parish. 

1st edit., Lewes^ 1874; 2nd edit., 1875. 

The Legend of the Devil's Dyke, near Brighton : its Versions 
and Origin, by P. E. Sawyer. See Brighton Daily News, also 

Brighton Daily Post, Oct, \bth, 1880. 

S. Archaeological Collections, Relating to the History and 
Antiquities of the County, published by the S. A. Society. 
Vols. 16 to 31. Lewes, 1864 to 1881. 

Sussex, {Geography.) 

Collinses County Geographies. Geography of County of S., by 
Wm. Lawson, P.R.G.i>. Lond., 1875. 

The Geography of S., by J. P. Faunthorpe. Lond., 1872. 

County Geographies. S., by D. T. Ansted. Lond. [1872]. 

Sussex. {Climate), 

East and West S. Rainfall. See Symons's British Rainfall, 

1865 to 1881 {in progress). 

The Climate of S., by P. E. Sawyer, P.M.S. 

Proc. Brighton and S. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1873, j». 58. 

The Rainfall of S., by P. E. Sawyer. (Pamphlet also.) 

Report British Association^ 1872, p. 58. 

Rain, with special reference to the Rainfall of S., and how it is 
influenced by the South Downs, by P. E. Sawyer. (Pamphlet 
also.) Proc. B. and S. N. H. Soc, 18/2, p. 43. 

Winds, with reference to those prevalent in S., by P. E. Sawjer. 

Proc. B. and S. N. U. Soc, 1 874, p. 67. 



204 EKCENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGBAPHT (1864 TO 1881). 

The Meteorology of S., by F. E. Sawyer. (Pamphlet also.) 

Beprinted from the Brighton Herald, May 28, 1874^ to 

April 8, 1875. 

See also Bbiohtov, EASTBOxmNE, Hastings^ Hubstfieb- 

POIWT, UCKFIELD, AND WoBTHING. 

Sussex. (Geology,) 

The Geology of 8., &c., by Fredk. Dixon, F.G.S. Edited and 
revised by T. Enpert Jones, F.R.S. Brighton^ 1878. 

Earthquake Shocks in S., by F. E. Sawyer. 

Proc. B. and 8. N. H. Soc.y 1878, p. 13. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales. The 
Geology of the Weald, parts of the counties of Kent, Surrey, 
S., and Hants, by Wm. Topley, F.G.S. London, 1875. 

The Record of the Sub-Wealden Exploration, by H. Willett, 
F.G.S. ' Brighton, 1878. 

The Erosion of the S. Coast, with special reference to Great 
Storms which have visited the County, by F. E. Sawyer. 

Proe. B. amd 8. N. H. 8oe.y 1873, p. 129. 

See also Bbighton and Hasting. 

Sussex. {Natv/ral History.) 

Summary Analysis of the Flora of S. (Phsenogams and Ferns), 
by W. B. Hemsley. Proc. Brit. Assoc, 1872, p. 128. 

Beport on the Sea Fisheries of England and Wales. 

Pari. Papers, 1879. 

The Birds and Mammals of S., by F. E. Sawyer. (Pamphlet 
also.) Proe. B. and 8. If. H^ Soc, 1 875, p. 99. 

The Outline of the Flora of S., by W. B. Hemsley. 1875. 

The Verification of the Fauna and Flora of the County of S., 
by T. W. Wonfor. Proc. B. and 8. If. H. Soc, 1873, p. 50. 

Ohe Moss Flora of S., by C. P. Smith. 

Pamphlet, 1870, and Proc. B. amdS. N. H. Soc, 1869. 

Proceedings Eastbourne Natural History Society, 1867 to 1881 

{in progress). 
Do. Brighton and S. Natural History Society, 1869 to 

1877. 
Do. Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

See also Bbighton, Eastboxtbne, Guestling, and 
Habting. 



EECENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGRAPHY (1864 TO 1881). 205 

Abundel. 

Visitor's Guide to A. Castle, Church, &c. Arundely 1868. 

Visitor's Guide to A. Castle, &c. Jnmdel, 1876. 

Battle. 

Essays on the luvasion of Britain by Julius Caesar, &c. And on 
the Battle of Hastings, by G. B. Airey {privately printed). 

LondoUy 1865. 

B. Abbey, with notices of the Parish Church and Town, by M. 
E. C. Walcott. 2nd edit.y Battle [1867]. 

Harold. A Drama; prologue Show Day at B. Abbey, 1876, by 
Alfred Tennyson. London^ 1877. 

A Guide to B. Abbey, by C. L. W. BattU [1879]. 

See also Hastings. 

Bodlilm. 

B. and its Lords. A new edition, by M. A. Lower. 

Lond., 1871. 

BOSHAM. 

B., in the County of Sussex, by C. J. Longcroft. Havant, 1867. 

BOXOBOTE. 

Priory Church of SS. Mary and Blaise at B., Sussex. Ittus^ 
trated by geometrical drawings and perspective views, 
measured and drawn by L. W. lUdge. Lond., 18(>4. 

Bbiohtok. {Oeneral.) 

A Peep into the Past : B, in the Olden Time, by J. G. Bishop. 
With illustrations. Brighton, 1880. 

The B. Pavilion and its Eoyal Associations, by J. G. Bishop. 

[1st edit.] Brightony 1875; 2nd edit., 1876 ; 3rd, 1878. 

The History of B. and its environs, by Alderman Henry 
Martin. 2nd edit., Brighton^ 1871. 

Page's Handbook to B., and its vicinity, with short tours to East 
and West Sussex, by E. H. Hall. London^ 1871. 



206 BECENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGBAPHT (1864 TO 1881). 

Page's Handbook to B. (compiled bj E. Hepple Hall), newedit^ 

BHghton [1873]. 

Strolls in the 6. Eztra-Moral Cemetery^ by J. G. Bishop. 

Brighton, 1867. 

Jeff's Guide to the Boyal Pavilion and Musenm^ B., bj S. D. 
Jeffs. Brighton [1865]. 

Tourists' Picturesque Guide to B., &c. 

Ward, Lock and Co., London [1878]. 

Borough of B. Copies of the Deeds relating to the Division 
of the Tenantry Lands in the Parish of B. in 1822^ &c. 
Printed by order of the Town Council. Brighton, 1878. 

B. Free Library^ Museum and Picture Gallery. Annual Reports. 

Brighton, 1875 to 1881. 

The Churches of B. [by John Sawyer]. 

Brighton, 1881, in progress, 17 parts published. 

Land Tenure and Division in 6. and the Neighbourhood, by F. 
E. Sawyer. With map, 

Proc. Incorporated Law Society. Annual Meeting, 1881. 

London, 1881. 

A Short History of B., Ac, by F. E. Sawyer. 

[Brighton, 1878.] 

Brighton. {Geology,) 

Excavations through the Post-Pliocene Formation of Temple 
Field, B., by J. Howell. 

Proc, Brighton and Sussex Nat. Hist. Soc, 1871,;?. 14. 

The B. Cliff Formation and the B. Valley, by J. Howell. 

lb., p. 21. 

The Geology of the B. Museum, by Geo. Scott. 

Proc. lb., 1874, p. 56. 

The Geology of B., by Jas. Howell. 

Proc. Geologists' Assoc, Vol. iii., p. 168; Vol. v.,j?. 80. 

On the Minerals lately found in the Drainage works at B., by 
J. Howell. 

On Super-Cretaceous Formations in the Neighbourhood of B., 
by J. Howell. Proc, British Assoc, 1872, pp. 108 and 109. 



Bbiohtok. {Climate.) 

A Hint and a Help to B. Invalids, by Geo. Corfe, M.D. 

Brighton, 1869. 



EECENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGEAPHr (1864 TO 1881). 207 

Meteorological Observations. The Climate of B., by F. E. 
Sawyer. Brighton Daily News^ S&pt. to Dec, 1871. 

Meteorological Tables for B., by F. E. Sawyer. 

Quarterly Reports Registrar General, 1871 to 1881. 

Brief Notes on the Geology and Climate of B. in relation to 
Health, by Edwd. Mackey, M.D. Brighton {Treacher) [1881]. 

Betghton. {Natural History.) 

A Sketch of the Natural History of B. and its vicinity, by 
Mrs. Merrifield. Brighton, 1864. 

Eeport on the Sea Fisheries of England and Wales. [Brigh- 
ton, p. 59.] Pari. Papers, 1879. 

The B. Aquarium. What it has done for Science, by T. W. 
Wonfor. Proc. B. and 8. N. H. 8oc., 1876, p. 113. 

Chichester. 

Constitution of C. Cathedral, by Eev. M. E. 0. Walcott. 

[London, 1864.] 

Memorials of C, by M. E. C. Walcott. Chichester, 1865. 

Fasti Cicestrenses, by M. E. C. Walcott. With introduction by 
G. M. Hills. [Lond., 1866.] 

Catalogue of Bishops of Selsey and C, by M. E. C. Walcott. 

[Lond., 1866.] 

Catalogue of Bishops of Selsey and C, by M. E. Walcott. 

[Lond.y 1869.] 

The Early Statutes of the Cathedral Church of the Holy 
Trinity, C, with observations on its constitution and history, 
by M. E. C. Walcott. Lond., 1877. 

The History and Constitution of a Cathedral of the Old 
Foundation, Illustrated from Documents, Ac, in the Registry 
and Muniment Boom of the Cathedral of C, by Bev. Canon 
C. A. Swainson, D.D. 

London, 1 880, in publication, pt. 1 only printed. 

Memorials of the South Saxon See and Cathedral Church of 
C, by Eev. W. E. W. Stephens. London, 1876. 

Eeports : C. and West Sussex Natural History Society, 

Eastboubns. 
The Guide to E., Ac, by Edwin Eddison. Eastbourne [1865]. 



208 BEOENT SUSSEX BIBLIOGBAFHT (1864 TO 1881). 

A Handbook for Visitors to E., by G. F. Chambers. 

London y 1868. 
4th edit., 1872 ; hth edit., 1873 ; Ith edit., 1875 ; %th edU., 1876. 

The New Guide to E. and its Neighbourhood. 

Eaatboume [1871]. 

E. Natural History Society — ^Lists of the Local Fauna and 
Mora. [1873.] 

On the Decapoda that haye been found at E., by F. C. S. Koper. 

[1870.] 

Flora of E., being an introduction to the Flowering Plants, Ac, 
of the Cuckmere Districts, by F. C. S. Eoper, F.L.S. 

London, 1875. 

On the Chalk of the Cliffs from Seaford to E., by Wm. Whita- 
ker, B.A. Proc. Geological Society, Vol. viii., y. 198. 

Proceedings E. Natural History Society. 1867 to 1881. 

Meteorological Tables for E., by Miss W. L. Hall. 

Quarterly Reports Registrar General, 1867 to 1881. 



FiNDON. 

Flint Works at Cissbury, by Dr. Steyens. 

Proc. Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society, 

1872, p. 12. 

Becent Excayations at Cissbury, by Ernest Willett. 

lb., 1875, p. 24. 

Excayations in Cissbury Camp, Sussex. Beport of the Ex- 
ploration Committee of the Anthropological Institute for 
1875, by Col. Lane Fox (President). 

Jov/mal Anth. Inst,, 1875, p. 857. 

Eeport on some further discoyeries at Cissbury, by J. Park 
Harrison, M.A. lb.. May, 1877. 

Some Bune-like Characters in Chalk, by J. P. Harrison. 

Proc. Brit. Assoc, 1877, 2?. 117. 



GUBBTLINO. 

ThjB Macro-Lepidopterous Fauna of G. and its immediate 
neighbourhood, by Key. E. N. Bloomfield. 

Proc. Brighton a/nd Stiss. Nat. Hist. Soc., 1878, p. 68. 



BEOBNT SUSSEX BIBLIOQBAPHY (1864 TO 1881). 209 

Hasting. 

The History of H., by H. D. , Gordon, with a chapter on the 
Geology of the District, by Sir R. I. Murchison, and some 
notice of its fauna and flora by J. Weaver. LondoUy 1877, 



Hastings. 

Whiteman's Guide to H., by S. Whiteman. 

7th edit., Hastings, 1875, 

A Complete Description of St. Clement's Caves, H. Illustrated, 

London [1880]. 

Picturesque Sussex, pt. 1, H. Drawings by S. E. Slader. 

[London, 1881.] 

H. Foreshore. Grant of Queen Elizabeth. See Corporation of 
H. V. Ivall. Law Reports, 19 Equity, p. 558. 

Meteorological Tables for H., by A. E. Murray, F.M.S. April, 
1874, to end 1876. Quarterly Reports Regiatrar General, 

The Antiquities of H. and the Battle-Field, by E. H. Cole, M.A. 

Hastings, 1867. 

Beminiscences of Smugglers and Smuggling, by J. Banks. 

London [1873]. 

The Highlands of H. and St. Leonards as a Health Resort, &c., 
by F. H. Parsons, M.D. Hastings, 1877. 

A Classified List of the Charitable and Benevolent Institutions 
of H. and St. Leonards, by W. A. Greenhill, M.D. 

4ith edit., Hastings, 1876. 

All Saints Day in 1425. A Tale of H. in the Olden Tyme [by 
E. Field]. Hastings, 1872. 

In Memoriam. Notices of the Rev. Thomas Vores, M.A. (late 
Curate of St. Mary-in-the-Castle, H.), &c. 

Reprint from the Hastings and St, Leonards News [1875], 

H. and St. Leonards-on-Sea as a Health and Pleasure Resort, 

with Statistics and Local Information, edited by T. H. Cole, 

M.A. Meteorological Report by H. Colborne, M.R.C.S., F.M.S. 

Published by H. and St. Leonards Publicity Association, 1881. 

Horsham. 
H., its History and Antiquities. London (Macintosh), 1868. 

XXXII. 2 B 



210 EECBNT SUSSEX BIBLIOGEAPHY (1864 TO 1881). 

Lewes. 

Municipal Corporations Commission Report, 1880, pt. 2. L. See 
pp. 144, 152, 157, 168. Pari Papers. 

A Handbook for L., historical and descriptive, by M. A. Lower. 

Srd edit improved. Lewes [1880 J. 

The Barons' War, including the battles of L. and Evesham, by 
W. H. Blaauw. 2nd edii.y Londoriy 1871. 

Reports L. and East Sussex Natural History Society. 

1864/0 1881. 

LlTTLEHAUFTON. 

The Visitors' Guide to L. and Neighbourhood, by C. P. Smart. 

Idttlehamptonj 1881. 

Hove. 

The Churches of Brighton. Vol. ii., pt. 13, H. Parish Church 
[by John Sawyer], London [1882]. 

HUBSTFIEBFOIKT. 

Meteorological Tables for H., by Rev. John Gorham. 

Quarterly Reports Registrar General y Jan.y 1864, to June, 

1866. 

MiDHURST. 

Municipal Corporations Commission Report, 1880, pt. 2. M. 
See p. 145. Pari, Papers, 

Nethebfield. 
Sub-Wealden Exploration. See Sussex (Oeology). 

Newhaven. 

N. Harbour from 1827 to 1859, by Wm. Stevens. 

Lewes {W. E. Baxter). 



EEOBNT SUSSEX BIBLIOGRAPHY (1864 TO 1881). 211 

Petworth. 

p., a sketcli of its history and antiquities, with notices of 
objects of archaeological interest in its vicinity, by P. H. 
Arnold. Petworthy 1864. 

Pevenset. 

Municipal Corporations Commission Report, 1830, pt. 2. P. 
See pp. 91, 153, and 156 to 158. Pari. Papers. 

Chronicles of P., with notices, biographical, topographical, and 
antiquarian, by M. A. Lower. 3rd edit.y Lewes [1880], 

Preston {near Brighton). 

Discovery of Roman Remains at P. 

Proc, Brighton and Svss. Nat Hist 8oc., 1873, p. 138. 

RoTHEB {River), 

Remarks on the Probable Site of the British City and Roman 
Station of Anderida and on the Ancient Course of the River 
R., by Thos. EUiott. iJye, 1877. 

• 

Seafobd. 

Excavations in the Camp and Tumulus at S., Sussex, by Col. 
Lane Pox. Journal Anthropological Institute, 1873. 

Municipal Corporations Commission Report, 1880, pt. 2, S. 
See pp. 109, 154, 166 to 159. Pari. Papers. 

Selsey. 
See Chichester. 

UCKFIELD. 

Observations on the Climate of U., &c., by C. L. Prince, 
P.R.A.S. ' London, 1871. 

WiNCHELSBA. 

A Quiet Comer of England. Studies of Landscape and Archi- 
tecture in W., Rye, and the Romney Marsh, by Basil Champ- 
neys ; with illustrations by A. Dawson. London, 1874. 



212 BEOENT SUSSEX BIBLIOOBAPHY (1864 TO 1881). 

WOBTHINO. 

The Library (Breads') Gnide and Handbook to W. and its 
vicinity, by Owen Breads, with illustrations. 

London, 1865. 

Paine's New Illustrated Guide and Handbook to W. and its 
neighbourhood. London, 1871. 

The Climate of W., Ac, by W. G. Barker. 

2nd edit, Londim, 1867. 

Meteorological Tables for W., by W. G. Barker, 1864 to 
1867 J by W. J. Harris, 1868 to 1874. 

Quarterly Reports Registrar General. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



No. 1. 

Errors in the Sussex Archaeological Collections, 

Having noticed the following inaccuracies in the Volumes of our Society, 
and finding that printed errors are very often repeated, I have thought that 
it might be of some advantage to point out the few that I have met with ; 
and therefore subjoin a list of them : — 

Vol. XIX. Otehall. 

P. 62, line 85. " Some time during the reign of Henry VT John 

Atteze is stated to have been the Lord. From this family 
it passed into the hands of John Michelboume, &c." 

I submit that the first-mentioned name should be Attere, on the follow- 
ing evidence ; — 

1. The Rev. Mr. Turner probably copied this part of his interesting 
paper from Horsfield's " Sussex," Vol. I., pp. 227-8, where the 
Lord of the Manor at this time appears also under the name of 
Atteze. I do not doubt that the information of both was originally 
obtained from the Burrell MSS. in the British Museum, and as he 
mentions more than has yet been printed, I venture to extract what 
he says there.^ 

(i). The following statements are from original Court Eolls of 
the Manor of Ottehale, alias Oatehale, alias Oate-Hall in 
the parishes of Wivelsfield, Chailey, and Ditchling. 
(ii). There is a Court Roll dated 30th Sept. A^ 2 Rich. II. 

(1379), but the name of the Lord is apparently wanting, 
(iii). There are several Court Rolls of Richard Kentish, Lord of 
the Manor, from one of A® 19 Rich. II. to one dated 13th 
June, A<» 7 Hen. V. (1396 to 1420). 
Jv). There is a Court Roll dated 10th Feb. A® 16 Hen. VL 
(1438), being the first Court of John Attere Lord of the 
Manor, 
(v). There is a Court Roll of the Court held 16th May A® 26 
Hen. VIII. (1535), by John Michelboume and others his 
co-feoffees, to carry out the intentions of the last will of 
Thomas *Atte Rhee. (To this there is the note) N.B. By 
a rental Thos. Attree appears to have been Lord of Oate-hall. 
Although BurrelFs " r " in the name Attere appears like a " z," on 
comparing it with the name Attree below, it will be found to be ** r.*' 

» " Add. MSS.," 5684, Brit. Mas., fo. 36. 



214 NOTES AND QITEBIES. 

Genealogists and others who haye examined old docnments, wills, parish 
registers, &c., of the 16th century, will readilj acknowledge the several 
curious forms under which this letter '< r " usually appears ; it is almost 
as often written like a ** z" as not. 

2. I yery much doubt whether there was any family of the name of 
Atteze — ^more especially of Sussex origin — ^while, on the contrary, 
the name of Atte Ree was yery common in this district, and it 
will appear from the following evidence that a John Atte Bee was 
living in or near Wivelsfield about this very time. 

(i). John Atte Ree and Joan his wife were deforciants of 2 
messuages and 80 acres of land in Wivelsfieldi and Walter 
Atte Herst plaintiff in 1439.^ 
(ii). John Atte Ree, Walter Atte Hurst, Thomas Tebald and 
others are witnesses to a grant of lands in Wivelsfield from 
Isabella at Crouch widow of Richard Wodeward of W. to 
Thomas atte Hothe of W. 2nd Nov., 20 Hen. VI. (1441) » 
(iii). John Atte Ree was a juror in respect of the Rape of 
firamber in 1470, and was one of two plaintiffs in a plea of 
debt in that year,* 
not to speak of " John Atte Roe of Wyvelsfeld yoman,*' who took part 
in Cade's rising in 1450, and who, I conjecture, may have been the same 
person.* 

8. I was recently kindly permitted to examine the Title Deeds of Oat- 
hall Manor, and from the earliest of these documents, which have 
been preserved, ascertained that William Atte Ree was Lord of the 
Manor in 1502, from whom it passed to his son and heir, Thomas 
Atte Ree, shortly afterwards ; the latter appears to have died about 
1535, possessed of the manor. It will be observed that Sir 
William Burrell, the Rev. Mr. Horsfield, and the Rev. Mr. Turner, 
do not mention any intermediate Lords between this John Atteze 
and his family and John Michelboume, although, if the ownership 
had in the meantime passed into the hands of another family, it 
would probably have been easy to discover. 

Vol. XXI, Farochial History of HollingUm. 

P. 141, lines 8 and 9. These should read, '* to my cozen Thomas Carr 

son of my eldest brother Roger Carr deceased of Giggles- 
wick in Yorkshire." The place Giggleswick is also in- 
correctly entered as Siggleswick, in the ^* Castles and 
Mansions of Western Sussex," p. 161. An interesting 
account of the Carrs of Giggleswick, with a pedigree, 
will be found in the " Genealogist," Vol. III., p. 385. 
The Roger Carr mentioned in the S. A. C. is probably 
a son of the last-mentioned Thomas in the pedigree 
given in the " Genealogist." 

> Feet of Fines. Snssez. Octave of the Holy Trinity, Ao 18 Hen. YI. Pablio 
Eecord Office. 

» "Add. Charter," 24,689, Brit. Mus. 

^ " De Banco Boll,'* Michas., 9 Edw. IV., membranes 151 and 490. Pnb. Bee. Off. 

' S. A. C, Vol. XVIII.. 29. 



NOTES AND QUEEIBS. 215 

Vol. XXV., p. 217. Pedigree of Turner. 

Here there is a self-evident printers' error of " nat ** 
for **nupt,** with regard to the marriage of Sarah 
Frances, (da. of William Turner, bo. 18th May, 1761,) 
with her first husband. 

Vol. XXVIII. Monumental Inscriptions ^ Ditchling. 

P. 139, line 85. ** Gardeners of London and Foxton in Lancashire.'* The 

latter place, by an error of my own, was incorrectly 
spelt Foxton ; it should be *' Forton in the parish of 
Cockerham Com. Lane," as correctly printed in ** The 
' Visitation of London, 1634 " (recently published by the 
Harleian Society), p. 300, though even there, there is a 
mistake in writing the name John A. Tree, instead of 
John A -Tree, as it appears in the original MSS. in the 
College of Arms. 

F. W. T. Attree, Lieut. R.E. 

No. 2. 
Huguenot Rejhigee Families in Sussex, 

There would, so far as I know, appear to be but few representatives of 
Huguenot Refugees of " position," who have, or have had any definite or 
permanent connection with Sussex. Amongst holders of landed property, 
I am aware of only two — Dalbiac and Daubay. Amongst beneficed clergy 
I know of only four — D'Aranda, Jaumard, Nouaille and Perronet. I 
should be obliged to any of our members who would add to the list, or 
favour me with information on the subject. Mr. W. Durrant Cooper, 
who, by the way, was entirely mistaken in attributing a Huguenot descent 
to Henry Michell, somewhile Vicar of Brighton, and Rector of Mares- 
field, went, as will strike every reader of his interesting paper on the Rye 
Settlement (XIII., 180-208), but a small way, in his attempt to trace tilie 
descendants of this Colony. 

I should be glad to include within the scope of this inquiry even 
families which had only an accidental association with the county. Of 
such were Chamier, De Visme, Cazalet, Le fias, and De Teissier, all 
once, and within my own recollection, resident in Brighton. 

Hbnrt Wagner 
18, Half-Moon Street, London, W. 
May, 1881. 

No. 3. 

On the Measurements of Ptolemy, and of the Antonine Itinerary, applied 

to the Southern Counties of England. 

The perusal of this interesting and instructive paper by Gordon M. 
Hills, Esq., in Vol. XXXI. of the " Sussex Archaaological Collections " 
(reprinted from the *' Journal of the British Archseological Association," 
1878), which took my attention in the first instance from the fact that it 



216 KOTES AND QUERIES. 

seemed to show a Roman Station in my own locality, namelj '* Neo- 
magus," between Horsham and Ockley, and induced me to go further 
into, and make myself better acquainted with the matter, has eventually 
led me further still, and to set down the following observations and 
queries for the consideration of others who know more of, and take an 
interest in it, and I do so the more readily because the writer himself says 
there is much room for the application of local knowledge and criticism ; 
but my intention is only, on examination of the theories and suggestions, 
to point but discrepancies and differences for further consideration. 

Without going into any scientific analysis of a Degree of Ptolemy's 
Longitude, it would appear that this can be ascertained with tolerable 
certainty from his own tables ; so that, instead of 10° 30', he himself 
makes it about 13° 30' from the Land's End to the North Foreland, and 
this conclusion is arrived at thus : After considerable study and trial, I 
came to the conclusion to divide Mr. Hills' own map into Degrees of 
Latitude and Longitude, corresponding with Ptolemy^s own Tables, of 
places as laid down by him, and then to correct them by himself. Begin- 
ning then with the Land's End (11®), his first degree of East Longitude 
is the Lizard Point (12°) ; his next, as marked on the map, Cenion River 
(14°). But this, on the map, looked so manifestly absurd, when its 
distance from the Lizard was evidently only about the same as the Lizard 
from the Land's End, that I bethought me of what was suggested by Mr. 
T. Kerslake, of Bristol, two or three years since in a pamphlet entitled 
" A primeval British Metropolis," at Pen Selwood, Somerset, that some 
name had dropped out of Ptoleniy^s list, and it struck me further that if 
some name, then why not some Longitude? Consequently I at once 
applied 13° to Cenion R., and then 14° became about correct for Tamar R. 
The next point was to measure these Degrees, and they were found about 
26 Roman miles. Thereupon I proceeded to divide the lower border of 
the map into distances of 26 R. miles, which brought 24° to about Dover, 
showing a difference between there and the Land's End of 13°, with about 
20' or 25' more to the North Foreland. In drawing lines upwards from 
these divisions, it will be seen I sloped them slightly inwards towards 
Greenwich east or west of that Longitude, and by this means the respective 
Longitudes cannot vary many minutes from correctness, or sufficient to 
affect the true position of places requiring to be found on the map ; and I 
did the same with a map of England of 10 miles to the inch, where I 
could draw the parallels more correctly from the marked degrees of 
English Latitude and Longitude, and then transfer them to the other map 
to ensure more correctness. 

As regards Ptolemy's Latitudes, there is still more discrepancy and un- 
certainty, and they are more difiBcult to manage and reconcile than his Longi- 
tudes. They differ in east and west, and most unaccountably, from each 
other, unless for the reasons surmised by Mr. Hills. But taking them as 
stated, I have drawn the parallel of 53° of Ptolemy even with our 51° 
and Hercules Point, and 54° at London, 37 R. miles between. But it 
is difficult to find where to place 52°. It is drawn, however, 40 miles 
from 53° ; and 51° at the same distance from 52°. 

Having thus the map divided into quadrangles of Latitude and Longi- 
tude, we may proceed to test those of some of the Inland and other places 
mentioned ; and for reference, perhaps, a table will be the most convenient 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



217 



form for onr purpose, and in the following the places set down haye the 
Latitudes and Longitudes as given by Ptolemy, with such corrections at 
the side as can be reasonably ascertained : — 





lonqitudss. 


latitudes. 


Ptolemy. 


Corrected. 


Ptolemy. 


Corrected. 


South Coast. 










Land's End 


.. 11° 


11° 


52° 30/ . 


61° 20/ 


Lizard Pt 


.. 12° 


12** 


51° 30/ 


61° 10' 


Cenion B. 


.. 14° 


(13°) 


61° 45/ 


51° 46' 


Tamar B. ... ... ... 


.. 15° 40' 


14° 


52° 10/ 


51° 46' 


Isaoa B. ... ... ... 


.. 17° 


16^40' 


62° 20/ 


52<» 30 


(Portland Bill) 


m m 


17° 


— 


52° 10' 


Alannns B. 


.. 17° 40' 


18° 20' 


62° 40,' 


52° 30' 


Magnns Portag 


.. 19° 


19° 


53° 


62° 50' 


Trisanton B 


.. 20° 20' 


20° 40' 


53° 


52° 40 


Novas Portas 


.. 21° 




23° 30/ 




Cantiam Prom 


.. 22° 




54° 




L Wight (centre) 


.. 19° 20' 


19° 20' 


62° 20' 


62° 20' 


West Coast. 










Seyem Bsty 


.. 17° 20' 


16° 30' 


54° 80/ 


63° 80' 


V ezauB ,, •«. •■• . 


.. 16° 


13° 30' 


63° 30/ 


63° 10' 


Herooles Pt 


.. 14° 


12° 60' 


53° 


53° 


East Coast. 










Thames Esty 


.. 20° 30' 


23° 


54° 30' 


63° 60' 


Cantiam Prom. 


.. 22° 


22° 80/ 


64° 


63° 56' 


Sheppey Is 


.. 23° 


23° 20' 


64° 16/20' 


63° 60' 


Thanet Is. 


.. 24° 


24° 10' 


64° 30' 


53° 40' 


Inland, 










Cirencester— Dobani ... 


.. 18° 




64° 10/ 


64° 40' 


Calleva, 6allena,&o.— Attrebata 


m 19° 


19° 46/ 


64° 16/ 


63° 60' 


London — Cantii 


.. 20° 


21° 30' 


64° 


54° 


Darneraam 


.. 21° 


23« 


63° 40/ 


53° 40' 


Bitapiao 


.. 21° 45' 




64° 




Neoma^s — Begni 


.. 19*'43'45' 




63° 26' 46' 




IscaUs — Belg» 


.. 16** 40' 




63° 30' 




Aqne CalideB 


... 17° 20' 


17° 6/ 


53° 40' 


63° 45' 


Venta 


... 18' 40^ 


20P 


63° 30' 


63° 30' 


Dnninm — Dorotriges 


r 18° 
18° 50' 


ir40' 


52° 40' 
62° 05' 


62° 20' 


Voliba — Damnonii 


... 14° 45' 




52° 20' 




Uxella 


.. 15° 


15° 


52° 45' 


62° 25' 


Tamare 


.. 16° 




52° 15' 26' 




XBca ... ... ... 


.. 17° 30' 


17° 20/ 


62° 45' 


62° 26' 


Legio Secnnda Ang. 


r 17° 
ir 30' 


17° 


62° 30' 36' 


62° 20' 



xxxu. 



2 V 



218 KOTBS AND QUEBIES. 

It wQl be seen that I hare supposed both the Longitude of the Cenion 
B. as well as the name of Portland to have dropped out of Ptolemy's list, 
and it may be possible, from the confusion, that something of the same 
kind has happened with respect to places cast of Trisanton ; but I will 
not go into that, and I am more disposed to think it arises from errors in 
Longitude. 

The Longitude of the Cenion E., which I consider to have dropped out, 
being now supplied, the Longitude of the Tamar R. given by Ptolemy is 
now appropriated to the Isaca, bringing it to the River Axe ; and that 
given to Isaca is now appropriated to Portland Bill, considered to be 
dropped out of the list. This brings the Longitude of Alaunus R. nearer 
to Christchurch Bay, where, I think, Camden was right in placing the 
mouth of that river. No doubt Ptolemy's Longitude would place the 
river's mouth about St. Aldham's Head ; but there is no river debouching 
there, and his error here is not greater than in many other places. At any 
rate, I must maintain that the Hants R. Avon is the Alaunus, ecce 
eignnnij Alaun, Alan, Allen, Al-Aun, Ann, Avn, Avon. 

Magnus Portus may be left to take care of itself. But when we come 
to Trisanton, I must entirely disagree with Mr. Hills' idea, and suggest 
that the figures are not so singular and difficult of application as he 
alleges. How the three-mouthed harbour of Portsmouth, Langstone, and 
Chichester can by possibility be called a river is beyond comprehension. 
There may be three or four streams, from the Chalk Hills near, running 
into it, but nothing worthy the name of a river ; and one, the Lavant, is 
occasionally dry for several summers in succession, and I have myself often 
walked along its lowest bed. But the Longitude of 20^ 20' brings us 
very near to the mouth of the (really) River Arun at Little Hampton^ and 
it is somewhat strange that the latter name has not sooner led to its 
identification. At pp. 89, 40, 41, there is an elaborate disquisition on this 
name of Trisanton, and the opinions of learned professors are quoted, of 
which perhaps I may be allowed to avail myself. Professor Earle says : 
<< No doubt Camden was influenced by the name of Hampton to identify 
it (Magnus Portus) with Trisanton ; but he would never have seen Anton 
under the form of Hampton had it not been for the names of Andover, 
Amport, and Abbotts Ann in the upper streams of the same river. 
When we see Anton on that water in the Ordnance Map, this is of course 
a piece of archeology, good or bad, but there is no question that those 
names are peculiar and unexplained, and that they seem to indicate some 
such name as * Ant * for the river on which they stand " (precisely so). 
'' But the Longitude of Ptolemy seems to decide it that Trisanton is east 
of Magnus Portus. Well, if so, I should then look for Trisanton at 
Chichester." (Why ?) 

Among the Ams and Ans quoted in Hants, I much doubt' whether 
Ambersham is properly there placed. It is crossed by the River Rother, 
but lies not near the Test or Anton. I imagine it has a purely 6axon 
name, Amber's-Ham, derived from the family name (Amber) of the mother 
of the late Richard Cobden, M.P. ; but Amberley I shall have to use, and 
rely upon, later for my own purpose. 

Professor Rhys says the name Trisantonos was probably Gaulish, a 
language little known ; but he offers a conjecture, with a phonological diffi- 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 219 

culty however, attached to this guess ; but the " Tris ** is settled to mean 
three by local knowledge of the three-mouthed harbour ; and it may be 
readily admitted that the quality of triplicity (and that is all) which the 
name Trisanton may imply belongs in a remarkable degree to this 
estuary. 

But now, to apply Professor Earle's reasoning to the R. Arun, I may 
say that I am influenced by the name of Hampton to identify the R. Aran 
with Trisanton, and 1 see Little Anton under the form of Little Hampton, 
by the name of Amberley appearing higher up the stream of the same 
river, and it seems to me to indicate some such name as " Ant " for the 
river on which it stands, notwithstanding (like the Test) it has now 
another name. He says the name of Anton is applied to the Test in the 
Ordnance Map (and why not properly ?J. He questions the archaeology, 
but admits an indication of some such name as '^ Ant," for the river may 
be correct; and no doubt it is. The "Ant " or ** Anton " gave names to 
the County of Hants or Hampton (Anton- shire, like Wilton-shire), and 
also to the town of Southampton. Well, then, this river we may call the 
Great Anton, with the town of Southampton at its mouth. Adopting his 
argument for the Arun, why should there not be a Little Anton, with the 
town or village of Little Hampton at its mouth, and moreover with Am- 
berley on its bank ? And when we see further that the situation of the 
Arun and Littlehampton closely coincide with Ptolemy's figures, it surely 
does not require so great a stretch of imagination as the three-mouthed 
harbour, without any river at all, to induce the belief that the Arun (the 
Little Anton) is the Trisanton of Ptolemy. The learned Professors have 
at most made only a guess at the meaning of " Tris." May not a tyro 
also make another guess, with some probability, that in Gaulish or some 
unknown language its meaning is Little and not Three ?^ 

The next place in the list, Novus Portus, is, it must be confessed, a 
puzzle—Ptolemy's figures (21° X 53° 30') would land it at about 
Dorking. But supposing an error of 1° in the Longitude (with corrected 
Latitude), it would agree with about Pevensey (New -haven, we know, is a 
modern name for Meeching) ; but further supposing an error of 2° in the 
Longitude eastward, and a corresponding alteration of Latitude, it might 
mean Rye. 

As regards " Cantium Promentorium," there is confusion worse con- 
founded. But upon the whole there would seem to have been two head- 
lands so-called — one on the South Coast (say Dungeness) and the other 
on the East Coast (say the Hope at the Thames -mouth) ; and the Lati- 
tude of the former has got confused with the latter, on the supposition 
that they were both the same. I believe, however, for obvious reasons, 
the promontory here referred to to be Dungeness. 

The Isle of Wight's Latitude and Longitude seem singularly correct; and 

1 Maj it be surmised that the Saxon name of the Aran B. was the Tarant ? 
There is at Arandei a street near the river called Tarrant Street. Here the ** Ant " 
comes oat nnmistakably, and this may tend to throw some light also on the modem 
name of the rivers, thus — supposing the b to be interjected in Trisanton only for 
euphony, the devolation of Tarant from Triant is simple — Trianton — Tranton — 
Trant— Tarant. Again, T'Arant— r Aran— T' Aran— The Arun. The town itself 
is called Arrundel (sometimes Arudel), never Arnn-del. 



22D NOTES AND QUBBIES. 

this I may contend proves my mode of graduation to he not far from 
accurate. 

Proceeding to the East Coast, we have the Thames Estuary (54^ 30' x 
20° 800, ^^ich would place it about Amershain, Bucks. About 64°— 23° 
would probably be more correct. Cantium Promontorium is already re- 
ferred to as probably The Hope, being part of Rent, and not of either of 
the Islands. Sheppey and Thanet also require correction. 

Coming to the inland towns, there is all sorts of confusion. The Longi- 
tude of Cirencester for Corinium of the Dobuni seems fairly correct, but 
the Latitude is much higher than placed by Ptolemy. 

Then again the Town of the Attrebates (whatever it may be) is placed 
6' higher than Cirencester, and 1° more east. This may furnish an 
argument in favour of Alcester, but brings it within the Dobuni, and is 
scarcely admissible. Lowering the latitude half a degree brings the site 
down to Wantage or Wallingford, and I was somewhat disposed to think 
that in " Gallena " there was the root of Wallingford. But on applying 
the Itinerary to this place as '' Calleva," nothing could be reconciled to 
it. I then came lower down still to Silchester, with the result that it was 
too near Speen to be satisfactory ; nor did it correspond in distance with 
other places in juxtaposition with Calleva. I then tried Beading, and to 
my sui'prise found on several trials with other places in the Iters that the 
distances agreed (but this was on a small map). • 

Yenta Belgarum was the next puzzle. Ptolemy's figures would place 
it about Weyhill or Andover, but this cannot be reconciled by any means 
with the several Iters where it is mentioned. The distance also from 
Haslemere to Farnham is not sufficient, and moreover the latter is in the 
country of the Regni. But Jockey's Ring, alias CaBsar's Camp, near 
Aldershot, is (partly) in Hants, and its distance from Haslemere locality 
is satisfactory. (The places visited by the Emperor were chiefly, if not 
all, military stations.) It agrees also with the distances from Windsor, 
Staines, Speen, and Alton, in each Iter. 

It results that Chichester still remains as Regnum ; Haslemere (or 
somewhere near) becomes Clausentum, Windsor is Vindomis, Staines 
Pontes, Alton Brige ; and other places will be found attached to the 
names in the several Iters set out hereafter. 

It is somewhat curious that Jockey's Ring should be in -two counties ; 
but the portion in Hants would evidently be in the territory of the Belgas, 
and the remainder in the Regni. 

Taking next the Cantii we find the Latitude and Longitude of London 
stated at 54° X 20°, which would locate it between Henley and Maiden- 
head ; Daruemum (whatever place it may be) about Leatherhead ; 
RitupisB about Erith. 

Next Neomagus of the Begni (which I had hoped was so near me) is 
stated to be in the same Longitude as the Isle of Wight, which would 
place it beyond question in the country of the Belgce, and about 
Basingstoke or Odiham. We must, however, look for it some- 
where in North West Surrey — anywhere between Guildford and 
Staines, perhaps at Farnham — but there is an old intrenchment 
near the Devil's Highway at Broomhill Hut. Can this be Neomagus ? 
The Emperor Hadrian would pass it on his way from Vindomis to Venta 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



221 



Belgarum. I fail to perceive any good reason for placing the nanae of 
Neomagus where it now appears on the map, and I must say 1 am disap- 
pointed at this, for when I saw it where it is, between Horsham and 
Ockley, I thought at once of what I was told many years ago (by one 
Levi Port, who kept the inn at Kowhook, close to the Stane Street), that 
there were at that place several hranchea of the Roman Road, some of 
which had been taken up even in his time, and this suggested to me that if 
Neomagus were in that locality, these branches were the site of it. There 
are also close at hand " Honey Lane " and ** Honey Bush," and I have 
observed elsewhere the word Honey in connection with Roman (or 
ancient) remains. Near Reading there is Honey End. I may also 
mention that I have observed the word " Folly'* in the same connection. 

Dunium would be placed by Ptolemy's figures about Christchurch or 
Lymington. There cannot, however, be much doubt that this place is 
Wareham. 

Then his figures would place Voliba east of Dartmoor ; and Uxella at 
Exeter, not improbably correct ; Tamare at Newton- Abbott, Isca below 
Shaftsbury, and Legio Secunda at Blanford. Taking these together, it 
cannot fail to be seen that Ptolemy's Inland Latitudes and Longitudes are 
not much to be relied on, and, if not misleading, nearly useless ; and we 
are consequently thrown chiefly upon the Itinerary and its distances as 
more to be trusted. 

The following are the names suggested to be applied to several places 

mentioned in the several Iters : — 

Iter VII. 

A Regno (Chichester), Londinium. 
Clausentum (near Haslemere), Venta Belgarum (Caesar's Camp, near 
Aldershot), Calleva Attrebatum (Calvepit Farm, Coley, near Reading), 
Pontibus (Staines)i London. 

Iter XIII. 

Ab Isca (Caerleon), Callevam (Coley). 
Gleva (Gloucester) to Bpinis (Speen) is the Fossway, crossing the 
Ridgeway or Portway at Totter Down, between Wanboro' and Baydon, 
from ISpeen to Coley. 

Iter XIV. 

Alio Itinere ab Isca Callevam. 
Venta Silurum, Abone (Abbott's Leigh Camp), Trajectus (Bitton, 
London Ferry), Aquae Solis (Bath), Verlucione (near Edington), Cune- 
tione (Milden-Hall), Speen, Coley. 

lUr XV. 

A Calleva (Coley), Isca Dumnoniorum (Dorchester). 
Vindomis (near Windsor), Venta Belgarum (near Aldershot), Brige 
(near Alton), Sorbioduno (Alresford), Vindocladia (Otterboum), Dumo- 
raria (Nutshalling), Moriduno (Wareham), Isca Dumnoniorum (Dor- 
chester). 



222 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

lUr VII. 

It would appear not improbable that Claosentam is somewhere on the 
hills between Haslemere, Snrrej, and Headlej, Hants. I belieye it no- 
where appears in what territory it was situate ; therefore it may be either in 
the Regni or Belgie. There is a cnrioas oblong bend in the county 
boundary of Hants just about Grayshot, near Headley ; and this is at 
just about the distance both from Regnum and Venta to correspond with 
Clausentum, and the ground abore Hindhead is so high that it might 
very well afford a commanding site for the outlook of the Roman legions. 
Moreover, in the line through the country from Chichester there appear 
the names of Honey coombe, near Westdean, Stanley Farm and Common, 
and Stanford Common, not far from Gray shot. It is also most probable 
that the Emperor would on his way from Venta to Calleya visit the Camp 
at Wickham Bushes (Bibractse), and by this route the distance from Venta 
to Coley tallies exactly with Antoninus. 

Iter 8 XII I. and XIV. 

On experimenting with a larger map, it was found that 15 miles from 
8peen would not reach Reading, but that this distance reached a spot 
about Coley, near Reading, where there appears marked '' Calvepit 
Fm." Thus Calley-Attrebat. has in the course of centuries become 
abbreyiated and corrupted into Calyepit. Can more be required by the 
most scrupulous inquirer for the identification of Calleya Attrebatum ? 
And it would appear that Dr. Beeke was not mistaken in his suggestion 
that Coley was Calleya, but that he missed Calyepit Farm. 

Thinking it most probable that Abone would be situate on the Abona 
Riyer, rather than at a distance from it, I began to look for a site on the 
banks ; and finding that at Bitton, six miles from Bath, Roman remains 
had been found, I endeayoured to find something nine miles from Bitton 
to answer to Abone, and I found a Camp marked on the bank of the 
Ayon at Abbott's Leigh, just nine miles from Bitton, the distance 
thence to the next station (Venta Silurum) corresponding ; consequently I 
submit that the Abbott's Leigh Camp is Abone, and that Bitton is conse- 
quently Trajectus (or the Ferry) ; and if confirmation of this be required, 
I find also marked on the map, near Bitton, '* London Ferry"; and both 
places lie, moreover, on the Via Julia. 

lUr XV. 

The removal of the site of Calleya some three miles westward from 
Reading involves a removal of Vindomis some similar distance westward 
from Windsor, or Old Windsor. St. Leonard's Hill appears by the 
(1 inch) Ordnance Map to have something like an intrencbment on the 
top (it may, however, be only a road) ; and this would be about the spot 
required. Then there is an old intrencbment near Broomhill Hut and the 
Devil's Highway (already mentioned), which would probably be visited by 
the Emperor on his way, and by this route the distance from Vindomis to 
Venta would be exactly 21 miles, as set down by Antoninus. Then it 
will be found that the distances from Jockey's Ring to Alton (or Lasham 
or Shalden), thence to Alresford, thence to Otterboume, thence to Nat- 



KOTES AND QUERIES. 223 

Bhalling, and thence to Wareham and Dorchester agree exactly with the 
Antonine distances from Venta to Brige, thence to Sorbiodanum, thence 
to Vindocladia, thence to Dumovaria, and thence to Moridunam and Isca 
Dunmoniorum. And moreover there is a Roman Road from Winchester 
past Otterbourne to NntshaUing. I therefore submit verj confidently 
that the names here allocated to these yarious stations are correct. 

It would appear that Camden and subsequent writers have been too 
much in the habit of looking out towns for the places to which to allot 
the names given by Antoninus. No doubt the Emperor's progress was 
made in the summer time, when the troops would be in cBstivis, and his 
yisits would be to the Camps ; but there would be near these Camps, in 
almost all cases, Towns, sometimes in the lower grounds, and these latter, 
in the yarious incursions and devastations of Dane, Saxon, Irish, &c., 
have perished, and left no trace behind (unless under the present surface 
of the ground), and only the Valiums of the Camps remain. But as 
Roman remains have been found in such an unpromising place as Farley 
Heath, Albury, there can be no reason why Hindhead or Grayshot, if ex- 
plored, should not furnish similar traces of Roman occupation. 

At p. 209 Notes and Queries, Vol. XXXI., it is stated that King 
Gurmund, after the burning of Chichester, destroyed cities and towns, 
^^ that never were afterwards made again," which may well have been 
the fate of Clausentum and other towns. 

H. F. Nappbb. 

Loxwood, Sussex. 

No. 4. 
List of Sussex Nobility and Gentry in 1678. 

In Vol. XXTII. is a paper, by Hugh Wyatt, Esq., which gave 
some extracts from a pamphlet relating to the Sussex election poll-book 
of 1734. The manuscript from which that pamphlet was printed was 
for some years in my possession, but is now in the Society's library. The 
names of those who recorded their votes on that occasion were very in- 
teresting to those families who had been long resident in the county, and 
the following list of the nobility and gentry residing or having influence 
in the county upwards of sixty years previously, viz., in the year 1672, I 
have extracted from Blome's " Britannia," published in 1673. 

It would appear that, at this date, the Earl of Dorset was Lord 
Lieutenant, and that the county was represented in Parliament by the 
following gentlemen : — 

p . (Sir John Pelham Bart, 

uounty . . . "J g .^ William Morley Kt. 

r,, . , . CSir Henry Peckham Kt. 

Chichester ...|^ini^ Garroway Esq. 

TT I, rSir J. Covert Bart, 

norsnam . . . ^^Qrlando Bridgman Esq. 

Midhnrst ...{KtKr 



224 NOTES AND QUEBIES. 

T AwoB f ®^' John Staple Bart, 

uewes "'{Sir Thomas Woodcock Kt. 

Br>mW ...f !» Ceea Bl*g> Kt. 

(^ Percy Groring Esq. 

Steyning ..fJl/^G^f^X 

Among other circumstances connected with the county, Blome states 
that there were the following thirteen ppst towns " as they were lately 
established for the benefit of the people " — Chichester, Rye, Winchelsey, 
Battle, Hastings, Hay] sham, Pemsey, Lewes, East Grinstead, Stansted, 
Petworth, Midhurst, and Arundel. 

» 

A LIST OF THE NOBILITY AND GENTRY 

Whidi are^ or lately were, related unto the County of Sussex ; with their 
Seats and Titles by which they are, or have been, known. 

A. 

Edward Alford Esq. 

John Amhurst of Wamham Esq. 

Robert Andersom of the city of Chichester Esq. 

Sir Denny Ashbumham of Broom Hall, Bart. 

John Ashbumham of Ashburnham Esq. 

John Aylinge of Goreing Esq. 

B. 

John Backshall of Beding Esq. 

John Baker of Withiam Esq. 

Thomas Beard of Hurst-perpoynt Esq. 

William Beard of Cuckfield Esq. 

James Beesbeech of Northam Gent. 

James Bellof Yapton Esq. 

Bickley of Chidham Esq. 
Bidolph of Bramblety Esq. 

Henry Bish of East Grinstead Esq. 

Roger Bish of Fenplace Esq. 

Sir Cecil Bishop of Parham Baronet. 

Edward Blaker of Buckingham Esq. 

Sir James Bowyer of Leythome Bart. 

Henry Bowyer of Monham Esq. 

Richard Bridger of Combe Esq. 

Thomas Bromfield of Lewes Esq. 

The Honorable Charles Lord Buckhurst, Son and Heir to the Right 
Honorable Richard Earl of Dorset Baron Buckhurst and Lord Lieutenant 
of the County. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 225 

Henry Brounker of Roumbold-week Esq. 
Timothy Burrel of Cuckfield Esq. 
John Barrel of the same Gent. 
Ninian Barrel of the same Gent. 

0. 

William Chandler of Chideingly Gent. 

Abraham Chapman of West-Hampnet Esq. 

John Cheale of Findon Esq. 

The Right Reverend Peter Ganning Lord Bishop of Chichester. 

Bray Chowne of Horsham Esq. 

Edw* Chowne of Kingstone-Bowsey Esq. 

Richard Cb archer of Fantington Gent. 

Richard Coldham of Eastborne Gent. 

Christopher Cole of Palborrow Gent. 

Thomas Collins of Barwash Esq. 

Sir Christopher Conyers of Rocton Bart. 

William Cooke of West-Barton Gent. 

Sir John Covert of Staagham K^ and Bar*- 

Edward Covert of Edburton Esq. 

Sir George Courthop of Whiligh in the parish of Ticeharst K* de- 
scended from the Coarthops of Coarthop-Street in the parish of Alington 
Kent. 

Peter Coarthop of Danny Esq. 

Anthony Crnttenden of Barwash Gent. 

Sir William Calpeper of Ardingly Bart. 

D. 

William Davye of Bexley Gent. 

William Dawtry of More-Place Esq. 

John de La Chambre of Radmil Esq. 

William Dyke of Fant Esq. 

Thomas Dyke of Horeham in the parish of Waldron Esq'* 

George Dyne of Westfield Gent. 

George Dyne of Wadharst Gent. 

E. 

Henry Edmonds of Yapton Esq. 
William Elson of Oveing Esq. 
Walter Eversden of Fokington Esq. 
Edward Eversfield of Stenning Esq. 

F. 

Sir John Fagge of Wiston Bar^ 

Jo. Farrington of the City of Chichester Esq. 

Thomas Foster of Eastborne Esq. 

Robert Fowle of Saleharst Esq. 

XXXII. 2 G 



226 NOTES AND QUEBIES. 

G. 

William Garrowaj of ChicbeBter Esq. 
Nicholas Gilbert of Betcbington Gent. 
Jobn Godlej of Bynebam Gent. 
Henij Goldsmitb of Burwasb Gent. 
Bobert Gooding of East Grinstead Esq. 
Henij Goreing of Higbdowne Esq. 
Jobn Gratwick of Jarvis Esq. 
Jobn Gratwick of Eatons Esq. 
Hmnpbrey Gratwick of Ham Esq. 
Tbomas Gray of Wolbeding Esq. 
Bir Edward Greaves of S^- Leonards Bart. 
Backrile Greaves of West Firle Esq. 

H. 

William Hardbam of Tillington Gent. 
Jo. Hay of Framfield Esq. 
William Hay of Glinbomne Gent. 
Jobn Hay of Netberfield Gent. 
Sir Walter Henley of Cuckfield Bart. 
Tbomas Hensbaw of Billingbnrst Esq. 

Tbe R. Hon. Denzel Holies, Baron Holies of Ifield, and one of tbe 
Lords of bis Majesties most honorable Priyy Council. 
Jobn Holney of Ditchling Gent. 

L 

Natb : Johnson of Wadhnrst Gent. 
Eicbard Istead of Lewes Gent. 

K. 

Jobn Kettleby of East Grinstead Gent. 
Edward Keyling of Chayley Esq. 

L. 

William Lane of SouthoTer Gent. 
Tbe R. Hon. Richard Lord Lamley &c. 
Thomas Lnxford of Hangleton Gent. 
Edward Lnxford of Keymer Gent. 

M. 

William Markwick of Jerington Gent. 
Richard May of Chichester Esq. 
Edward Michell of Hitchingfield Esq. 
Thomas Middleton of Hangleton Esq. 
Thomas Midmer of Hamsey Gent. 
Ralph Mille of Greatham Esq. 
Richard Mille of Stopham Esq. 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 227 

Bichard Miller of Chiddingly Gent. 
Edward Mitchellbome of Glajton Gent. 
The R. Hon. Henry Lord Montague, Cowdray. 
Edward Montague of Cowdray Esq. Son and heir to the Bight 
Honorable Henry Lord Montague. 
Eliot Moore of Wivelsfield Esq. 
Sir William Morley of Halnaker K** of the Bath. 
William Morley of Glinde Esq. 
8ir James Morton of Slaugham Kt. 
Sir William Morton of the same Kt, 
Francis Mose of Petworth Esq. 

N. 

Bichard Nash of Walberton Esq. 
Joseph Newington of Burwash Esq. 
Goddard Newington of South-oTer Esq. 
John Newman of Chayley Otent, 
Sir Thomas Nutt of Lewes K*- 

O. 
John Oliyer of Lewes Esq. 

P. 

Philip Packer of Groombridge Esq. 

Thomas Paine of Petworth Esq. 

Edward Paine of East Grinstead Esq. 

Charles Paine of the same Gent. 

Thomas Palmer of Harting Esq. 

William Palmer of Lyminster Esq. 

Bobert Palmer of Bury G^nt. 

George Parker of Willingdon Esq. 

John Peche of Chichester Esq. 

Sir Henry Peckham of Chichester K^* and Serjeant at law.. 

John Peckham of Boxgroye Esq. 

Sir John Pelham of Laughton Bart. 

John Pellat of Lewes Esq. 

John Pickering of Cuckfield Gent. 

James Plummer of Bingmer Gent. 

Henry Plummer of the same Gent. 

Edward Polhill of Burwash Esq. 

B. 

Walter Boberts of Tisehurst Esq. 
Bobert Bochester of Selmiston Gent. 
James Bolfe of Dallington Gent. 

S. 

Thomas Sackevill of Sedlescombe Esq. 
John Saunders of Madhurst Gent. 



228 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

William Scrace of Biddolphs Esq. 
Joseph Beaton of Bignor Gent. 
Sir Charles Shelley of MichelgroTe Bar*- 
Henry Shelley of Lewes Esq. 
Sir Anthony Shirley of Preston Bart. 
Drugo Shirley of Worth Esq. 
Roger Shoyswell of Etchingham Esq. 
Thomas Smith of Binderton Esq. 
William Spence of South Mailing Esq. 
Herbert Springatt of Rottingden Esq. 
Anthony Springatt of Plumpton Esq. 
Sir John Staple of Patcham K'- and Bart. 
Alexander Staple of East Grinstead Esq. 
Henry Streudwick of Kirford Esq. 

The R. Hon. James Earl of Sussex, Vise : Sayil and Baron Savil of 
Pontfract. 

T. 
Sir William Thomas of Willingdon Bart. 

V. 

William Vinall of Kingstone Gent. 

W. 

John Ward of West Grinstead Gent. 

John Warden of Cuckfield Gent. 

Oliyer Weeks of Tortington Esq. 

Thomas Weller of Jevington Gent. 

Thomas Wenham of Laughton Gent. 

John Wenham of Nedfield Gent. 

William Westbrook of Tiltington Gent. 

Thomas White of Horsham Gent. 

Sir William Wilson of Eastborne Bar*- 

The Right Honorable Heneage Earl of Winchelsey, Vise. Maidstone, 
Lord Fitzherbert of Eastwell, Lord of the Royal Manour of Wye, and 
one of the Lords Lieutenant of the county of Kent. 

Sir Thomas Woodcock of Lewes Kt. 

Y. 

John Yalden of Farmhurst Gent. 
Matthew Young of Midhurst Gent. 

C. L. Prince. 

No. 5. 
Letter of Ambrose Bigge to Charles the Second, 

In searching the State Papers (Domestic) of August, 1671, which are 
at present uncalendared, I came across the following interesting letter, 
which I think is worthy of a corner in our Collections : — 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 229 

"King Charles 

The Inocency of my Cause, & the integrity of my hart to 
thee & all men, hath bom up my Spirit this many yeares under 
great and sore sufferings w^^in this Kingdom my Native Country 
Who can say in the peSence of god, the great searcher of all 
harts ; That I doe w%ut any manner of deceit or Keservation 
whatsoever ; Bear true & faithfuU Alegiance to thee ; Neither 
was I ever an enemy to thy father or fiiee, in word or deed, soe 
as to seek any hurt to yo' persons or Government : nor (I hope) 
never shall, for I hate y® thought of it in my selfe, or any other 
in whomsoever it shall apear ; yett haue I suffered straite & 
Close imprisonment ; welnigh this Ten yeares, because I dare 
not break y® Comande of Christ to swear, which nothing Short 
of y? mighty arme of y« Lord could have suported me under to 
this 4&y ; Who hath Comanded me to write to thee, That as hee 
once Eminently delivered thee out of the hands of thy Enemies 
in Sussex that thou wouldest deliver one of his opressed Ser- 
vants from his Straite and Close imprisonment there, it being 
wholly Left to thy power & pleasure to doe it by Law. This I 
was Comanded of y® Lord to desire of thee, otherwise I should 
haue still continued in quiet & patient Suffering w%ut aquaini- 
ing thee there w^ as hitherto I haue done 

Whose hart is true & a faithfuU 

to thee & all men, called 

Ahbros Rioob " ^ 
Horsham prison in Sussex 
this 27*.^ of the ^ 1671 

mo 

The honest simplicity of this letter will appeal to every reader. 

Ambrose Bigge (an early member of the Society of Friends '' the 
people in scome called Quakers ") resided at Hurstpierpoint, and was 
arrested at a meeting at the house of Captain Thomas Luxford, and on 
March 28th, 1662, committed to Horsham gaol. Whilst in prison he 
married, on July 6th, 1664, Mary, second daughter of Thomas Luxford 
and Elizabeth his wife, of Hurstpierpoint. It is said that the lengthy 
imprisonment of Ambrose Bigge was owing to the instigation of Leonard 
Letchford,^ Bector of Hurstpierpoint, who sued his wife in her maiden 
name /or tithes for which he had imprisoned tier father !^ 

In 1672, George Whitehead obtained a pardon by letters patent under 
the great seal, for 480 Quakers, including Ambrose Rigge. The latter 
went to reside at Gatton in Surrey, and was excommunicated there. He 
died on Nov. 31st, 1704, and was buried at Reigate. His wife died on 
Nov. 6th, 1689.» 

The dispute between Leonard Letchford and Ambrose Rigge (see S. A. C, 
Vol. XXIX., 124) arose from the former submitting the query — "Whether 
to do good and not to commit sin, be a perfection that any man dares 

1 The letter is remarkably well written, and is also pnDotnated. 

» See S. A. C, Vol. XXIX., 124, 126. 

' *' Some accownt of the life sv^ervtigs Sf testvmomes of that faithful elder ^ ancient 
minister of Jesus Christ, Ambrose Bigge," in Vol. XII. of ** The Friends' Library," 
edited by Wm. Evans and Thomas Evans (Philadelphia, 1848). 



230 NOTES AND QUEBIES. 

challenge whilst he liyes on earthy or whether it he possible for any man so 
to keep God's commandments and to observe his righteous law, as to say 
any day I haye not offended. I have no need to say forgive me in any- 
thing wherein I have done amiss 7 " Letchford, of conrse, strongly 
attacked this view, and had by far the best of the argument. 

Fbedebiok E. Sawteb. 

No. 6. 
Discovery at Edburton. 

In course of the restoration of Edburton Church, a tablet (previously 
lying in fragments) has been re-fixed in the Truleigh Chapel. It bears 
tiie inscription — 

Hero lieth y« Body of William Hippisley Esq' 

who married to wife Katherine y®. daughter 

of John Fellett, of Bolney, Esq") 

By whome he had Issae 

John, Katherini Mary, 

All yet snryivenge 

He dyed November the 4^ (1667) 

Aged 51 

" And seeing stones can speake . 
" both who he was and whiftt lies . 
** he y* oonrt, city, country life h . 
" k folding none that pleased fell . 
" he died if dead he can be said . 
" that knew no life besides E . . 

The Lines are incomplete, through a missing fragment of the tablet. Are 
they a quotation ? or can any reader complete them (not from imagination). 

It adds to the interest of the tablet to know that the poet Cowper was 
descended from this family — Anne Donne, his mother, being the daughter 
of Roger and Catherine Donne, the latter being the daughter of Bruin 
Clench, by Katherine daughter of William Hippisley, Esq. 

The son John is supposed to have died unmarried, but information is 
wanting. C. H. Wilkib. 

No. 7. 

Discovery of a Roman Pavement at Chichester. 

At the beginning of Sept., 1881, an interesting exhumation of Boman 
remains was made in the East Street, on the premises of Mr. E. J. 
Faulkner. While engaged on an excavation, the workmen came upon a 
portion of a tesselated pavement, 5ft. 8in. below the surface. It was 
quite perfect so far as it was found, and appeared to extend in several 
directions beneath the adjoining buildings. The tesserte were large — 
about an inch square — and variously coloured. On some of them were 
traces of the action of fire, perhaps from the ashes of a brazier placed 
upon them. It has been conjectured that this pavement may have formed 
part of the floor of the kitchen of a Roman magnate's house. 

F. H. Arnold. 



NOTES AND QIJEBIES. 231 

No. 8, 
Parochial Clergy Lists. 

Many members have no doubt (in common with myself) experienced a 
difficalty in compiling lists of parochial clergy. I wish therefore to ex- 
plain (as the resiQt of some years' work) a ready way of accomplishing the 
task. 

' The MSS. of Dr. Ducarel (of Lambeth Library) in the British 
Museum, Add. MSS. 6061 to 6120, give all presentations, admissions sede 
vacante, &c., by the Archbishop of Canterbury, from about 1200 to 1750. 
They should never be overlooked so far as Sussex is concerned. The 
Indexes to Institutions and of Compositions for First Fruits, both in the 
Public Becord Office, give lists of vicars, &c., from the latter part of 
Henry VIIL to the beginning of this century. 

Calamy's Nonconformist Memorial gives the names of ejected clergy in 
1662, and Walker's Sufferings of the C7Z«r^^ furnishes the names of those 
persecuted by the Puritans. The Proceedings of the Committee of 
Plundered Ministers, Add, MSS. (British Museum), 15,669, 15,670, and 
15,671, supply many names. There are also several volumes of these 
proceedings in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

Fbedbriok E. Sawtbb. 

No. 9. 

Customs of Singleton Manor, Sussex, 

The recent case of In re Smart, Samrt v. Smart (Law Reports, 18 
Chancery Division, p. 165), is of interest to Sussex archaeologists. The 
Steward of the Manor deposed that *^ the custom of the manor was that 
all copyholds descend to the youngest son or daughter, brother or sister, 
uncle or aunt.'' There was no evidence as to descent to more remote 
collateral relations. The plaintiff, who was the youngest son of the 
youngest uncle, who leffc sons, of the deceased, claimed the property, but 
Vice-Chancellor Bacon held that the custom could not be extended beyond 
what was recorded and decided in favour of the heir at the common law. 

Fbederiok E Sawteb. 

No. 10. 
Sussex Places, Names, and Pasturage Customs. 

I have indexed about 8,000 variations in the spellings of the names of 
the principal places in Sussex, and shall be glad of further assistance in 
the work. My index is at the service of any one writing for our Collec- 
tions. 

I am now collecting lists of field-names in the various parishes in 
Sussex, and customs as to commons, rights of pasturage, &c., and should 
be much obliged by any information on these subjects. 

Fbedebiok E. Sawteb. 



282 NOTES AND QUEBIES. 

No. 11. 

The History of London by William Maitland, F.B.8., 1739. 

'* Stow. Snr. Lond/» 
'' Opposite S^ Olaye's Chnrch anciently stood a spacious Stone Build- 
ing, the City Mansion of the Prior of Lewis in Sussex ; the Chapel of 
which consisting of Two Isles, being still remaining at the upper End of 
Walnut-tree-alley, 'tis conyerted into a Cyder Cellar, or Warehouse ; 
and by the Earth's being greatly rais'd in this Neighbourhood, 'tis at 
present under Ground ; and the Gothick Building a little westward of the 
same, (at present a Wine Vault, belonging to fiie King's head Tayem) 
under the School-house, representing a smcJl Chapel, I take to have been 

Part of the said Mansion-house." 

'' On the East Side of the Bridge yard, was situate the Abbot of Battle 
in Sussex^s City Mansion (the Name whereof is partly presery'd in that 
of Battle-bridge) ; opposite to which, on the South, lays its fine and 
spacious Garden, wherein was a Maze or Labyrinth, the Name whereof is 
still presery'd in the Streets <&c thereon erected." 

P. DB PUTBON. 

No. 12. 
South Bersted Church, 

During the recent restoration of this ancient fabric, many remnants 
of Saxon sculpture were found, also traces of paintings upon the pillars, 
although for the most part these early works of art are so defaced as to 
be barely discernible. Of the principal painting left, enough fortunately 
remains to enable the subject of it to be made out. It represents '^ The 
disputations of Thomas Aquinas with the doctors of the Church." The 
painting is in distemper, of rude execution, and of the period of the early 
part of the 16th century. Thomas Aquinas wears the mitre of an Abbot 
and a robe of green. The Duomo at Pisa, contains a picture also painted 
on a pillar, and in distemper, by Benozzo Gozzoli, mentioned by Vasari, 
'' con infinito numero di dotti che disputandum sopra Vopere stie.** This 
appears to haye been so here, some of the heads of the '* dotti " haying 
been carried round the fluting of the capital. The painting at Pisa is 
extolled by Vasari, and mentioned by Ryan. Mrs. Stafke, who also 
speaks of it, describes a painting by liaini, in the Church of St. 
Catarina, of the same subject. In Traini's picture the " angelic doctor " 
is represented as '* surrounded by the fathers of the Church, amongst 
whom is a portrait of Urban VI. ; at the feet of these are seyeral philoso- 
phers and heretics, with their works torn in pieces . . . whilst Thomas 
himself is placed between Plato and Aristotle, who are presenting him 
with their literary productions." It will naturally be asked what connec- 
tion was there between the churches of Pisa and the south of England ? 
The connecting link is probably to be found in the fact mentioned by the 
Rey. W. R. W. Stephens, in his recent history of " The South Saxon 
Diocese," where, at page 174-5, speaking of Bishop Sherburne, who held 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 233 

the See of Chicliester from 1508 to 1536, he mentions " two large oil 
paintings on wood, now in the south transepts," which " were executed by 
Bernardi, an Italian artist, who, with his two sons, seems to have been 
much patronised by the bishop." After describing the pictures, the Rev. 
Mr. Stephens says that ^' The episcopal palace is indebted to Bishop 
Sherburne for the entrance gateway at the west end of Canon Lane, and 
the beautiful panelled and painted ceiling of the dining-hall." It is certain 
that Bishop Sherburne, who brought over T. Bemardi, was a great patron 
of art, and almost equally certain that his example and influence would be 
felt in the neighbourhood of Chichester. 



No. 13. 
Discovery of Roman Pottery at Worthing. 

During the summer of 1881, whilst some workmen were engaged erect* 
ing some greenhouses at Messrs. Webster and Co.'s nurseries on the East 
Chesswood Estate, they came across a quantity of Roman remains 
about two feet six inches under the surface, and at a point a few feet south 
of the railway. Unfortunately, as is too often the case, the workmen did 
not communicate the fact of the discovery till they had buried most of the 
pieces they had found, which had been accidentally broken in digging. A 
writer in the Worthing Intelligencer (from several numbers of which 
journal the particulars given here are principally derived) says the spot is 
evidently the site of an old burial ground of Roman times ; and also 
remarks that it is well known the Romans principally made their burial 
places at the sides of their roadways, and suggests that this cemetery 
points out the site of a road leading from the coast to Cissbury. In all 
between 80 and 40 pieces of pottery, principally funeral urns, were re- 
covered in a tolerably perfect condition in three finds, of which the details 
will be transcribed from the columns of the journal already mentioned, 
but it is known that in one instance at least Roman pottery was dug 
up by workmen employed on the same estate, and broken and buried 
again, without attention being directed to the discovery. 

The first find was in April, 1881, and is thus described : — " Some 
funeral urns of a soft black ware were discovered filled with bones. The 
men endeavoured to get the urns out, but they were so soft that they broke 
to pieces when the hand was placed beneath them, and the men then buried 
them and their contents. One or two very small pieces of the urns have 
been recovered, together with many fragments of a rough light grey ware, 
which the men state they found broken under the urns. One of these 
pieces is the bottom of an amphora of considerable size. The bottom, and 
mouth and neck, of a smaller vessel of the same description has also been 
saved. The remaining pieces perfect enough to be of any value are four in 
number. The first, a vessel 5^in. high, and 2|in. in diameter at the top, 
is of red ware, once covered with a black glaze both inside and out, the 
glaze being now so worn away that the red shows through. The shape is 
peculiar. The vessel was made with the sides bulging out, and while the 
clay was still soft the sides were pressed in in six places vertically. The 

XXXII. 2 H 



234 NOTES AND QUEBIES. 

yessel is probably a drinking cup, the indentations being made for con- 
venience in holding it. The second piece is similar to the first, onlj little 
more than half its size in height and diameter. It is, howeyer, perfect, and 
the glaze still remains. The third is the most ornamental piece re- 
covered. It is the bottom half of an amphora of very elegant shape. Its 
largest diameter is about 3| inches, and at the foot about I^ inches. It is of 
yellow ware, glazed red inside and black outside. The outside glaze is 
much worn away. It is ornamented round the thickest part with a scroll 
pattern something like a series of the letter S placed horizontally, over- 
lapping one another, and under these a row of dots. The fourth piece is 
perhaps the most interesting. It is aflat bowl 6^ inches in diameter, and, 
including the footing, nearly 2 inches high. It is of red Bamian ware, 
glazed. The glazing is a little defective, but in other respects the bowl is 
perfect. In the centre is a label stamped across a small circle, and con- 
taining the letters * 6EAERIM.' ^e word *Severi' is of frequent 
occurrence on Samian ware as the name of the potter." In May, 1881, a 
further find was made, which is thus chronicled in the Worthing Intel- 
ligencer for the 21st of that month. After stating that the discovery was 
made whilst digging "in a north-easterly direction from the first find," 
the account continues : — " The last discovery comprises four funeral urns, 
some other vessels in a more or less perfect state, and a vast quantity of 
fragments. Two of the urns were got up whole. Each is of a light grey 
ware, hard but porous. They were filled with earth and calcined bones, the 
earth showing signs of the leaves which are known to have been put into 
the urns at the time of interment. The larger of the two urns is perfectly 
plain. It was covered with a bowl of Samian ware inverted. This bowl 
is perfect, except as to the glazing, which is slightly defective. It is 7-^ 
inches in diameter, and, including the foot, 2^ inches high. On the top 
of the rim is the ivy-leaf pattern, common in Samian ware, but the potter's 
name does not appear. The contour of the vessel is particularly elegant. 
Inverted over this bowl was another of coarser ware, of a reddish yellow 
colour, 3 inches in diameter and 1^ in height, and perfectly plain, perhaps 
of Romano- Salopian manufacture. The other urn was not covered; it is 
smaller than the first, being 6 inches in height and 8 inches in diameter 
in its broadest part, the bottom being 3 inches in diameter. It is oma- 
me^ited by three indented lines running round its circumference, and con- 
tains, besides the earth and bones, two or three pieces of black 
tile with circular marks crossing each other. The other two urns are 
broken into small pieces. They are of the same description of ware as the 
first, and contained earth and calcined bones. One of them stood in a 
bowl of Samian ware, larger but plainer than the one before described, the 
only ornament being a series of wavy lines near the centre from which they 
radiate. It is 10^ inches broad and 2^ inches high. Amongst the other 
pieces found was a Samian bowl, exactly the same size as Uie first one 
described, but of a slightly .difi'erent contour, and without any ornamenta- 
tion. Standing in it was an amphora with a particularly small neck ; it is 
of a yellowish ware, and devoid of all ornamentation. The height is 
6 inches, the diameter in the broadest part 4^ inches, at the bottom 
1 1 inches, and at the neck | of an inch. Another bowl of Samian ware 
about the same size as the one first described, but perfectly plain, and a 



KOT£S AND QUEBIBS. 235 

cup, complete the list of the pieces that are perfect or nearly so. The 
cap is of a yellow ware, glazed with black of a satiny appearance, and 
of a form common in Castor pottery, the centre being pressed in in eight 
places yertically. It is ornamented with three rows of notches, is 5 
inches in height, 1^ inches in diameter at the foot, 1|^ inches at 
the mouth, and 3 inches in the broadest part. The remaining 
fragments comprise the bottom of a cup similar to the last, and a 
piece of a small bowl of Upchurch ware. It is a curious fact that all these 
relics of Roman times were found in a line running from north-west to 
south-east, exactly between Cissbnry and the spot on the forty acre field 
where Mr. E. C. Patching, some time ago discovered an urn containing 
bronze implements, though the latter were of Celtic times.*' On July 9th, 
1881, the journal just quoted from reported a third find in the following 
terms : — " More Boman remains have been brought to light at Messrs. 
Webster and Co.'s Nurseries on the East Chesswood Estate. They com- 
prise the following pieces : A funeral urn filled with calcined bones, but so 
soft that it broke to pieces in being taken up. A few pieces of the botton^ 
of a funeral urn of red ware very like Samian, if it is not really so. The 
body and neck and small part of the handle of a small amphora or jug 
about 6 inches high, and of a yery soft yellow ware. A bowl of yellow 
ware about 6 inches in diameter and 1^ inches high, which has been glazed 
red in imitation of Samian ; it has a small, flat handle. A flat bowl of 
Bamian ware somewhat larger than the last with the ivy-leaf pattern round 
the rim, and similar to the one previously dug up. Another bowl of 
Samian ware similar to the one previously discovered with the potter's 
name on ; no name is stamped on this one. Another bowl of Samian 
ware of very delicate shape, the glazing being perfect. We understand 
that the whole collection, now numbering between 30 and 40 pieces, is 
being cleaned and mended, and will be exhibited at the forthcoming exhi- 
bition in aid of the New Infirmary. The inhabitants of the town will 
thus have the opportunity of seeing this local find of Eoman work, which 
is particularly interesting on account of the quantity of Samian ware in 
good preservation, this ware being so brittle that it is seldom found except 
broken in small pieces." A. J. Fruton, Esq., in whose hands the pottery 
was placed for the purpose of being cleansed and repaired, and to whom, 
with Robert Piper, Esq., the various pieces belong, says that the maker's 
name is illegible on the bowl of Samian wore referred to as resembling 
the one marked " SEAERIM," and also that the proposed exhibition of 
the pottery did not take place. Mr. Fruton would be glad to show the 
pottery to any members of the S. A. Society who may call upon him ; he 
has also, besides carefully putting the pieces in order, made coloured 
drawings of the more interesting vessels. 

No. 14. 
Proceedings of the Committee of Plundered Ministers relating to Sussex, 

ADDENDA. 

Assembly op Divikes. Francis Cheynell (Vol. XXXI, pp. 169, 
170). In the Lay Subsidy 16th Chas. II. (Sussex \%\), under *' Preston 



236 NOTES AND QUEBIES. 

and Hove Hundred," we find " Francis Cheynell Doctor in Divinity in 
lands — XX' — viij' '* 

Benjn. Pickering (Vol. XXXI, pp. 169, 170). Was father-in-law 
to Edward Newton, ejected from St. Ann's, Lewes, in 1662 (see Calamy's 
Nonconformist Memorial , Vol. III). 

Henry Nye (Vol. XXXI, pp. 169, 170). He had died before 1653, 
as in that year Samuel Wilmer was minister, and the living being small, 
was united with that of Patching, vacant by the death of Mr. Whetstone 
(Calendar of State Papers^ 1653, pp. 315 and 369). Samuel Wilmer 
compounded for the first-fruits of Clapham on Oct 29th, 1651 {Index to 
Compoaitiona^ Public Record Office). 

HuRSTPiBRPOiNT (Vol. XXX, p. 121). Lcouard Letchford com- 
pounded for the first-fruits of this living on May 6th, 23rd Chas. I. 
{index). In the Returns to a Commission . issued by the Bishop of 
Chichester as to the Sussex churches, &c., in 1724, we find under Hurst- 
pierpoint : — " M'* Letchford sometime Rector gave a hundred Pound to 
purchase land the Rent of which is to be Divided yearly among Tenn 
Industrious Persons with large families. — The Parishioners who are 
Trustees distribute the Interest accordingly. No land being yet pur- 
chased." A distribution of this money is mentioned in ^^ The Marchant 
Diary;' Dec. 26th, 1714 (XXV, 8. A. C. 170). 

Westbourne (Vol. XXX, pp. 133 to 136). Thomas Rynne com- 
pounded for the first-fruits of this living on Nov. 5th, 22nd Chas. I. The 
name should be Prynne (see XXII, S. A. C, 104). 

NiNPiELD John Giles, sequestered in 1645 (Vol. XXX, p. 126), 
was brother [-in-law] to John Abbot of Hollington (see XXI, S. A. C, 
140, 141). 

Eastbourkb The proceedings against James Graves (Vol. XXX, p. 
119) are described in XI, S. A. C, 80, 31. 

Bexhill The will of Ann Carr, widow of Thomas Carr (incum- 
bent of Hollington 1644 to 1667), dated 1667, refers to Thomas Delves, 
minister, and appoints him her executor (XXI, S. A. C, 143). 

Ardikoly George Bladworth (Vol. XXXI, p. 170) was vicar of 
Lindfield Darches in 1642 (Add. MS. 5698, p. 196). 

Wadhurst (Vol. XXXI, p. 198). Jacobs Wilcox compounded for 
first-fruits of this living on Dec. 28th, 1650 (Index), 

CowpoLD (Vol. XXXI, p. 194). George Vinter compounded for 
the first-fruits of this living on Nov. 30th, 1652 (Index). 

HoRSTED Parva (Vol. XXX, p. 120). Joseph Biggs com- 
pounded for the first-fruits of this parish on Nov. 11th, 1652 (Index). 
He had been appointed more than seven years before. 

East Blatchington (Vol. XXX, p. 118). The will of Nicholas 
Pope was proved in the Lewes Registry (Book A 29, fol. 42). It is 
dated Oct. 8th, 1661, and refers to testator s daughter '* Frances Sand- 
ford, widow of Edward Sandford whoe dyed in Ireland where shee still 
liveth," to his sons Ralph and Thomas, and the latter's sons Thomas and 
Ralph, testator's sons Nicholas and John. He gives the residue to his 
son Anthony and his daughter Mary, and appoints them Executors, 
" they haveing continued with me & hindred themselves of their pre- 
ferment for my sake.*' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



237 



Bbpton (Vol. XXXI). The following additional particulars were very 
kindly supplied by H. W. Freeland, Esq., formerly M.P. for Chichester, 
from the MSB. of his father, H. Freeland, Esq. :— 

Bepton B. 



Date of 
Admission 


Inonmbent 


How vacant 


Patron 


1615 July 4 
1625 March 6 

1667 Feb 9 


Theophilns Kent 
AM 

Henry Biggs 

AB 

Thomas Nepiker 


death of Wm 
Bnffe 
res Theoph Kent 


The Bishop 
ratione lapsus temporis 
John Locke of Lynch 
Yeoman by grant from 
Yiscoiint Montague 



Frbdbbigk E. Sawtbr. 



No. 15. 

The Font in St Nicholas' Churchy Brighton. 

I am inclined to think I have discovered the subject of one of the 
sculptures on this ancient font ; or a clue which, if followed up, will enable 
it to be identified. 

Mr. Somers Clarke, Jun., in his paper on St. Nicholas' Church in this 
volume, gives an interesting description of the figures on the font, and an 
explanation of three of them, but of the remaining one he remarks 
(page 55) : — " Whether the panel containing two figures — one of them 
with a round ball on the head — may represent the * worshyppe * of * the 
false image of the cursed Dyane ' I cannot say. I submit that probably 
the explanation may be gathered from the following quotation : — * St. 
Nicholas in Christian art is represented in episcopal robes, and has 
either three purses or golden balls, or three children, as his distinctive 
symbols. The three purses are in allusion to the three purses given by 
him to three sisters to enable them to marry. The three children allude 
to the legend that an Asiatic gentleman sent his three boys to school at 
Athens, but told them to call on St. Nicholas for his benediction ; they 
stopped at Myra for the night, and the innkeeper, to secure their baggage, 
murdered them in bed, and put their mangled bodies into a pickling-tub 
with some pork, intending to sell the whole as such. St. Nicholas had a 
vision of the whole affair, and went to the inn, when the man confessed 
the crime, and St. Nicholas raised the murdered boys to life again.' *' (See 
" Hone's Everyday Book," Vol. I, col. 1556 ; Maitre Wace, " Metrical 
Life of St. Nicholas.") 

On suggesting to Mr. Somers Clarke, Jun., that the sitting figure is 
intended fbr St. Nicholas, who is raising his hand as in admonition, and 
that the figure on one knee before him represents the conscience-stricken 
innkeeper, Mr. Somers Clarke objected that the usual symbols to indicate 
the saint were not present in the sculpture. 



238 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

At first sight this seems a fatal objection. But is it really so? 
There are no symbols to indicate that it is any other saint in the 
Calendar, and an indifferent personage would hardly be introduced into 
such august company as that of our Lord and the patron saint of the 
Church 1 If the artist had deemed it necessary to introduce a sjrmbol in 
accordance with the canons of Christian art, he would scarcely have 
selected the three children, when he had a choice of other symbols, as the 
said children were at the time supposed to be in pickle, according to the 
legend. Did the sculptor select another and more suitable emblem or 
symbol ? I think it at least possible. Mr. Somers Clarke, Jun., remarks 
upon the round ball on the top of the head of the seated figure. May 
not this be the remaining one of three balls originally carved on, or over, 
the saint's head, or a species of stenographic equivalent for the saint's 
distinctive symbol ? 

A further difficulty presents itself in the fact of St. Nicholas not being 
episcopally habited ; but as Mr. Somers Clark, Jun., points out (page 
51), our Lord is shown in the panel representing the Institution of the 
Supper with a nimbus, and in the Baptism without that distinction. St. 
Nicholas in like manner may be purposely represented with mitre and 
crozier in the principal panel in which he figures, and without those 
accessories in the subordinate or smaller one. The fact of the church 
being dedicated to St. Nicholas would supply a reason for dispensing with 
every precise detail, as all who were wont to attend the church would need 
no information upon the subject, as is the case where a number of saintly 
figures are introduced into a design, and a distinctive symbol become neces- 
sary to enable one to be distinguished from the other. A certain similarity 
in the drapery worn by St. Nicholas in the larger panel, and by the seated 
figure now under consideration, will not be unobserved ; nor will the 
diabolical countenance of the figure who is represented as having fallen 
upon one knee before the saint ; he would pass muster in a melodrama 
for a villain of the deepest dye 1 Two other points only, and I have 
done : firstly, if the round ball on the head of the seated figure is not a 
symbol or part of one, what is it ? Secondly, is it not likely that it 
would occur to the artist that St, Nicholas, in visiting the innkeeper^s house, 
would have laid aside his episcopal robes, and, so to speak, have presented 
himself before the guilty man incog,? If so he would have represented the 
saint plainly habited, as appears to be the case, or rather as is the case with 
the figure in question. Perhaps these suggestions, if not accepted as either 
satisfactory or as explanatory of the meaning of a portion of an ancient and 
curious work of art, may at least help to put some of the members of the 
Sussex Archaeological Society upon the right trail, if only upon the prin- 
ciple suggested by old Polonius, where he says : — " By indirections find 
directions out." 

Brighton, John Sawyer. 

No. 16. 

Su Nicholas Churchy Brighton, 

In the S. A. C, Vol. XVI, p. 128, there is an illustration of a tile of 
similar character to that discovered at St. Nicholas', and described in page 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 239 

44 of this volume. I should have mentioned that in the vestry of St. 
Nicholas' Church there is. a picture of " The Crucifixion," by Van Een, a 
pupil of Vandyke, which was presented to the Church by the late Rev. T. 
Trocke, Perpetual Curate of the Chapel Royal, Brighton ; and also that 
on the 6th December, 1881, the feast of St. Nicholas, which, as Mr. 
Erredge remarks, " History of Brighthelmstone," page 82, •* used to be 
celebrated with devout dependence by the mariners of Brighthelmstone, 
before the Reformation," was revived by the Rev. J. J. Hannah, M.A., 
Vicar of St. Nicholas', and celebrated with great rejoicing and success 
at the Dome, and Com Exchange, Royal Pavilion. 

SoMEBS Clarke, Jun. 

No. 17. 

Captain Nicholas TetterselL 

Some further particulars relating to Captain Nicholas Tettersell and 
his descendants, to the escape of Charles II., and to the history of the 
Gunter family, in addition to those contained in the very interesting 
paper in this volume by F. E. Sawyer, Esq., F.M.S., will be found on 
referring to S. A. C, V, 202-204 ; XI, 42 ; XVIII, 122, 123 ; XXIII, 
7-12 ; XXVI, 276 ; XXVII, 87-90 ; and XXXII, 72. 

A reference may also be made to Mr. M. A. Lower's " Worthies of 
Sussex," page 298. 

OBITUARY. 

It having often been felt to be a matter of regret that no. record has 
been kept in our Collections, of the decease of those who have not only 
been members of the Sussex Archaeological Society, but in many instances 
have enriched its volumes by their contributions, and in various ways have 
helped to sustain and foster an interest in Archaeology, the Editorial 
Committee would be glad if in future, upon the death of any member of 
the Society, a notification were sent to their Honorary Secretary, accom- 
panied with a brief record of any services known to have been rendered to 
the Society by the deceased. 

"the following is a list of the Members who have died in or about the 
years 1880-81 :— 

Beard, T E., Lewes. 

Bigg, Capt. W., Nuthurst, Horsham. 

Bigge, Mrs. Arthur, 20, Cambridge Road, Brighton. 

Blaauw, Mrs., Beechlands, Newick. 

Brown, Rev. Felix, Pulborough. 

Butler, G. Slade, Esq., F.S.A., Rye. 

Cave, Right Honble., Belgrave Square, London. 

Creak, A., Esq., The Wick, Brighton. 

Dodd, Henry, Esq., The Hall, Rotherfield. 

Fitz Hugh, Rev. Preb. W. A., Street, near Lewes. 

Hamilton, Mrs., Avondale Villa, Kenilworth. 

Hankey, John A., Cuckfield. 



240 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Hanningfcon, Lieut.-Col., Hurstpierpoint. 
Hajley, Rev. Burrell, Catsfield, Battle. 
Ingram, John, Esq., Steyning. 
Longcroft, G. J., Havant. 
Luxford, J. O., High Ham, Hawkhorst. 
Ouvry, Fred., F.S.A., London. 
Penley, Montague, Brighton. 
Postlethwaite, G., Esq., East Grinstead. 
Pott, Arthur, Esq., Tunbridge Wells. 
Boss, ThoB , Hastings. 
Sanders, Mr. Jas., Hailsham. 
Tagart, C. F., Esq., Wallands, Lewes. 
Webb, Mr. Alderman, Brighton. 
Wilkinson, Mr. P. B., Brighton. 

EBBATUM. 

Vol. XXXI, page 172, line 18, John Cowdrey ind. to Bramber 
Bectory 1658. Buried 9 July (not 1627) 1697. 



J7 



INDEX TO VOL. XXXII. 









A. 



Alborne, see Ea/rly Sussex WilU, 125. 

Alciston ,, 

Alfriston „ 

Alfriston, barrow at, 191. 

Amiens, leaden font at, 76. 

Ancient Britons, their mode of con- 

stmcting fortifications, 169. 
Anderida, Seaford suggested as the site 

of, 183. 
Andr^, J. L., on Leaden Fonts in 

Sussex, 75-80. 
Andrei Lewes, see Early Sussex WilU, 

126. 



Antonine Itinerary, criticism of paper 

npon in S. A. C, Yol. zxxi, 215-223. 
Ardyngle, see Ewrly Sussex Wills, 125. 
Arlyngton „ „ 

Arnold, Bey. T. H., LL.B., on Thomej 

Island, 1-18. 
Arondel Borough, M.P.'s for (1422- 

1558), 141, et seq. 
Ashburnham Ironworks, the, 20. 
Attree, Lieut. F. W. T., B.E., on Early 

Wills at Lewes, 128-140. 



B. 



Balcombe see Early Sussex WUU, 125» 
Barwyk „ „ 

Beard, William, see Tettersell, 96. 
Beckelay, see Early Sussex Wills, 125. 
Bedyngham „ „ 

Bezhill „ „ 

Bickley, Thomas, Bishop of Chichester, 

owner of Bickley Manor in 1594, see 

Thomey, 9. 
Bickley family, note on pedigree, ib. 
Bibliography, Sussex, recent, 201. 
Blachyngton, see Early Sussex Wills, 

125. 
Bodyham „ 

Bolney „ 

Borne „ „ 

Bosham Church, see Thomey 1, et seq. 



I) 



Bramber Borough, H.P.'s for (1452- 

1558), 153, etseq, 
Braybrooke, Lord, see Tettersell, 96. 
Breade, see Early Sussex Wills, 125. 
Brighthelmstone, benefactions to the 

town, list of, 66-68. 
Brighthelmiston, see Ea/rly Sussex 

Wills, 125. 
Bryghtlyng, see Ea/rly Sussex Wills, ib. 
Bronze fonts, 79. 
Bunker's mound tumulus at Brighton, 

34. 
• Bunyan, John, his release from Bedford 

Jail, see Tettersell, 89. 
" Burdyck Hill," 181, note. 
Burwashe, see Early Sussex Wills, 125. 
Buflhopston „ 126. 



c. 



Canrer, Bichard, see Tettersell, 89. 
Cattsfeld, see Ea/rly Sussex Wills, 126. 
Chalvyngton „ „ 

Chamber, Thomas, Will of, 185. 
Charles II., petitions to by Sussex 

ironworkers, 23-26. 
Chayley, see Early Sussex WUls, 126. 
Checeham, see Thomey, 105. 
Chetyngle, see Early Sussex Wills, 

126. 

XXXII. 



Chichester City, M.P.'s ior (1422- 

1558), 14il,et seq, 
Chichester City, discovery of Bomaa 

pavement at, 230. 
Chiddingly, ironworks, 21. 
Chidham, see Thorney, 1. 
Churton, T. T., on *'Ioklesham 

Church," 105-120. 
Cinque Ports, M.P.'s for (1422-1658), 

141, et seq. 

2 I 



OLABKE. 



[ 242 ] 



HETHFELD. 



Clarke, Somen, jnnr., on St. Nicholas* 

Church, Brighton, 83-74. 
Clayton, see Early Suuex WilUf 126. 
Clements in Hastynflr „ „ 

Cleigy lists, Parochial, 281. 
Colepeper, Jane, Will of, 186. 
Cowf old, see Early Sutsex WiUa, 127. 



Crawley, see Early Bussex TFiZZf, 127. 
Crowherst „ ,« 

Cnckfeld „ u 

Cnckmere, Boman nm discoyered at, 

%llu8tTated, 184. 
Cnstoms of Singleton Manor, Sussex, 

281. 



D. 



Dallaway on the diminished size of 
Thomey Island, see Thomeyf 2. 

Dalyngton, see Early Sussex WilUt 127. 

Danish invaders, supposed remains of, 
see Thomey, 11. 

Denton, see ^irly Sussex WiUs, 127. 



Dichenyng, see Early Sussex Wills, 127. 
Diodoms Sicnlns, remarks on the Isle 

of Wight, see Tkomey 2, note, 
Ditchling, monumental inscription at, 

215. 



B. 



Early Wills at Lewes, paper on by 

P. W. T. Attree, 123-140. 
East Grinstead Borongh, M.F.'s for 

(1422-1558), 141, et seq. 
Echyngham, see JSarly Sussex WiUSf 

127. 
Edbnrton Church, its leaden font, 76, 

€ft seq. 



Edbnrton Church,, discovery of mural 

tablet in, 280. 
Errors in former S. A. C. volumes, cor- 

rection of, 213. 
Esideyne, see Early Sussex Wills, 127. 
Ewerst „ „ 

Excavations at Seaford, 167. 



F. 



Fairlight, see ^areUy. 

Fawkener, John, Will of, 186. 

Ff aimer, see Early Sussex Wills, 127. 

Ffareley (Fairlight) „ 

Ffletchyng „ 

Ffokyngton 



>f 



M 



>> 






Ffrant, see Early Sussex Wills, 127. 
Frant ironworks, 21. 
Freston, see Early Sussex Wills, 127. 
Ffyrles „ „ 

Funtington, inquisition at, see Tkomey, 
4. 



G. 



Gerland, Henry, Dean of Chichester, 

see liiomey, 4. 
Gestlyng, see Early Sussex Wills, 128. 
Gold Fonts, 79. 

'* Gore," probable meaning of, 194. 
*' Great Deep," the, see Thomey, 1. 
Grenehill, William, Will of, 136. 
Grenested, see Early Sussex Wills, 

128. 



Grinstead, see East Grinstead. 

Gulforth, see Early Sussex Witts, 128. 

Gunter (or Counter), Colonel George^ 
assisted Charles II. to escape to 
France ; his pedigree, petition after 
the Bestoration, copy of letter from 
Charles II., see Tettersell, 102-104. 

Gunter, Thomas, see Tettersell, 



H. 



Hamsay, see Early Wills, 128. 
Hangulton „ „ 

Eastings, M.F.'s for (1422-1658), 141, 

et seq. Bee also Cinque Ports, Old 

Priory, and Clements, 
Hartfeld, see Early Wills, 128. ' 
Hayling Island, see Thomey, 1, et seq. 



Heighten, see 
Helsham 


Early Wills, 128. 


Helynglee 
Henfeld 


If ti 


Herstmonsex 


129. 


Herstperpoynt 
Hethfeld 


i» »» 



HILP. 



[ 243 ] LULLYNGTON. 



« Hild of land," see Thomey, 10. 

" Hole rise," rivulet of, see Thomeyt 2. 

Holinshed on Thome, see Thoniey, 3. 

Hollington, Parochial History of, cor- 
rection, 214. 

Holjngale, Wylliam, of Westmyston, 
will of, 137. 

Holyngton, see Early Wills, 129. 

Hog „ ,, 



Horsham Borough, M.P.'s for (1422. 

1678), 141, et seq. 
Horstedkayns, see Ewrly Wills, 129. 
Horsted Farva 
Hothlee 
Hova 
Hugaenot Refugee Families in Sussex, 

216. 






ft 



I. 



loklesham Church, paper on, by T. T. 
Ohurton, the building not mentioned 
in Domesday, derivation of name 
doubtful, various conjectures, 105 ; 
the Church mentioned in Taxation of 
Pope Nicholas the Fourth and Nonsa 
Boll, 105 ; g^nt of the ecclesiastical 
patronage to Battle Abbey, copy of 
grant and confirmation, the impro- 
priation of the rectory, 106 ; the 
church dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
architecture, ib. ; half-pillars, with 
hooks, for supporting images, 107 ; 
detailed description of building, 107- 
110; Easter sepulchre, notBf ib. ; de- 
tails of restoration, bequests of Henry 



Fynohe (1493), 111 ; Eleanor and 
Aiithony common Christian names ifi 
registers (1610), 113 ; Commissions 
(in 1686 and 1874), ib. ; church- 
wardens' accounts (from 1712), 
curious extracts from, 113-117 ; re- 
ferences in Chichester Cathedral 
Library, extracts, 118-121 ; dimen- 
sions of the Church, 122. 

Iden, see Early Wills, 67. 

Ifeld „ „ 

Iford „ „ 

Iron furnaces and forges in Sussex in 
1653-67, Ust of, 19-82. 

Ironworks, the Sussex, 19-32. 



J. 



Jevyngton, see Early Sussex Wills, 129. | Johis Lewes, ib. 



K. 



Eyngston juxta Lewes, 
Sussex Wills, 180. 



see Early 



Eymer, aee EaarVy 8uU9x WiUs, 129. 



L. 



Lawghton, see Ea/rly TTtlls, 130. 

Leaden Fonts in Sussex, by J. L. 
Andr^, number, usual shape, stone or 
brick bases, ornamentation, casting, 
76, 76 ; description of examples at 
Piecombe, Edburton, and Parham, 
77 ; whitewashed and blackened 
fonts, 79 1 list of leaden fonts in 
England, 79, 80. 

" Legenda Aurea,*' the, quotation from, 
65-57. 



Lewes Borough, M.P.*8 for (1422-1658), 
141, et seq, 

Litlyngton, see Early Wills, 130. 

" Little Deep," the, see Thomey, 1. 

London, history of in 1739, extract re- 
lating to the City Mansion of the 
Prior of Lewes, 232. 

Lowe, Edward, the Rev., supposed 
Vicar of Brighton, see Tettersell, 99. 

LuUyngton, see Early Wills, 130. 



MABESFELD. 



[ 244 ] POTTENHAM. 



M. 



Maresfeld, see Early Sussex W%IU, 180. 

** Marker," see Thomey, 8. 

HemberB of Parliament for Connty and 

Boroughs of Sussex (1422-1558), 141- 

166. 
Meroredesbnm, supposed identification 

with Seaford, 182. 
Michaels Lewes, see Ha/rly Suaaem 

Wills, 130. 
HioheU, John, the elder, of Guokfield, 

the Will of, 188. 



Michell, Joane, the will of, 138. 
Midhnrst Borough, M.P.'b for (1422- 

1558), 141, et seq. 
More, Thomas, of Westmeston, Will of, 

137. 
More, Dorathe, of Westmyston, Will of, 

138. 
Mountfield, see IHy/ndefeld. 
Mundefeld (Mountfield), see Harly 

Wills, 130. 



N. 



Napper, H. F., Notes upon the Antouine 

Itinerary, Ac., 216. 
Kenfeld, see Early Sussex Wills, 180. 
New Shoreham, Borough of, M.P.'s for 

(1552-1566), 161, et seq, 
Newycke, see Early Sussex WiUs, 130. 



Nobility and Gentry of Sussex in 1673, 

223. 
Northyham, see Early Sussex Wills, 

130. 
Notes and Queries, 213-240. 
Nova Shoreham, see Early Sussex WiUs, 

130. 



0. 



Obituary, 289. 

Old Priory (St. Michael's, Hastings), see 

Early Sussex WiUs, 130. 
Omnium Sanctorum, Lewes, see Early 

Sussex WiUs, ib. 



Ore, see Early Sussex WHls, 130. 
Otehall, see Jyotes an^ Queries, 213. 
Ozenbridge, Margery, Will of, 188. 



P. 



Farham Church) its leaden font, 75, et 
seq. 

Parliament, see Mernhers qf. 

Parsons, J. L., on the Sussex Iron- 
works, the extent, duration, list of 
mills, furnaces, and forges, 21-28; 
petitions to Charles II., 23-26; in- 
denture of agreement, 26-29 ; schedule 
of tools, 29 J articles of agreement, 
30-32 J list of iron " Ordnance," 82. 

Pedynghoo, see Early WiUs, 131. 

Pesemershe (t.e., Peasemar8h),see Early 
WiUs, ib, 

Petcham, see Early Wills, ib, 

Pett, see Early Wills, ib, 

Eeverell, Andrew, note, 78. 

Pevensay, see Early WHls, 131. 

Piecombe Church, its leaden font, 76, et 
seq. 






»> 



If 



Pilsey, Islet of, see Thomey, 1. 

Plague, the, at Chichester, see 2%)mey, 
16. 

Playden, see Early WiUs, 181. 

Ponyngs 

Portslade 

Preston „ „ 

Price, J. E., on Excavations in the 
Camp, the Tumulus, and Bomano- 
British Cemetery at Seaford, 157- 
200. 

Prinsted Point, see Thomey, 1. 

Proceedings of Committee of Plun- 
dered Ministers, addenda, 235. 

Ptolemy, the measurements of, 216. 

Pudens and Claudia, 200. 

Puttenham (in Surrey), Ancient British 
Camp at, 170. 



EEOBNT. 



[ 245 ] ST. NICHOLAS. 



f ' 



R. 



Becent Sussex Bibliog^pbj (1864- 

1881), 201-212. 
Bigge, Ambrose, his letter to Charles II., 

from Horsham prison, in Sussex, 128. 
Boche's Hill, see 7%oma/, 1. 
Bodmell, see Early Sussex WiUs, 131. 
Boman funereal urns, Uhistrations of, 

184. 
Bomano-British Cemetery, Seaford, 167. 



Botherfeld, see Early Sussex Wills, 

132. 
''Boyal Escape,'' the, see Tettersell, 

98. 
Bja, see Early Sussex WiUSt 131. 
Bye, M.P.'s for (1422-1658), 141, e* seq. 

See also Cinque Ports and Hya. 
Bype, see Early Sussex WHls, 131. 



s. 



Salehurst, see Early Wills, 132. 

Sawyer, F. E., on Kecent Sussex Biblio- 
graphy (1864 to 1881), 201-212. 

Sawyer, F. E., on Captain Nicholas 
Tettersell and the Escape of Charles 
the Second. 81-104 

Schedule of tools used in Sussex Iron- 
works, 29. 

Seaford, excavations at, proofs of 
Boman occupation, 167; remarks of 
Colonel A. Lane Fox (General Pitt 
Bivers) on Camp at, his reasons for 
concluding the work to have been 
designed by a British engineer, 169- 
172; discovery of British pottery, 
celts, charcoal, throwstones, flint 
saws, broken hammer- stones, arrow- 
head, &c., 172-175; discovery of 
oyster shells, 176 ; Boman cinerary 
urns, 176-179 ; ancient cultivated hill- 
side terraces, 180 ; Seaford manors, 
note, 181 ; abortive attempt to iden- 
tify Seaford with the Castrum of 
Anderida, 181; H. L. Long, Esq., on 
the identity of Seaford with Mercre- 
desbum, 182 ; proofs of the antiquity 
of Seaford, 183; discoveries of 
Boman urns in 1825, 183-5 ; iUustra- 
tions of, 184 ; discoveries in 1868, 
185, et seq. ; discoveries in 1879, 191, 
et seq. ; place of funeral pyre, 186 ; 
Boman methods of cremation, 187 ; 
nse of nails, bronze and bone pins, 
and of flint flakes, 187, 188, et seq. ; 
flints buried in cinerary urns, 190; 
funeral rites of Indian tribes, Chinese, 
Peruvians, Ac, 192 ; discovery of 90 
iron nails and studs at once, ib. ; , 
supposed discovery of the Bv>stum or 
Ustrinum of the settlement, 193; 
excavations at Little Bury, the Gore, 
the Burrows, 194, et seq.; funeral 
urns of Samian and Durobrivian 
ware and Upchurch pottery de- 
scribed, 195, et seq. ; discovery of a 






f» 






Boman coin, 198; remarks on the 
beneficent character of the Boman 
conquest or occupation of Britain, 
200. 

Sedliscombe, see Early Wills, 132. 

Sefford 

Sela 

Selmiston 

Shermanbury 

8horeham, see Nova Shoreham. 

Shoreham Borough, M.P.'s for (1423- 
1558), 142, et seq, 

Shoreham (New) Borough, M.P.'8 for 
(1552-1555), 161, et seq. 

Silver fonts, 79. 

Slaghham, see Early Wills, 132. 

Somers Clarke, junr., on St. Nicholas' 
Church, Brighton, 33-74. 

Sowtheese, see Early Wills, 132. 

South Bersted Church, discovery of a 
mural painting in, 232. 

Sowthouer, see Early WiUs, 132. 

Sowthwyke „ „ 

Standen, Thomas, will of, 139. 

Staplegh, Bichard, will of, ib. 

Stenning, Alan H., a Betum of the 
Members of Parliament for the 
County and Boroughs of Sussex 
(1422-1558), continued fyom Vol 
XXXI. S. A. C, 141-166. 

Steyning, Borough of, M.P.*s for (1452- 
1558), 153, et seq. 

St. Nicholas' Church, West Thorney, see 
TJwmey, 10. 

St. Nicholas Church, Brighton, 33 ; its 
origin, site, reasons for selecting 
same, Norman remains, 35; unre- 
liable picture of, 36 ; description of 
its state before restoration in 1853, 
t^. ; the Thrales and Dr. Johnson, 
mural tablets, 40; the late Yicar'a 
attempts at its improvement, 41 ; 
riotous opposition at successive 
vestry meetings, restoration in 1853, 
43, et seq.; re-opening, 44; desorip- 



ST. NICHOLAS. [ 246 ] 



UDYMBR. 



tion of the Church when reetored, 
44, et Mq.; oataoomb beneath the 
tower, 46; nnsnitable stone osed for 
reetoiatiom of the church, ib.; the 
font, description of, with legend of 
8t. Nicholas, 49-67 ; font cover with 
list of Bonlptnres, 67; the screen, 
f5.; rood loft, 68; chancel, 69; 
▼anlts, 61; Wellington Memorial, 
t5.; organ, 61-62; bells, %b,; altar 
plate, %b.; ancient cross in grave- 
yard, 62, 63 ; lists of contribations, 
68-66 ; notices of benefactors, 66-68 ; 
coloured windows, 68-70; inscrip- 
tions in Choir Ycistry, on floor, and 
walls, 70-72; monument to Captain 
Tettersell, with copy of inscription, 
72, 73 ; list of organ stops, 73 ; dis- 
covery of vault beneath the chancel 
with remains and memorials of the 
Kemp family, 73, 74. 
Bt. Nicholas* Churchi Brighton, sug- 



gested explanation of one of the font 

sculptures, 237. 
St. Nicholas' Church, Brighton, curious 

tile, picture in Yestry, restoration of 

the Feast of St. Nicholas, 238. 
** Stitch of hfcnd,*' see Thoimey, 10. 
Strete, see Early WUb, 132. 
Sussex Archaeological CoUection8,error8 

in, 213-215. 
Sussex Bibliography, recent (1864- 

1881), 201-212. 
Sussex Nobility and Gentry in 1673, 

list of, 22&-228. 
Sussex Places, Names, and Pasturage 

Customs, 231. 
Sussex Wills, see Early WHls at Levies, 
Sussex County M.P.^b (1422-1668), 

l^lfetseq, 
Sussex M.P.'s no returns from 1482 to 

1623, inclusive, 167. 
Sutton Church, discovery of pottery 

beneath the foundations of, 167. 



T. 



Telliscombe, see Early WHU, 132. 

Tettersell, Captain Nicholas, name how 
spelt, 81 ; entries in Brighton Parish 
Begisters, connection with escape of 
Churles II., three accounts of, 82-87 ; 
" George Inn,*' where situate, letters 
to George Fox and wife, 88 ; Richard 
Carver, the Society of Friends, and 
release of John Bunyan from Bedford 
Jail, 89 ; Tettersell after the Restora- 
tion, correspondence as to his ships, 
89-93 ; his travels, pension, question 
as to grant of arms, supposed mis^ 
conduct, 96 ; Francis Mansell and his 
pension, Tettersell appointed High 
Constable of Brighton, he persecutes 
the Nonconformists, 97; becomes 
proprietor of the " Old Shipp," 98 ; 
his Will, copy of, 99; his descend- 
ants, letter from Charles II. to George 
Gounter, 103 ; pension to Catherine 
Gunter, letter from the King to the 
Mayor and Burgesses of Devizes, 
Thomas Gunter, 104. 

Tettersell, Captain Nicholas, monument 
to, 72. 

Tettersell, Captain, references to in 
S. A. C. Vols., 239. 

Thetohare, Robert, Will of, 139. 



Thomey Island, topography, acreage, 
population,- the Islet of Pilsey, 1 ; 
mentioned in Domesday, reasons for 
concluding it was once a peninsula, 
2 ; derivation, ib, ; formerly no ferry 
boats or public-houses, %b, ; manorial 
history, 3; subinfeudation of Uie 
manor of Bosham, 4 ; Poll Tax, temp, 
Charles II., schedule, 6 ; subdivisions 
of manor, 8; Advowson, answer to 
'*Test'* questions, note^ 9; Nonas 
Roll indenture, large size of Church, 
10 ; Incumbents' list of (1308-1869), 
register, 13; monuments, prebend, 
15; former exemptions, and why 
granted, 15 ; smugglers, 16 ; cereals, 
plants, game, immunity from vermin, 
a great resort for birds, the*' Gun- 
ner," 18. 

Thorney Aglands, manor of, see 
Thorneyt 8. 

Thomey Bicklands, manor of, see 
Thorney » id^ 

Tomeii see Thomey, 8. 

Torryng, see Early fi'iUs, 133. 

Twyneham „ ,, 

Tuppon, Thomas, see Tettersell, 94. 

Turner, William, pedigree of, 216. 

Tyseherst, see Early fViUs^ 132. 



u. 



Udymer, see Early Sussex Wills, 134. 



VAULT. 



[ 247 ] 



ZODIAC. 



V. 

Vault, disooverj of, at St. Nioholas' Choroh, Brighton, 73. 



w. 



Waoe, a Norman poet, see Thomey, 8. 
Wagner, the Bey. H. M., the late, see 

St. Nicholas' Churchy Brighton, 41. 
Waldron, see Early Wills, 183. 
Warbilton „ „ 

Wartlyng „ „ 

Wellington Memorial, 8t. Nicholas' 

Chnrch, Brighton, 61. 
WestdeTne, see Early WiUs, 188. 
Westfeld 
Westham 
Westhothle 
Westowte 
Westmyston 
West Thomey, see Thorny Island, 1, 



ft 

i» 

n 






Whatlyngton, see Early Wills, 183. 
Wiokor embankment, see Thorney 

Island, 1, et seq. 
Wills, early ones at Lewes (1528-1541), 

alphabetical lists of, 128, 124 ; copies 

and extracts from, 125-140. 
Wivilsfeld, see Early Wills, 134. 
Woodmancote „ „ 

Worthe „ „ 

Worthing, discovery of Boman pottery 

at, 233. 
Wotton, see Early WHls, 134. 
Wyllyngdon „ „ 

Wylmyngton „ „ 

Wynchelse 



V 



f> 



Z. 



Zodiac, signs of the, on a Kentish leaden font, 76. 



MAY 2 6 la-s'